2. All teachers are teachers of reading.
3.Teachers make a difference.
4. Monitoring and assessment inform
teaching and learning.
5. Teachers need a repertoire of flexible
practices and resources.
ofessionaly cur isever teach ’sr
l rent y er esponsib ity.”
5. Research Findings on Reading Strategies
of Successful and Unsuccessful Learners
Baker and Brown (1984);Brown (1981); Palinscar
and Brown (1984)- the use of strategies have found
to be effective in improving students’ reading
Hosenfield (1977)- used a think-aloud procedure;
successful readers kept the meaning of the
passage in mind while reading; unsuccessful
readers lost the meaning of the sentences when
decoded, read in short passages and had negative
6. Block (1986) used think-aloud procedure. Findings
include four characteristics of reading: integration,
recognition of aspects of text structure, use of
general knowledge, personal experiences and
Garner (1987), Waxman and Padron (1987) found
that younger and less proficient students use fewer
strategies and use them less effectively in their
In conclusion, reading strategies have found out to
be effective tools in reading comprehension.
7. Pre-reading Stage
1. To activate the students’ knowledge of the
2. To provide any language preparation that might
be needed for coping the passage.
3. To motivate the learners to want to read the text.
4. To comment on the visuals.
5. To talk about the title.
6. To draw student’s attention on the new
1. T- Charts
To explore effective listening skills, ask
students to complete a T- Chart in table form.
The charts may be displayed and used as a
What I want What I Know
9. 2. Y- Charts
Y- Charts are an extension of T-Charts.
looks like sounds like
10. 3. Frayer Model
The Frayer Model is a graphical organizer used for
word analysis and vocabulary building. This four-
square model prompts students to think about and
describe the meaning of a word or concept by . . .
Defining the term,
Describing its essential characteristics,
Providing examples of the idea, and
Offering non-examples of the idea.
12. Steps to the Frayer Model:
1. Explain the Frayer model graphical organizer to the class. Use a
common word to demonstrate the various components of the
form. Model the type and quality of desired answers when
giving this example.
2. Select a list of key concepts from a reading selection. Write this
list on the chalkboard and review it with the class before
students read the selection.
3. Divide the class into student pairs. Assign each pair one of the
key concepts and have them read the selection carefully to
define this concept. Have these groups complete the four-
square organizer for this concept.
4. Ask the student pairs to share their conclusions with the entire
class. Use these presentations to review the entire list of key
13. During Reading Stage
1. To set ways for students to interact with
the text by providing directions and questions
( Kang, 1994).
2. To help understand the text structure and
the logical organization in a reading passage.
3.To clarify and comprehend the text context.
4. To look for specific information.
5. To survey the general information.
1. Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DR-TA)
centers on open-ended questions about the
designed to make students aware of their
own interpretive actions during reading.
helps students recognize predictions,
judgments an evidence verification.
15. Steps in DR-TA:
1. Ask students to skim a reading selection prior to reading it.
Have them note titles, subheadings, illustrations, captions,
sidebars, etc. From this preliminary overview, ask students to
predict the content or perspective of the text passage. More
importantly, ask them to identify why they reached these
2. Pick a reasonable "break point" in the reading selection and
have students read up to this point. Challenge students to
evaluate their predictions and refine them if necessary. Press
students who change their predictions to explain "why" and
offer specific evidence/reasons for the change.
3. Repeat the process in steps 1 and 2 throughout all the logical
"break points" in the text until the selection is completed.
16. 2. Graphic Organizers are printed charts or
forms that assist students in producing visual
representations of the concepts, organization,
or arguments of a text selection. Most often,
these tools help students isolate and analyze
the main ideas of a document.
Lenski, Wham, and Johns (1999) describe
five types of graphical organizers:
18. The Time Order or Sequence Graphic Organizer helps students uncover the
logical progression of ideas in a document—from earliest to latest, from most to
least important, etc.—and then to place specific items or details within this
19. The Cause and Effect Graphical Organizer helps students recognize causal
relationships between events and produce a chart of causes and effects leading
to a conclusion.
20. Steps in Using Graphic Organizers:
1. Select a reading text for the class and identify the
most appropriate graphical organizer to assist
student comprehension of the document.
2. Duplicate and distribute the template for the
selected organizer to the class. Students can work
individually or in small groups to complete the
organizer chart as they read the passage.
3. Encourage students to discuss—in small groups or
with the entire class—their entries in the organizer.
Have students make any necessary refinements to
correct misconceptions or sharpen imprecise
21. For more printable graphic organizers, go to:
22. 3. Literature Circles
- a small group of students discuss a
piece of literature in dept
- provide a way for students to engage in
critical thinking and reflection as they read,
respond, and discuss books or short stories
- Collaboration is the heart of this
- guide students to deeper understanding of
they read through structured discussion and
extended written and artistic response.
23. Steps in Literature Circles
1. Select members for the Literature Circles
2. Assign roles for the members of each circle.
3. Assign reading to be completed by the
circles inside or outside of class.
4. Select circle meeting dates.
5. Help students prepare for their roles in their
6. Act as a facilitator for the circles.
discussion director - develops questions for the group to discuss
literary luminary - chooses a selection that the group rereads and
discusses because it is interesting, informative, the climax, well
vocabulary enricher - chooses words that are difficult or used in
an unfamiliar way
connector - finds a connection between the story and another
book, event in their personal llife or the outside world
illustrator - draws a picture related to the reading
summarizer - prepares a brief summary of the passage read that
travel tracer - tracks the movement when the characters move a
investigator - looks up background information related to the
26. 4. Radio Reading
- a "read aloud" strategy designed for maximum
interaction between the reader and the audience.
The reader "reads aloud" a selection and then
initiates a discussion by asking specific questions of
the audience. Responses and dialogue should be
improves reading comprehension at two levels.
The reader must immerse himself in the text to
develop the discussion questions. The audience, in
turn, reinforces learning by responding to the
27. Steps in Radio Reading:
1. Divide a class into small groups. Assign each group a short
reading. Have the group read the entire selection quietly.
2. Assign a specific paragraph (or paragraphs) to each group
member. Have them prepare discussion questions on this
3. Have each student read their assigned section aloud and
present their discussion questions to other members of the
4. Ask group members to respond quickly. Once a question is
thoroughly answered, move on to the next question.
5. Repeat the process until all the team members have the
opportunity to lead the discussion.
28. Post-reading Stage
To extend the reading experience.
To review the first two stages.
To lead the students to deeper analysis of the
To use classroom games.
To focus words or structures in a controlled
writing situations (summarizing).
29. 1. PMI
A PMI (Plus, Minus, Intriguing) is used for affective
processing to talk about the pluses, minuses and intriguing
points felt about a lesson, concept or issue.
What I liked
What I didn’t like
What I thought was intriguing
Questions or thoughts
30. 2. Herringbone Chart
Students read and then work with partners or in group to
complete the chart. Together, they must decide on answers to
each detail question on the chart.
Uses a chart to help students summarize and synthesize what
they have read.
Who? When? Where?
What? Why? How?
31. 3. RAFT - Role/Audience/Format/Topic
The RAFT strategy (Santa, 1988) offers
students a creative outlet for demonstrating
understanding. Students communicate
information by taking an unusual point of view
and writing for a specific audience. RAFT
33. Final Thoughts
tomorrow a leader.”