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Hearing loss

Hearing loss ppt

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Hearing loss

  1. 1. By: Rabiu Hassan Musa
  2. 2. DEFINITION The World Health Organization defines “disabling hearing impairment” in children under the age of 15 years as an unaided hearing threshold level in the better ear of 31 dB HL or more using pure tone averages at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz.
  3. 3. On the other hand, Hearing loss exists when there is diminished sensitivity to the sounds normally heard. The terms hearing impairment or hard of hearing are usually reserved for people who have relative insensitivity to sound in the speech frequencies. The severity of a hearing loss is categorized according to the increase in volume above the usual level necessary before the listener can detect it.
  4. 4. Deafness is defined as a degree of impairment such that a person is unable to understand speech even in the presence of amplification. In profound deafness, even the loudest sounds produced by an audiometer (an instrument used to measure hearing by producing pure tone sounds through a range of frequencies) may not be detected. In total deafness, no sounds at all, regardless of amplification or method of production, are heard.
  5. 5. SPEECH PERCEPTION Another aspect of hearing involves the perceived clarity of a sound rather than its amplitude. In humans, that aspect is usually measured by tests of speech perception. These tests measure one's ability to understand speech, not to merely detect sound. There are very rare types of hearing impairments which affect speech understanding alone
  6. 6. INCIDENCE AND PREVALENCE  Globally hearing loss affects about 10% of the population to some degree.  It caused moderate to severe disability in 124 million people as of 2004 (108 million of whom are in low and middle income countries). Of these 65 million developed the condition during childhood.  The problem of hearing loss is particularly significant in older adults, affecting about 30% to 35% of people between the ages of 65 and 74, and more than 40% of those over age 75.
  7. 7.  The prevalence of childhood hearing loss is 1.2 to 1.7 cases per 1000 live births and the prevalence increases up to 6 years of age as a result of meningitis, delayed onset of genetic hearing loss, or delayed diagnosis.  The prevalence is greater still in developing countries because of lack of immunization, exposure to ototoxic drugs, and consanguinity.  Profound hearing loss (hearing loss > 90 dB) has far-reaching, lifelong consequences in children.
  8. 8. RISK FACTORS  Aging: Exposure to sounds over the years can damage the cells of your inner ear.  Heredity: Genetic makeup may make you more susceptible to ear damage from sound or deterioration from aging.  Occupational noises: Jobs where loud noise is a regular part of the working environment, such as farming, construction or factory work, can lead to damage inside your ear.  Recreational noises: Exposure to explosive noises, such as from firearms and jet engines, can cause immediate, permanent hearing loss.
  9. 9.  Some medications: Drugs, such as the antibiotic gentamicin and certain chemotherapy drugs, can damage the inner ear. Temporary effects on your hearing, ringing in the ear (tinnitus) or hearing loss can occur if you take very high doses of aspirin, other pain relievers, antimalarial drugs or loop diuretics.  Some illnesses: Diseases or illnesses that result in high fever, such as meningitis, may damage the cochlea.
  10. 10. CLASSIFICATION  Conductive hearing loss,  Sensorineural hearing loss, or  Mixed hearing loss.
  11. 11. ETIOLOGICAL FACTORS Conductive Hearing Loss  External ear conditions  Impacted ear wax or foreign body  Otitis externa  Middle ear conditions  Trauma  Otitis media  Otosclerosis  Tumors
  12. 12. Sensorineural Hearing Loss • Aplasias • Abiotrophies • Intrauterine/perinatal damage • Trauma e.g. head injury, middle ear surgery • Sudden (idiopathic) sensoryneural hearing loss • Noise induced hearing loss • Central nervous system infections (e.g., meningitis) • Degenerative conditions • Age related presbyacusis • Vascular conditions • Ototoxic drugs • Acoustic neuroma • Meniere’s disease
  13. 13. Mixed Conductive and Sensorineural Hearing Loss  Middle ear conditions  Temporal bone fractures
  14. 14. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
  15. 15. CATEGORIES OF HEARING LOSS  Slight hearing loss : 16 - 25 dB  Mild hearing loss : 26 - 40 dB  Moderate hearing loss: 41 - 55 dB  Severe hearing loss : 71 - 90 dB  Profound : More than 90 dB (American National Standards Institute)
  16. 16. CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS  Muffling of speech and other sounds  Difficulty understanding words, especially against background noise or in a crowd of people  Trouble hearing consonants  Frequently asking others to speak more slowly, clearly and loudly  Needing to turn up the volume of the television or radio  Withdrawal from conversations  Avoidance of some social settings
  17. 17. DIAGNOSIS  Air Conduction, Conventional or Standard Audiometry  Bone Conduction  Rinne and Weber tests  Audiometry  Tympanometry  Acoustic reflex testing  Word Recognition  Acoustic Immittance  Otoacoustic Emissions (OAEs)  Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR)
  18. 18. Medical Management Antibiotics Analgesics MANAGEMENT
  19. 19. Surgical Management Stapedectomy Tympanoplasty  Cochlear implant
  20. 20. Nursing Management
  21. 21. PATIENT’S PROBLEMS  Disturbed Sensory Perception: Auditory  Impaired Verbal Communication  Social Isolation
  22. 22. REHABILITATION Audiologic rehabilitation classes Learning good listening strategies Establishing guidelines for communicating with those around you
  23. 23. Assistive Listening, Hearing Enhancement and Alerting Devices  Signaling or Test Display Devices  Assistive Listening Devices

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