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The Foreign Policy of Pakistan.
Foreign Policy.
Relations of Pakistan with India.
Introduction:
` No country today can thi...
5. Promotion of World Peace
` Pakistan's policy is to promote peace among nations. It has no aggressive designs against an...
Examine the relations of Pakistan with India
Pakistan's Relation with India
Since partition of the sub-continent in 1947, ...
Minister Gandhi pledged not to attack each other's nuclear facilities. In early 1986, the Indian and
Pakistani governments...
On 13th December, an armed attack on the Indian Parliament in Delhi left 14 people dead. India again
blamed Pakistani-back...
Languages of Pakistan
Urdu - National Language of Pakistan
Regional Languages of Pakistan
Qualities of Urdu and its role i...
Urdu - An Important Part of Our Cultural Heritage:
Urdu grew in popularity and by the later Mughal Period and the advent o...
Regional languages of Pakistan
Regional Languages of Pakistan
Pakistan is a multi-lingual country. No less than twenty-fou...
Steps Taken to Develop Sindhi:
Various steps have been taken to develop Urdu. Organizations like "Sindhi Literacy Board" a...
4. Pushto
Pushto is the regional language of the N.W.F.P and tribal areas. It belongs to the East Iranian group
of languag...
Initial Difficulties at the Establishment of Pakistan
Initial Problems of Pakistan after Independence
INTRODUCTION:
The em...
8. Annexation of Princely States:
All Indian princely states were given the right to link up with either of dominions. How...
Two Nation Theory
Meaning of Two Nation Theory
The Two Nation Theory in its simplest way means the cultural, political, re...
7. Political Differences
The political differences between the Hindus and Muslims have played an important role in the
dev...
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Main or Important Topics of Pakistan Studies.
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Pakistan Studies (English) 2016 For B.COM I

  1. 1. The Foreign Policy of Pakistan. Foreign Policy. Relations of Pakistan with India. Introduction: ` No country today can think of a life independent of other nations. Every country has to develop relations with other countries so as to meet its requirements in economical, industrial and technological fields. It is thus necessary for every country to formulate a sound foreign policy. Pakistan is an important third world country, in its developmental stage. It also has formulated her foreign policy keeping in mind its geography, politics and economics. Definition of Foreign Policy: Foreign Policy can be defined as ` Relations between sovereign states. It is a reflection of domestic politics and an interaction among sovereign states. It indicates the principles and preferences on which a country wants to establish relations with another country. Pakistan's Foreign Policy in Light of Quaid-e-Azam's Words: The father of the nation, Quaid-e-Azam defined Foreign Policy towards other countries of the world in 1948, as follows ` Our Foreign Policy is one of friendliness and good-will towards all the nations of the world. We do not cherish aggressive designs against any country or nation. We believe in the policy of honesty and fair play in national and international dealings and are prepared to make our utmost contribution to the promotion of peace and prosperity among the nations of the world. Pakistan will never be found lacking in extending its material and moral support to the oppressed and suppressed peoples of the world and in upholding the principles of the United Nations Charter. Basic Goals of Pakistan's Foreign Policy 1. Maintenance of territorial integrity. 2. Maintenance of its political independence. 3. Acceleration of social and economic development. 4. Strengthening its place on the globe. 5. Keeping cordial and friendly relations with all countries. Following are the basic principles of Pakistan's Foreign Policy: 1. Protection of Freedom and Sovereignty ` Pakistan came into being after great sacrifices of millions of Muslims. Like any other country, she also considers with deep regard the need for preservation of its independence and does not allow any country to harm its freedom. Therefore, the principle of protection of independence and sovereignty is the corner stone of Pakistan's Foreign Policy. 2. Cordial Relations with Muslim Countries ` Pakistan always tries to establish cordial and friendly relations with Muslim countries. It has always moved its concern against Israel, India and U.S.S.R capturing Palestine, Kashmir and Afghanistan respectively. She has shouldered high responsibilities and used her influence for safeguarding the rights of the Muslims. Pakistan is also an active member of the Islamic Conference. 3. Non-Interference in Internal Affairs of Other Countries ` Pakistan has sought to establish normal and friendly relations with all countries especially in neighboring countries, on the basis of universally acknowledge the principle of national sovereignty, non- use of force, non-interference in the internal affairs of states. 4. Implementation of U.N Charter ` Pakistan's policy is to act upon UN charter and to support all moves by the UN to implement it. Pakistan has been the member of UN since the year of its birth.
  2. 2. 5. Promotion of World Peace ` Pakistan's policy is to promote peace among nations. It has no aggressive designs against any country. Neither does it support any such action. Pakistan has always held that the international disputes should be settled through negotiations rather than non-battlefield. 6. Non-Alignment ` Pakistan follows the policy of Non-Alignment i.e. to keep away from alignment with any big power bloc, and avoids taking sides in the cold war. It has also given up its association with SEATO and CENTO and was included in NAM in 1979. 7. Support for Self-Determination and Condemnation of Racial Discrimination ` Pakistan is a stomach supporter of the right of self-determination and has been in the fore front of efforts to eliminate colonialism and racism. It has advocated the right of self-determination of Kashmir. 8. Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament ` Pakistan is deeply conscious of the fact that international peace and security cannot be achieved and sustained in the world with arms. Disarmament is the imperative condition for truly durable peace in the world. Pakistan has a vital stake in promotion of disarmament both in the nuclear and conventional fields. It is included in the principles of its foreign policy that a collective endeavor by countries at the regional level to promote disarmament and enhance security at the lowest possible level of armaments is an indispensable result to their advocacy of global disarmament. 9. Member of International Organization ` Pakistan had become the member of the British Commonwealth with the time of its establishment. In addition it is the member of United Nations (U.N), Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC), Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO), and South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation (SAARC), Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), and D-Eight. Being a member of International Organizations the objectives of Pakistan are to struggle for world peace, to unify the Muslim countries and to promote regional co-operation. Conclusion ` The guiding principles of Pakistan's Foreign Policy are rooted in the country's Islamic ideology, its rich cultural heritage and historical experience. As an Islamic and non-aligned country, Pakistan supports Islamic causes and firmly upholds the above mentioned principles, which hold out the promise of a just and equitable world order in which nations can live in peace and security.
  3. 3. Examine the relations of Pakistan with India Pakistan's Relation with India Since partition of the sub-continent in 1947, relations between Pakistan and India have been characterized by rivalry and suspicion. The animosity has its roots in religion and history, and is epitomized by the long-running conflict over the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Historical Background The Indian Sub-Continent was partitioned into Hindu-dominated India and the newly created Muslim state of Pakistan after India's independence from Great Britain in 1947. Severe rioting and population movement ensued and an estimated half a million people were killed in communal violence. About a million people were left homeless. Since partition, the territory of Jammu and Kashmir has remained in dispute with Pakistan and India both holding sectors. First Indo-Pakistan War 1947-49 At the time of partition, the princely state of Kashmir, though ruled by a Hindu Maharaja, had an overwhelmingly Muslim population. When the Maharaja hesitated in acceding to either Pakistan or India in 1947, some of his Muslim subjects, aided by tribesmen from Pakistan, revolted in favor of joining Pakistan. The first Indo-Pakistan war started after armed tribesmen from Pakistan's North-West Frontier Province invaded Kashmir in October 1947. Besieged both by a revolt in his state and by the invasion, the Maharaja requested armed assistance from the Government of India. In return he acceded to India, handling over powers of defense, communication and foreign affairs. Both India and Pakistan agreed that the accession would be confirmed by a referendum once hostilities had ceased. In May 1948, the regular Pakistani army was called upon to protect Pakistan's borders. Fighting continued throughout the year between Pakistani irregular troops and the Indian army. The war ended on 1st January 1949 when a ceasefire was arranged by the United Nations which recommended that both India and Pakistan should adhere to their commitment to hold a referendum in the state. A ceasefire line was established where the two sides stopped fighting and a UN peacekeeping force established. The referendum, however has never been held. The 1965 War In April 1965, a clash between border patrols erupted into fighting in the Rann of Kutch, a sparsely inhabited region along the south-western Indo-Pakistan border. When the Indians withdrew, Pakistan claimed victory. Later full-scale hostilities erupted in September 1965, when India alleged that insurgents trained and supplied by Pakistan were operating in India-controlled Kashmir. Hostilities ceased three weak later, following mediation efforts by the UN and interested countries. In January 1966, Indian and Pakistani representatives met in Tashkent, U.S.S.R., and agreed to attempt a peaceful settlement of Kashmir and their other differences. The 1971 War Indo-Pakistani relations deteriorated again when civil war erupted in Pakistan, pitting the West Pakistan army against East Pakistanis demanding autonomy and independence. In December India invaded East Pakistan in support of the East Pakistani people. The Pakistani army surrendered at Dhaka and its army of more than 90,000 became India prisoners of war. East Pakistan became the independent country of Bangladesh on 6th December 1971. Indian Troops and Siachen Glacier 1984 India's nuclear test in 1974 generated great uncertainty in Pakistan and is generally acknowledged to have been the impetus for Pakistan's nuclear weapons development program. In 1983, the Pakistani and Indian governments accused each other of aiding separatists in their respective countries, i.e., Sikhs in India's Punjab state and Sindhis in Pakistan's Sindh province. In April 1984, tensions erupted after troops were deployed to the Siachen Glacier, a high-altitude desolate area close to the China border left non demarcated by the cease-fire agreement (Karachi Agreement) signed by Pakistan and India in 1949. Tensions diminished after Rajiv Gandhi became Prime Minister in November 1984 and after a group of Sikh hijackers was brought to trial by Pakistan in March 1985. In December 1985, President Zia and Prime
  4. 4. Minister Gandhi pledged not to attack each other's nuclear facilities. In early 1986, the Indian and Pakistani governments began high-level talks to resolve the Siachen Glacier border dispute and to improve trade. Kashmir Insurgency 1990 Bilateral tensions increased in early 1990, when Kashmiri militants began a campaign of violence against Indian Government authority in Jammu and Kashmir. Subsequent high-level bilateral meetings relieved the tensions between India and Pakistan, but relations worsened again after the destruction of the Ayodhya Masjid by Hindu extremists in December 1992 and terrorist’s bombings in Bombay in March 1993. Talks between the Foreign Secretaries of both countries in January 1994 resulted in deadlock. Diplomatic Push 1996-97 In the last several years, the Indo-Pakistani relationship has veered sharply between rapprochement and conflict. After taking office in February 1997, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif moved to resume official dialogue with India. A number of meetings at the foreign secretary and Prime Ministerial level took place with positive atmospherics but little concrete progress. In a speech at the UN, Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif offered to open talks on a non-aggression pact with India, proposing that both nations strike a deal to restrain their nuclear and missile capabilities. Nuclear Rivalry 1998 The arms race between the rivals escalated dramatically in the 1990s. In May 1998, India conducted underground nuclear tests in the western desert state of Rajasthan near the border with Pakistan. In response, Pakistan conducted six tests in Baluchistan. In the same year, Pakistan test its longest range missile, the 1,500 km (932 mile) Ghauri missile, named after the 12th Century Muslim warrior who conquered part of India. Both sides were heavily criticized by the international community for the tests as fears of a nuclear confrontation grew. The United States ordered sanctions against both countries, freezing more than $20bn of aid, loans and trade. Japan ordered a block on about $1bn of aid loans. Several European countries followed suit, and the G-8 governments imposed a ban on non-humanitarian loans to India and Pakistan. The UN Security Council condemned India and Pakistan for carrying out nuclear tests and urged the two nations to stop all nuclear weapons programmers. Indian Prime Minister Atal Vajpayee Visit to Pakistan 1999 The relationship improved markedly when Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee traveled to Lahore for a summit with Sharif in February 1999. There was considerable hope that the meeting could lead to a breakthrough. They signed the Lahore accord pledging again to "intensify their efforts to resolve all issues, including the issue of Jammu and Kashmir." Kargil Conflict 1999 Unfortunately, in May 1999 India launched air strikes against Pakistani backed forces that had infiltrated into the mountains in Indian-administrated Kashmir, north of Kargil. Pakistan responded by occupying positions on the Indian side of the Line of Control in the remote, mountainous area of Kashmir near Kargil threatening the ability of India to supply its forces on Siachen Glacier. By early summer, serious fighting flared in the Kargil sector. The infiltrators withdrew following a meeting between Prime Minister Sharif and President Bill Clinton in July. Relations between India and Pakistan have since been particularly strained, especially since the October 12, 1999 coup in Islamabad. The Brink of War 2001 Tension along the ceasefire lined continued. The worst fighting for more than a year broke out in October as India, which continued to condemn Pakistan for cross-border terrorism, started shelling Pakistani military positions. October saw a devastating attack on the Kashmiri assembly in Srinagar in which 38 people were killed. After the attack, the Chief Minister of Indian-administrated Kashmir, Farooque Abdullah called on Indian Government to launch a war against militant training camps across the border in Pakistan.
  5. 5. On 13th December, an armed attack on the Indian Parliament in Delhi left 14 people dead. India again blamed Pakistani-backed Kashmiri militants. The attack led to a dramatic build-up of troops along the Indo-Pakistan border, military exchanges and raised fears of a wider conflict. Rail and bus services between the two countries were also blocked. Relaxation of Tension 2003 A relaxation of tension began in 2003, when then Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee called for a dialogue. Rail and bus services between the two countries resumed, and the two countries agreed to a ceasefire in Kashmir. Summit Talks 2004 Twelfth SAARC Summit was held in Islamabad in January 2004. On this occasion President Pervez Musharraf met Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee on 5th January 2004. In this summit talk India and Pakistan resumed comprehensive discussions with an agenda the included the Kashmir problem, confidence-building measures, and ways to provide security against terrorism. No War Pact 2004 These comprehensive consultations have steadily built up trust, resulting in agreements to continue the suspension of nuclear tests, to give prior notification of missile tests, and to seek a peaceful resolution of the Kashmir problem. On June 20, 2004, both countries signed "No War Pact" and agreed to extend a nuclear testing ban and to set up a hotline between their foreign secretaries aimed at preventing misunderstandings that might lead to a nuclear war. Musharraf's Unofficial Visit to India 2005 In April 2005 President Pervez Musharraf and Indian Prime Minister Man Mohan Singh agreed on various new confidence-building measures between the two nations. Their talks, held during Mr. Musharraf's unofficial visit to India on April 17, produced agreement, for example, on the passage of trucks for commercial purposes over Kashmir's Line of Control, or ceasefire line. This is expected to greatly help ease tensions between the countries. The improvement of relations between India and Pakistan still involves uncertain factors such as the activities of Islamic extremists, but efforts should be stepped up so that the latest summit can serve as a favorable tail wind for accelerating the thaw between the two nations.
  6. 6. Languages of Pakistan Urdu - National Language of Pakistan Regional Languages of Pakistan Qualities of Urdu and its role in National Integration. Introduction: Language is the only media by which one can express his ideas and feelings. It plays a vital role in building the character of an individual as well as a nation. Languages bring closer each other and it creates a sense of harmony among the people. Urdu - National Language of Pakistan: After independence Quaid-e-Azam said in clear cut words that the National Language of Pakistan would be Urdu. He said “Let me make it clear that the National Language of Pakistan is going to be Urdu and no other language. Without one state language no nation can remain tied up solidly together.” Evolution of Urdu: Urdu evolved over a period of centuries by cultural between local people of north of Sub Continent and Muslims of Arabia, Iran and Turkey. The base of this language is Prakrit, an Aryan language. The script of Urdu is modified form of Persian. Urdu is a word of Turkish language and its literal meaning is camp. Progress of Urdu Language: Due to the efforts of poets and writers during different periods of history. Urdu progressed well and reached almost all parts of the sub-continent in the 16th Century. The Muslims, from time to time, brought about changes and amendments in it to make it more simple and easy to understand according to their needs and requirements. After the emergence of Pakistan, a great deal of work has been done for the progress of Urdu language. The Urdu language has crossed its evolutionary stages after the Independence and is now on its way to the road of progress and development. Each Pakistani feels proud of speaking, reading and writing Urdu. Most of our national leaders, while visiting other countries, deliver their speeches in Urdu language which enhances its prestige on the International level. Several Committees have been formed for the level. Being the national language of the country, it is the binding force between different parts of Pakistan. Qualities of Urdu. 1. Great Power of Assimilation: The splendor of Urdu is Turkish and its charm is Persian in its base. The vitality of Urdu lies in its ability to adopt words from other languages in such a way as if they originally belonged to it. The chief reason for its country wide popularity was its power of Assimilation. According to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan Still now Urdu has great affinity for many other words and ideas which increases its beauty. 2. Source of National Identity: National language is the identity of a nation. When we are abroad we are identified as Pakistani because of our national language. That is why, every nation gives out respect and importance to national language. Rich Treasure of Prose and Poetry: The Urdu language possesses a very valuable treasure of poetry and prose. The poets and writers have contributed their most in its development. Maulana Shibli Nomani, Maulana Hali, Deputy Nazir Ahmed, Mirza Ghalib, Amir Khusro and many others adopted this language in their poetry and writings. Sir Syed wrote for the re-awakening of the Muslims of Sub Continent. According to Abdul Haque. It is Sir Syed due to whom Urdu has made such a great progress within a period of only one century.
  7. 7. Urdu - An Important Part of Our Cultural Heritage: Urdu grew in popularity and by the later Mughal Period and the advent of the British, it had been adopted by the Muslims and the Hindus alike. It would not be wrong to say if it is said that: Urdu is a part of our Cultural Heritage Importance of Urdu in National Life Certain points which express the importance of Urdu in national life are given below. 1. Means of Brotherhood and Unity: People of Pakistan are one nation, therefore their thinking, aims and objectives are common. Their progress and prosperity depends upon their unity and brotherhood. An important factor for achieving this unity and brotherhood is Urdu. 2. Source of Expression: Urdu has become a source of expression, feeling, thoughts and aspiration. People of two different areas can easily understood each other ideas and thoughts by Urdu. 3. Means of Communication and Co-ordination: Urdu serves as a means of communication and is a binding force between all the five province of Pakistan. People living in different provinces realize that in spite of speaking different languages, they are joined together by one national language which is the heritage of all. 4. Medium of Instruction: Urdu language is the medium of instruction in most of the educational institutions of Pakistan. History, Islamic Studies, Political Science and other subjects are taught up to M.A level in Urdu. Lectures on Islamic education and religion are also delivered in Urdu throughout Pakistan. Conclusion: Being the national language of the country it is the binding force in different parts of Pakistan. The officers have adopted Urdu language in their official work and the Government has published a dictionary contained Urdu terms for the office work. The Urdu Development Board and "Anjuman-e-Taraqi-e-Urdu" are trying to give Urdu a place in society and it is hope that Urdu would find its place in society within short period of time.
  8. 8. Regional languages of Pakistan Regional Languages of Pakistan Pakistan is a multi-lingual country. No less than twenty-four languages and dialects are spoken by the people of Pakistan, but mainly include five regional languages Punjabi, Sindhi, Balochi, Pushto, Brahvi and Kashmiri. These languages are rich in literature, poetry, folksongs and spiritual sayings of their respective saints and contribute greatly to the culture of Pakistan. The regional languages though distinct from one another in their forms, dialects and expressions of thoughts have several common factors in them. They cultivate in them love, respect and a firm adherence to the Pakistan Ideology. The regional languages of Pakistan are: 1. Punjabi 2. Sindhi 3. Balochi 4. Pushto 5. Brahvi 6. Kashmiri 1. Punjabi: Punjabi is the local language of the province of the Punjab which is the biggest province of Pakistan with regard to population and development. It has its links with the Aryan language Prakrit. Before partition it was spoken in Delhi, Dhirpur, Peshawar and Jammu too. However as time rolled on the vocabulary of Punjabi language became a mixture of Persian, Arabic and Turkish words. It has different dialects in different parts of Punjabi like Saraiki and Potohari but the basic language remains the same. Famous Punjabi Poets: Some of the famous poets of Punjabi language are: 1. Baba Farid Shakar Ganj Baksh 2. Sheikh Ibrahim Farid Shani 3. Madholal Hussein 4. Sultan Bahu 5. Bullay Shah 6. Ali Haider 7. Waris Shah Progress of Punjabi Language: Before partition Punjabi was spoken and understood in the eastern part of the Punjab. After Independence concrete steps were taken for the promotion and development of this language which made it a popular language in other parts of the province. The Government is still making efforts for the progress of Punjabi language and extending support to those institutions which are striving for its development. A present the Punjabi literature is taught up to M.A. level in Pakistan. 2. Sindhi: Sindhi is one of the important regional languages of Pakistan. It appears that Sindhi was spoken in the Indus Delta from time immemorial. It is said that the language of the people of Moen-jo-Daro contained elements of the present Sindhi language. The origin of this language is not exactly known. However travelers like Al-Beruni have told us about the original script of the language. "Chach Nama" being an authentic document proves that the dialect of the Sindhi language was the same in the 12th century, as it is today. With the advent and influence of Arabs in the Sub Continent Sindhi changed its form and adopted maximum words of Arabic and also of Persian and Turkish. Way of Writing: In the beginning Sindhi was written in "Marwari" and "Arz Nagari"' way of writing. With the advent and influence of Arabs in the subcontinent this way of writing was subsequently changed into Arabic and adopted maximum words of Arabic and also of Persian and Turkish.
  9. 9. Steps Taken to Develop Sindhi: Various steps have been taken to develop Urdu. Organizations like "Sindhi Literacy Board" and "Bazm-e-Talib-ul-Maula" etc were set up. Several newspapers published in Sindhi, such as Ibrat, Naw-i- Sind and Khadim-I-Watan besides a number of Weeklies. Famous Sindhi Poets: Some of famous Sindhi Poets are Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai Sachal Sarmast Makhdoom Noor Shah Inayat Bedil Sabit Ali Shah Kazi Kazah 3. Balochi: Balochi is the regional language of Baluchistan. It is the least developed of all the regional languages. It was spread by Balochi tribal migrated from Iran. Literature produced by earlier poets has no record as it is preserved traditionally in the memories of the people. No newspapers or books were published in Balochi up till 1940. After partition, however Balochi literature received a little boost due to the efforts made by many associations and by the establishment of T.V stations. At present, Balochi literature is on the road to development. Types of Balochi There are two types of Balochi namely: 1. Sulemani 2. Makrani Famous Literacy Figures and Poets of Balochi Some of the most literacy figures are: 1. Azad Jamaldini 2. Ulfat Naseem 3. Abdul Qadir Shahwani 4. Malik Mohammad Ramzan 5. Mir Aaqil Maingal Well known poets of Balochi language are 1. Jam Darag 2. Shah Murid 3. Shahdad Progress of Balochi Language The Balochi literature was on the verge of decline before partition. After partition, however it received little boost when Radio Pakistan, Karachi began its broadcast in Balochi language. Balochi programmers were relayed from Radio Pakistan Karachi which enhanced the developmental process of Balochi language.
  10. 10. 4. Pushto Pushto is the regional language of the N.W.F.P and tribal areas. It belongs to the East Iranian group of languages and contains many Persian, Arabic, Greek and Pahlavi words. Famous Pushto Poets Some of the well-known poets of Pushto language are: 1. Amir Karoro 2. Khushal Khan Khatak 3. Rehman Baba 4. Sher Shah Soori 5. Saif ullah 6. Kazim Kazim Steps Taken to Develop Pushto Although Pushto is an old language but its literature is comparatively new one. After independence Pushto literature received a great boost. The services rendered by the Pushto poets and writers in the freedom struggle, in fact contributed a great deal towards the promotion of Pushto literature. An academy for the promotion of Pushto literature was set up under the supervision of the Government. The Pushto academy was set up in 1954 and Maulana Abdul Qadir (Alig) was appointed as its Director. This academy prepared Pushto dictionary. 5. Brahvi Brahvi is the next spoken language of Baluchistan. It fact it is said to be spoken by a greater number of people than Balochi. The Brahvi language is said to be a member of Dravidian family of languages. It has borrowed heavily from Sindhi, Persian, Arabic and English but remains in an unexplained isolation among the Indo-Iran dialects. Brahvi literature has a vast treasure of folklores. Its script has borrowed much from Pushto script. Malik Dad was a great poet and learned person of Brahvi language. 6. Kashmiri Kashmiri is the language of the people of inhabiting the occupied Kashmir and Azad Kashmir. This language has been derived from Sanskrit. Kashmiri is generally spoken in Muslim families of the valley. It contains many Turkish, Arabic and Persian words and is written in the Persian Script. Kashmiri like all the regional languages of Pakistan had its early literature flowered in the form of poetry, which began with the composition of folk songs and ballads. Kashmiri Literary Figures: 1. Famous authors of Kashmiri language are: 2. Sh. Nooruddin 3. Khatoon Lillah Anifa 4. Baba Nasiruddin 5. Ghani Conclusion The regional languages of Pakistan - Punjabi, Sindhi, Balochi, Pushto, and Brahvi are the most modern Pakistani languages. The have several common feature and their literature bears the same eternal message for mankind. Government has been doing its best to develop the regional languages.
  11. 11. Initial Difficulties at the Establishment of Pakistan Initial Problems of Pakistan after Independence INTRODUCTION: The emergence of Pakistan, after a long and arduous freedom movement, was infect a great victory of the democratic idea of life. The Indian Muslims happily and valiantly laid down their lives and properties to achieve a destination in which they saw the fulfillment of their dreams of living an independent life free from Hindu or British dominance. Quaid-e-Azam on 15th August, 1947 said: "My thoughts are with those valiant fighters in our cause who readily sacrificed all they had, including their lives, to make Pakistan possible." INITIAL DIFFICULTIES OF PAKISTAN: From its very inception, Pakistan faced a large number of problems. Some of the initial difficulties were: 1. Choice of Capital and Establishment of Government: The first problem that Pakistan had to face was to choose a capital to form a Government and to establish a secretariat, Karachi was chosen as the capital of Pakistan. Quaid-e-Azam took the office of the Governor General, Liaqat Ali Khan was appointed as Prime Minister and a Cabinet of experienced persons was selected. Arrangements were to be made to bring the officials who had opted for Pakistan from Delhi to Karachi. 2. Unfair Boundary Distribution: A boundary commission was set up under a British Chairman, Sir Cyril Redcliff. He misused his powers and handed over Muslim majority areas like Gurdaspur, Ferozpur, Jullander to India hence providing them a gateway to Kashmir. Quaid-e-Azam called it: “An unjust, incomprehensible and even perverse award.” 3. The Massacre of Muslim Refugees in India: On the birth of Pakistan, Hindus and Sikhs became more furious. In a planned move, Muslim properties were set on fire and they were compelled to leave Bharat for Pakistan with nothing but their lives. Millions of refugees were killed before they reached Pakistan. Many migrants were looted and had to be provided boarding immediately as they reached Pakistan. 4. Division of Military and Financial Assets: In order to embarrass Pakistan financially, India did a lot of dishonesty in the matters of Pakistan which were concerned with its benefits. Pakistan was promised to get Rs.750 million but the Bharat Government refused to give .Pakistan received only 200 million .Pakistan also did not receive the due share of the military assets. This dishonest attitude put Pakistan into great difficulties. 5. Canal Water Dispute: Most of the river flowing in Pakistan have their origin in India. In 1948, India stopped water supply to Pakistani canals to damage the Pakistani agriculture. However on 9th September, 1960 on agreement called "Indus Basin Treaty" was signed between the two countries. 6. Kashmir Dispute: Kashmir dispute is the most important and unsolved problem. Kashmir is the natural part of Pakistan because at the time of partition 85% of the Kashmir's total population was Muslim. The Hindu dogma rule, who was secretly with the Government of India declared Kashmir as a part of India. Pakistan has continuously insisted that Kashmir must get their right of self-determination but due to non- cooperation of India, Kashmir issue still remain unsolved. 7. Constitutional Problem: The constituent assembly failed to frame a constitution even in eight years. Lack of a permanent constitution created, chances of unscrupulous interference in democratic progress of Pakistan.
  12. 12. 8. Annexation of Princely States: All Indian princely states were given the right to link up with either of dominions. However, the fate of following states remained undecided. Junagadh The Muslim Nawab governing Junagadh favored in acceding to Pakistan. But Indian Government sent Army troops towards Junagadh and occupied the state by force in November, 1947. Hyderabad Deccan Hyderabad Deccan was the largest and richest state ruled by Muslim ruler Nizam who decided to remain independent. But pressure tactics began to be applied by Indian Government and Mount Batten .India attacked Hyderabad on 13th September 1948 and forcibly annexed this state to India. 9.Electrcity Problem Due to transfer of Muslim majority areas to Bharat and unfair demarcation, electricity system of West Punjab was disrupted ,because all power stations were at Mundi, a predominantly Muslim majority area, gifted to Bharat but Quaid-e-Azam said: "If we are to exist as a nation ,we will have to face the problems with determination and force." Conclusion: Pakistan came into being as a free Muslim state in quite unfavorable circumstances .It had no resources, it had no resources, and it had to build up its administrative machinery from a scratch. But Supreme efforts were made by the Quaid-e-Azam and his colleagues to grapple with the situation .His golden principles "Unity " "Faith" and "Discipline" gave way to Pakistan for a bright future of a strong and well developed country .In his last message to the nation on 14th August 1948, he told the nation: "The foundation of your state have been laid and it is now for you to build and build as quickly and as you can."
  13. 13. Two Nation Theory Meaning of Two Nation Theory The Two Nation Theory in its simplest way means the cultural, political, religious, economic and social dissimilarities between the two major communities. Hindus and Muslims of the Sub Continent. These difference of outlook, in fact, were greatly instrumental in giving rise to two distinct political ideologies which were responsible for the partition of India into two independent states. THE BASIS OF THE CREATION OF PAKISTAN The Two Nation Theory was the basis of the struggle for creation of Pakistan which held that Hindus and Muslims are two separate Nations. They in spite of living together for centuries could not forget their individual cultures and civilization. Al-Beruni recorded his ideas in 1001 A.D in his famous book "Kitab-ul-Hind" as: "The Hindus society maintained this peculiar character over the centuries. The two societies, Hindus and Muslims, like two streams have sometimes touched but never merged, each following its separate course." There are a few factors which split the inhabitants of the Sub Continent into two Nations. Let us examine each of them separately. 1. Religious Differences The Hindus and Muslims belong to different religions. Islam preaches Taw-heed (oneness of Allah) and believes in equality of man before law. Muslims are the believers of God, The Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) the Holy Book Quran and hold a cohesive approach towards life. Hinduism, on the other hand is based on the concept of multiple Gods. Their society follows a caste system and is divided into four classes and have a very narrow approach towards life. 2. Hindu Nationalism A number of Hindu nationalist movements, which emerged from time to time in the Indian history, added fuel to the fire by playing up the tension and antagonism which already existed between the two communities. The Hindu nationalist leaders totally ignored the great contribution made by the Muslims in the Indian society by way of promoting education and other social activities. Their writings and ideas flared up the communal discord between Hindus and Muslims to further pollute the political condition. 3. Cultural Differences Muslim followed the Islamic culture while Hindus inherited a self-build culture. The Hindus burnt their dead bodies while Muslims burred them. Hindus considered the 'Mother cow' as a sacred animal and worshiped it while Muslims slaughtered it. They performed 'sati' while Muslims abhorred this tradition. The Hindus and Muslims did not intermarry nor do they inter-dine. 4. Social Differences The two communities of the Sub Continent differ in their social life as well. The clothes, the foods, the household utensils, the layout of homes, the words of salutation, the gestures and everything about them was different and immediately pointed to their distinctive origin. 5. Economics Differences After 1857,the Muslim economic was crushed and all trade policies were framed in such a way so as to determent the Muslim condition .They were thrown out of Government services and the their estates and properties were confiscated, while the Hindus were provided with ample opportunities to progress economically. 6. Educational Differences The Hindus had advanced in the educational field because they quickly and readily took the English education. While Muslims did not receive modern education which heavily affected their economic conditions.
  14. 14. 7. Political Differences The political differences between the Hindus and Muslims have played an important role in the development and evolution of Two Nation Theory. i) Hindi Urdu Controversy In 1867, Hindus demanded that Urdu should be written in Hindi Script instead of Persian script. This created another gap between Hindus and Muslims. ii) Congress Attitude The Indian national Congress was founded in 1885.It claimed to represent all communities of India but oppressed all Muslim ideas and supported the Hindus. iii) Partition of Bengal In 1905, the partition of Bengal ensured a number of political benefits for the Muslims, but the Hindus launched an agitation against the partition and partition was annulled in 1911. 8. Language The Muslims and Hindus wrote and spoke two different languages .The language of the former was Urdu and it was written in Arabic Script. On the other hand, the Hindi language was spoken by Hindus and it was written in Sanskrit. Urdu and Hindi language had the difference in writing, thoughts of poetry, arts, painting and words of music. Even this small difference lead to a stirring conflict between the two nations. Two Nation Theory in the view of Allama Iqbal: Allama Iqbal was the first important figure who propounded the idea of separate homeland on the basis of two nation theory. He firmly believed in the separate identity of the Muslims as a nation and suggested that there would be no possibility of peace in the country unless and until they were recognized as a nation. In the annual session of Muslim League at Allahabad in 1930, he said: "India is a continent of human beings belonging to different languages and professing different religions...I, therefore, demand the formation of a consolidated Muslim state in the best interests of the Muslims of India and Islam." Quaid-e-Azam's statement on two nation theory: The most clear and emphatic exposition is found in Jinnah's statement and speeches. He expounded the two nation theory in such detail that most Muslims and even some Hindus came to believe in its truth. He declared: " Muslims are not a minority, they are one nation by every definition of the word nation. By all canons of international law we are a nation." Quaid-e-Azam reiterated that Hindus and Muslims could ever evolve a common nationality was on idle dream. They are a totally different nation .They have an unbridgeable gulf between them and they stand miles apart in regards to their ideals, culture and religion. In 1973, he said: "Hindustan is neither one country, nor its inhabitant’s one nation. This is Sub Continent which consist of many nations of which the Hindus and Muslims are two major nations." Conclusion: The Muslims apprehended that they would lose their identity if they remained a part of Hindu society. They also came to realize the above mentioned differences between them and the Hindus and hence demanded separate electorate on the ground that they were different nation from Hindus. Hence it is right to say that this theory two nation theory is the basis of the creation of Pakistan because without this as a base, Pakistan would not come into being on 14th August, 1947, and we would not be breathing freely in this open air of Pakistan.
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Pakistan Studies (English) Main or Important Topics of Pakistan Studies. For B.COM I

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