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PRINCIPLES IN
MATERIALS DESIGN
I. INTRODUCTION
“Materials are anything which is used by
teachers or learners to facilitate the learning
of a language.”
-
(Tomlinson, 201...
How do writers write materials?
According to Tomlinson:
1. Writers benefit from inspiration.
 Replication and adaptation of previously
successful materia...
According to Tomlinson (2011) some
material writers rely on their repertoire and
inspiration, whereas others establish the...
Tomlinson (2012) suggests material
designers should follow “a set of agreed
principles”; in other words, a principled
fram...
So what are these principles? Are
they all created equally? How do writers
decide which ones apply to them?
PRINCIPLES IN MATERIALS
DESIGN PRESENTED BY
NUNAN, TOMLINSON,
HUTCHINSON AND WATERS
II. DISCUSSION
1. Materials should be clearly linked to the
curriculum they serve.
2. Materials should be authentic in terms of
text and ...
4. Materials should allow learners to focus on
formal aspects of the language
5. Materials should encourage learners to
de...
AUTHENTIC vs
CREATED MATERIALS
1. Nunan (1988) defines authentic materials
as the materials "which have been produced
for purposes other than to teach la...
Other Definition from the
Point of View of Different Writers
• According to Herod (2002) authentic learning
'materials and...
• Jacobson et al (2003, p. 1) sees authentic
materials as printed materials, which are used
in classrooms in the same way ...
Types of Authentic Materials
Teaching materials are a very essential
part of teaching and learning a foreign
language. The...
Genhard (1996) classified authentic
materials into three categories as
follows:
1. Authentic listening materials
 radio n...
ADVANTAGES OF
AUTHENTIC MATERIALS
Linguistic Advantages
Harmer (1994) states that authentic material has
positive effects ...
(4)They expose learners to real language;
(5) They are more related to learners' needs;
(6) They have a positive effect on...
Non-Linguistic Advantages
• In addition, some empirical studies conducted by
Thanajaro (2000) and Otte (2006), concluded t...
DISADVANTAGES OF
AUTHENTIC MATERIALS
• Miller (2005) also states that authentic materials are
"too difficult and time cons...
DISADVANTAGES OF
AUTHENTIC MATERIALS
• Kilickaya (2004) believes that using
authentic materials with weak learners
frustra...
CREATED MATERIALS
• Created materials refer to textbook and other
specially developed instructional materials.
(Nunan, 198...
B. HUTCHINSON AND WATERS’
PRINCIPLES OF MATERIAL DESIGN
1. Good materials provide stimulus to
learning and encourage stude...
B. HUTCHINSON AND WATERS’
PRINCIPLES OF MATERIAL DESIGN
4. Materials reflect the nature of the learning
task.
5. Materials...
C. TOMLINSON’S 16 PRINCIPLES
OF MATERIAL DESIGN
1. Materials should achieve impact.
2. Materials should help learners to f...
C. TOMLINSON’S 16 PRINCIPLES
OF MATERIAL DESIGN
6. Learners must be ready to acquire the
points being taught.
7. Materials...
C. TOMLINSON’S 16 PRINCIPLES
OF MATERIAL DESIGN
10. Materials should take into account that
the positive effects of instru...
III. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
Materials should be clearly
linked to the curriculum they serve
(Nunan, 1988).
The curriculum cycle below illustrates
the three phases of the curriculum
development.
PHASE 1 PHASE 2 PHASE 3
Curriculum ...
III. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Figure 1: A Material Design Model
(Hutchinson and Waters, 1987)
Further, Hutchinson and Waters present
the process of designing learning
materials as follows:
1) Conducting needs analysi...
SUMMARY
There is no published, universal set of
principles for materials design and in fact
commercial material writers claim to b...
REFERENCES:
http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:W
zCrKN2uGWsJ:blogs.brighton.ac.uk/moallemi/2017/02/19/p
...
PRESENTED TO :
DR. MERCEDITA ALBERTO
PRESENTED BY :
RONALYN MERCADO
DAPHNE LYN DELFIN
CHRISTINE JANE MARAÑA
LEVYMAR VILLAP...
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PRINCIPLES OF MATERIALS DESIGN FROM DIFFERENT AUTHORS

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Principles in materials design

  1. 1. PRINCIPLES IN MATERIALS DESIGN
  2. 2. I. INTRODUCTION
  3. 3. “Materials are anything which is used by teachers or learners to facilitate the learning of a language.” - (Tomlinson, 2012)
  4. 4. How do writers write materials?
  5. 5. According to Tomlinson: 1. Writers benefit from inspiration.  Replication and adaptation of previously successful materials. 2. Repertoire of materials of their own design
  6. 6. According to Tomlinson (2011) some material writers rely on their repertoire and inspiration, whereas others establish the principles first before they start designing the materials (Tomlinson, 2011).
  7. 7. Tomlinson (2012) suggests material designers should follow “a set of agreed principles”; in other words, a principled framework which should be based on both universal principles and local criteria in the designing process.
  8. 8. So what are these principles? Are they all created equally? How do writers decide which ones apply to them?
  9. 9. PRINCIPLES IN MATERIALS DESIGN PRESENTED BY NUNAN, TOMLINSON, HUTCHINSON AND WATERS II. DISCUSSION
  10. 10. 1. Materials should be clearly linked to the curriculum they serve. 2. Materials should be authentic in terms of text and task. 3. Materials should stimulate interaction. A. DAVID NUNAN’S SIX PRINCIPLES IN MATERIALS DESIGN (1988)
  11. 11. 4. Materials should allow learners to focus on formal aspects of the language 5. Materials should encourage learners to develop learning skills, and skills in learning. 6. Materials should encourage learners to apply their developing skills to the world beyond the classroom. A. DAVID NUNAN’S SIX PRINCIPLES IN MATERIALS DESIGN (1988)
  12. 12. AUTHENTIC vs CREATED MATERIALS
  13. 13. 1. Nunan (1988) defines authentic materials as the materials "which have been produced for purposes other than to teach language". 2. Nunan (1999) defines authentic materials as spoken or written language data that has been produced in the course of genuine communication, and not specifically written for purposes of language teaching. DEFINITION OF AUTHENTIC MATERIALS BY DAVID NUNAN
  14. 14. Other Definition from the Point of View of Different Writers • According to Herod (2002) authentic learning 'materials and activities' are designed to imitate the real world situations. • Herrington and Oliver (2000) suggested a new pedagogical term, called "authentic learning". This term is directly related to the students' real life and prepares them to face and deal with real world situations.
  15. 15. • Jacobson et al (2003, p. 1) sees authentic materials as printed materials, which are used in classrooms in the same way they would be used in real life. • In other words, Stubbs (1996) defines authentic texts as "actual, attested, and such that they have real authentic instances of use.“ • According to Carter & Nunan (2001, p. 68) authentic materials are "ordinary texts not
  16. 16. Types of Authentic Materials Teaching materials are a very essential part of teaching and learning a foreign language. These days, the resources for teaching materials are available for everybody. The internet is regarded as a very important and rich source for authentic materials.
  17. 17. Genhard (1996) classified authentic materials into three categories as follows: 1. Authentic listening materials  radio news, cartoons, songs, etc. 2. Authentic visual materials  street signs, magazines and newspapers pictures, post cards, etc. 3. Authentic printed materials  sports reports, newspapers, restaurant menus, train tickets, etc.
  18. 18. ADVANTAGES OF AUTHENTIC MATERIALS Linguistic Advantages Harmer (1994) states that authentic material has positive effects on learners, in that it: (1) Helps learners to produce better language. (2) Helps learners to acquire the language faster. (3) Makes learners more confident to deal with real life situations.
  19. 19. (4)They expose learners to real language; (5) They are more related to learners' needs; (6) They have a positive effect on learners' motivation; (7) They bring cultural information to the students‘ attention.
  20. 20. Non-Linguistic Advantages • In addition, some empirical studies conducted by Thanajaro (2000) and Otte (2006), concluded that authentic materials have a positive effect on learners' motivation and encourage them to learn better. • Berardo (2006) experienced using authentic materials and notices that they contributed in increasing his learners' motivation and he himself, likes using them. • Sherman (2003), mentions that the importance of authentic materials reside in the fact that "it is a window into culture."
  21. 21. DISADVANTAGES OF AUTHENTIC MATERIALS • Miller (2005) also states that authentic materials are "too difficult and time consuming to select, edit and prepare." • In addition, Martinez (2002) argues that authentic materials are regarded too culturally biased and difficult to comprehend by learners in the classroom. He also adds concerning the cultural effect, that "authentic texts from one culture may give a false impression to students from another, unless they are presented in an authentic context which makes it clear precisely what they exemplify."
  22. 22. DISADVANTAGES OF AUTHENTIC MATERIALS • Kilickaya (2004) believes that using authentic materials with weak learners frustrate and de-motivate them, because they lack the required skills and vocabulary to deal with presented text, successfully.
  23. 23. CREATED MATERIALS • Created materials refer to textbook and other specially developed instructional materials. (Nunan, 1988) • Materials expressly created for the foreign language learner (Gallien, Hotho & Staines, 2000; Kmiecik & Barkhuizen, 2006). • Those that are specifically designed for the language learners. They are either adapted or simplified or written keeping in mind the language proficiency of the learners in question. (Awasthi, 2006)
  24. 24. B. HUTCHINSON AND WATERS’ PRINCIPLES OF MATERIAL DESIGN 1. Good materials provide stimulus to learning and encourage students to learn. 2. Good materials should help the teaching- learning process. 3. Materials embody a view of the nature of the language learning.
  25. 25. B. HUTCHINSON AND WATERS’ PRINCIPLES OF MATERIAL DESIGN 4. Materials reflect the nature of the learning task. 5. Materials function to broaden the basis of teacher training by introducing teachers to new techniques. 6. Materials provide correct models of appropriate language use.
  26. 26. C. TOMLINSON’S 16 PRINCIPLES OF MATERIAL DESIGN 1. Materials should achieve impact. 2. Materials should help learners to feel at ease. 3. Materials should help learners to develop confidence. 4. What is being taught should be perceived by learners as relevant and useful. 5. Materials should require and facilitate learner self-investment.
  27. 27. C. TOMLINSON’S 16 PRINCIPLES OF MATERIAL DESIGN 6. Learners must be ready to acquire the points being taught. 7. Materials should expose the learners to language in authentic use. 8. The learners’ attention should be drawn to linguistic features of the input. 9. Materials should provide learners with opportunities to use the target language to achieve communicative purposes.
  28. 28. C. TOMLINSON’S 16 PRINCIPLES OF MATERIAL DESIGN 10. Materials should take into account that the positive effects of instruction are usually delayed. 11. Materials should take into account that learners differ in learning styles. 12. Materials should take into account that learners differ in affective attitudes. 13. Materials should permit a silent period at the beginning of instruction.
  29. 29. III. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
  30. 30. Materials should be clearly linked to the curriculum they serve (Nunan, 1988).
  31. 31. The curriculum cycle below illustrates the three phases of the curriculum development. PHASE 1 PHASE 2 PHASE 3 Curriculum Planning •Identify learner needs •Set goals and objectives •List materials •Write tests Curriculum Implementation •Instruct learners •Monitor and adapt instruction •Provide supplementary materials Curriculum Evaluation •Test learners •Evaluate curriculum •Plan changes in the curriculum
  32. 32. III. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
  33. 33. Figure 1: A Material Design Model (Hutchinson and Waters, 1987)
  34. 34. Further, Hutchinson and Waters present the process of designing learning materials as follows: 1) Conducting needs analysis 2) Writing syllabus 3) Developing the materials 4) Developing teaching methodology 5) Trying out the materials 6) Evaluating the materials 7) Revising the materials
  35. 35. SUMMARY
  36. 36. There is no published, universal set of principles for materials design and in fact commercial material writers claim to be whimsical in their approach and “follow their intuitions rather than an overt specification of objectives, principles and procedures” (Tomlinson, 2011) and “replicating previous materials, adapting activity types that have worked for them before and relying upon creative inspiration” (Tomlinson, 2012).
  37. 37. REFERENCES: http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:W zCrKN2uGWsJ:blogs.brighton.ac.uk/moallemi/2017/02/19/p rinciples-and-framework-for-materials- design/+&cd=8&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=ph http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:fN p580Vt0qgJ:www.iltec.pt/pdf/Principles%2520and%2520Pr ocedures%2520of%2520Materials%2520Development%25 20Paper.pdf+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=ph http://blogs.brighton.ac.uk/materialsdesign/2016/02/21/whos e-principles/#fnref-22-4 http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/2/6/2/ http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/2/6/2/
  38. 38. PRESENTED TO : DR. MERCEDITA ALBERTO PRESENTED BY : RONALYN MERCADO DAPHNE LYN DELFIN CHRISTINE JANE MARAÑA LEVYMAR VILLAPAÑA REANNIE AREVALO Laguna State Polytechnic University
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