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Micro hydro power plant final 1

  3.  Micro-hydro power is a type of Hydro electric power that typically produced up to 100 kW of electricity using the natural flow of water. These type of power plant can provide power to an isolated home or a small community. Micro- hydro system complement solar energy because in many areas in winter the water flow is maximum and solar energy is minimum. In such areas micro-hydro power is used along with photo voltaic solar energy.
  4. Construction of a Micro-hydro power plant is site specific. It is made up of a number of components. Some of them are……  Intake  Canal  Penstock  Turbine  Generator  Controlling unit
  5. Turbines converts the flow and pressure energy into mechanical energy. Turbines are basically of two types i.e. Reaction & Impulse and Depending upon the head of the available water further divide in three categories i.e. High, Medium & Low head. According to site specification (i.e. head and flow) we choose the turbine to use in micro- hydro power plant.
  6. Turbine type Flow Head Pelton wheel Low High ( > 70 feet) Turgo Medium Medium (25-75 feet) Cross Flow High Low (<25 feet) Continued….
  7. Theoretical Power P = 9.81 × ρ × Q × H Where : ρ = Density of water, kg/m3 Q = Flow Rate, m3 /s H = Head, meters
  8. The standard generators used in micro hydro power projects are the synchronous generator and the induction motor used as a generator. Induction generator :- Induction generator usually an induction motor. Which rotates 1-5% faster then synchronous speed so that it can achieve negative slip, to run in generating mode.
  9. Synchronous generator :- Salient pole Synchronous generator or alternator are used in micro-hydro projects. These generator supplies its own excitation through rectifier or external batteries system can be used for excitation. Some times industrial pumps (i.e. centrifugal) are use as generator. Continued…
  10. Water turbines vary in speed as load is applied. This speed variation will seriously affect both frequency and voltage output from a generator. To over come this problem electronic load controller is used in micro-hydro power plant.
  11. The ELC prevents speed variations by continuously adding or subtracting an artificial load, so that the generator is working permanently under full load. A further benefit is that the ELC has no moving parts, it is very reliable and maintenance free. Continued….
  12.  Economic energy source.  No reservoir required.  Utilize natural flow of water.  No harmful effect on surrounding.  No costly equipment used.  Low power generation during summer months.  Suitable site characteristics required.  Efficiency is low .
  13. New computerized control systems and improved turbines may allow more electricity to be generated from existing facilities in the future. Small scale and low head hydro capacity will probably increase in the future. Low head turbines, and standardized turbine production, lowers the costs of hydro-electric power at sites with low heads.
  14. Micro-hydro power plant is an important part of world’s electricity supply. Specially in remote areas it is providing reliable and economic source of electricity. As no fossil fuel required in hydro power plant, it can help to save other source of energy.
  15.    BOOKS.  Micro Hydro Power Handbook vol. 1,2 by. J. D. McKinney & Prof. C. C. Warnick  Power Plant Engg. by. P. K. NAG  Electrical Machinery by, Dr. P. S. Bimbhra