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“ Crisscrossing light wood frame recalls Gothic  and surrounding trees while lifting the mind skyward.” E. Fay Jones and Associates.  Thorncrown Chapel  Eureka Springs, Arkansas  1980 WOOD
Qualities of Wood ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Undesirable Characteristics of Wood ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Tree Composition ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Softwoods   :  Conifer Trees (pine, fir, spruce) for framing and sheathing
Hardwoods  -  Deciduous trees (leaf trees) Like maple, oak ash, beech, birch  Used for Flooring, moldings, furniture
Tree Cells ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Tree Growth ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Types of Trees / Woods Oak Poplar Pine
Construction Uses for Wood ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Lumber Production - Sawing ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Lumber Production - Sawing  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Typical Sawing Method
Lumber Drying ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Differential Shrinkage (between radial & tangential) during drying can cause distortions
Lumber Surfacing ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Rough sawn (not surfaced) S4S
Lumber Defects ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
 
Lumber Grade & Species ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Spruce, Fir, or Pine Stud Surfaced Dry No 2 Lumber Kiln Dried   (19% moisture)
Lumber Thickness and Width - NOMINAL ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Lumber Thickness and Width - ACTUAL ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Lumber Lengths  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Lumber Pricing Factors ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Lumber Pricing Unit - Board Feet ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Laminated Wood ( Glulam ) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
 
 
Structural Composite Lumber (PSL)
 
Wood Panel Products ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Veneered Panels - Plywood ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Veneer Grades ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],C Grade C Plugged  A Grade
Non-veneered Panels ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Particleboard Fiberboard
Oriented Strand Board (OSB) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Waferboard & Particleboard ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Panel Standards & Grading ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Structural Ratings ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Exposure Durability Classifications ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
PRESERVATIVE-TREATED WOOD ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Wood Polymer Composite Planks proprietary name: TREX ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Wood Fasteners ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Nails ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
16d Galvanized 16d Sinker Deformed Shank 10d Galv. Spiral Finish Nail Roofing Nail  (far right)
Nails ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Anchorage ,[object Object]
Machine Driven Nails & Staples ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Battery Powered Electric Nailer  Collated Nails
Wood Screws  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Deck Screws Types of ‘Heads’
Lag & Drywall Screws ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Bolts ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Toothed Plates ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Sheet Metal Framing Devices ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Adhesives ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Engineered Wood ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Trusses ,[object Object],Floor Trusses Roof Trusses
 
Trusses (cont.) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
I-Joists ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Why Use Trusses or I-Joists? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Sustainability in Wood Construction ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]

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The Material Wood

  • 1. “ Crisscrossing light wood frame recalls Gothic and surrounding trees while lifting the mind skyward.” E. Fay Jones and Associates. Thorncrown Chapel Eureka Springs, Arkansas 1980 WOOD
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  • 5. Softwoods : Conifer Trees (pine, fir, spruce) for framing and sheathing
  • 6. Hardwoods - Deciduous trees (leaf trees) Like maple, oak ash, beech, birch Used for Flooring, moldings, furniture
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  • 9. Types of Trees / Woods Oak Poplar Pine
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  • 15. Differential Shrinkage (between radial & tangential) during drying can cause distortions
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  • 20. Spruce, Fir, or Pine Stud Surfaced Dry No 2 Lumber Kiln Dried (19% moisture)
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  • 44. 16d Galvanized 16d Sinker Deformed Shank 10d Galv. Spiral Finish Nail Roofing Nail (far right)
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Notes de l'éditeur

  1. Bark PROTECTIVE LAYER OUTSIDE IS DEAD - INSIDE ALIVE Cambium VERY THIN CREATES NEW CELLS Sapwood STORE NUTRIENTS & TRANSMITS SAP THICK - LIVING Heartwood DEAD WOOD PROVIDES STRUCTURAL STABILITY Pith EARLY YEARS GROWTH SMALL - WEAK
  2. Primarily Hollow, Cylindrical Cells - “TRACHEIDS” Axis running parallel to the tree Tough Cellulose bond by Lignin IMAGINE A GROUP OF STRAWS Impact on the properties of wood PARALLEL WITH GRAIN (TUBE) STRONG PERPENDICULAR - WEAK
  3. Springwood (earlywood) Faster growth Cells larger and less dense Summerwood (latewood) Slower growth Cells smaller and denser APPEARS DARKER HENCE - THE RINGS
  4. Softwoods - Coniferous Trees “ SOFT” OR “HARD” NOT NECESSARILY LITERALLY SIMPLE MICROSTRUCTURE COARSE UNINTERESTING GRAIN PINE, SPRUCE, FIR, CEDAR MOST OF THE LUMBER USED IN BUILDING WHY??? GROWS FASTER, MORE PLENTIFUL, MORE ECONOMICAL Hardwoods - Broad leafed trees MORE COMPLEX STRUCTURE BEAUTIFUL GRAIN PATTERNS PRIMARILY - FINE CABINETRY & DOORS, TRIMS / ACCENTS OAK, POPULAR, WALNUT, MAPLE
  5. Structural Framing GENERALLY PINE, FIR OR SPRUCE Subfloors and Roof decking GENERALLY WOOD PANELS Siding - Structural & Exposed STRUCTURAL - OFTEN WOOD PANELS EXPOSED - NATURALLY DECAY RESISTANT OR TREATED CEDAR, CYPRESS Finish cabinetry and Trim PAINTED OR LAMINATED - PANELS OR SOFTWOODS “ EXPOSED”/ FINISHED - HARDWOODS
  6. 1ST CUT (LOG) AND TRANSPORT TO THE MILL Plain Sawing Maximum Yield Varying grain pattern CAUSES DRYING DISTORTIONS DIFFERENT SURFACE APPEARANCE LESS DURABILITY Most common use - Framing lumber WHY??? NOT SEEN STRUCTURAL QUALITIES ACCEPTABLE ECONOMICAL
  7. WHY DRY WOOD??? WATER IS 30% TO 300% OF DRY WT. Seasoned lumber @ 19% or less HEAVY, WEAKER, LESS STABLE Drying Types Air CUT & STACKED IN OPEN AIR DRIED - CAN TAKE MONTHS Kiln CUT & STACKED KILN DRIED - A MATTER OF DAYS FASTER, HIGHER QUALITY PROCESS Drying Effects Shrinkage LENGTH - NEGLIGIBLE RADIAL - MEASURABLE AMOUNT 12’ BOARD - 30% TO 15% (2% SHRINKAGE - 1/4”) TANGENTIAL - UP TO 50% > RADIAL (STRESSES INDUCED) Reduced weight Increase of strength and stiffness More dimensional stable
  8. Purpose; Smooth Dimensional precision Designations; S2S, S4S FRAMING - S4S SOME HARDWOODS - S2S Performed primarily after drying WHY??? “ SHRINAGE DURING DRYING
  9. Growth defects Knots & knot holes LIMBS / BRANCHES Decay and/or insect damage MOIST CONDITIONS, BORES Manufacturing Defects Splits & checks Crook, bow, cup, and/or twist WHAT CAUSES THESE DEFECTS??? DIFFERENTIAL SHRINKAGE
  10. Strength & Stiffness, or STRUCTURAL OR FRAMING LUMBER VARIES - SPECIES AND IMPERFECTIONS Appearance NON-STRUCTURAL OR FINISH LUMBER Effect on price Grade HIGHER GRADE HIGHER ALLOWABLE STRESSES HIGHER PRICE #1 SELECT - DIFFICULT TO FIND #2 &3 MOST COMMON FOR FRAMING Appearance BETTER APPEARANCE HIGHER PRICE EXAMPLE; 1 x 12 (priced in 2001) # 3 $1 / BF #2 TWICE (2) THE PRICE OF #3 #1 FIVE (5) TIMES PRICE OF #3
  11. Thickness - “Nominal” < 2 inches - Boards FRAMING LUMBER - MOST 2 to 4 inches - Dimension Lumber = to or > 5 inches - Timbers Widths - “Nominal” Framing Lumber - 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 inches WHY NOT Typically WIDER??? Finish /lumber - 1 inch (typ.)
  12. Nominal not equal to “Actual” dimensions LUMBER “SAWN” Close to Nominal Then dried and surfaced Up to 6 inches - actual is 1/2 inch less Greater than 6 inches - actual is 3/4 inch less WHY THE “BREAK AT 6”??? MORE DISTORTION & SHRINKAGE TO ACCOMMODATE DURING SURFACING
  13. Typically; Two (2) foot increments Sizes; 8’, 10’, 12’, 14’, & 16’ WHY NOT Typically LONGER??? Exceptions; 93 inch studs WHY 93 INCHES??? Special order lengths
  14. FACTORS YOU MUST DECIDE ON WHY DOES SIZE AFFECT COST / BF???
  15. Lamination Process SELECT LUMBER, GRADE JOINTS - FINGER OR SCARF ADHESIVES BASED ON EXPECTED MOISTURE Why Laminate? Create a size not available naturally Create Shapes ARCHES, CURVES, ETC. Improved Quality PROCESS CONTROLLED DEFECTS REMOVED / CONSIDERED GRAIN DIRECTION CONTROLLED USES CHURCHES LARGE RESIDENTIAL LODGES, RESTAURANTS
  16. Why Panelize? More “controlled” product (strength, shrinkage, etc.) Efficient use of forest products Increase labor productivity Types Plywood Composite panels Veneered panels
  17. Thin layers of veneer glued together VENEERS - ROTARY CUT Odd number of veneers Alternating direction of veneers Face veneers parallel USES SAME AS OSB EXPOSED/PAINTED SURFACES FORMWORK COST MORE THAN OSB
  18. Based on the smoothness & integrity of the veneers Classifications; A, B, C (plugged), C, D B and better sanded smooth Price Variances (2001) 23/32 Exterior A/C = $31 per panel 23/32 Exterior B/C = $20 per panel MOST FORMWORK B/C FINISH AREAS MAY REQUIRE “A”
  19. INTRODUCED IN THE EARLY 80’s GETTING WIDESPREAD USE Long strand like wood particles Alternate grain orientation (3-5 layers) Compressed / glued Strongest of the Non-veneered WHY IS IT THE STRONGEST??? ORIENTATION OF STANDS Generally more economical than Plywood Uses; Sheathing for floor, roofs, & siding WHY IS IT GETTING WIDESPREAD USE??? STRUCTURALLY SOUND ECONOMICAL - SUBBSTITUTE FOR PLYWOOD NEW GROWTH TREES
  20. Established by American Plywood Association (APA) Standards based on; Structural adequacy Dimensional Stability UNDER VARYING MOISTURE CONDITIONS Durability of Adhesive
  21. Panel Grade Span Rating IN INCHES PERPENDICULAR TO SUPPORT LARGER # - ROOF SPAN SMALLER # - FLOOR SPAN
  22. Thickness Exposure Durability Exterior - siding or continuous exposure Exposure I; Waterproof glue - but veneers are not as high of quality as exterior grade (subfloors, sheathing) - most common rating Exposure II; Minimum wetting
  23. Combustibility FIRE RETARTANT IMPREGNATED UNDER PRESSURE Decay & Insect PRESSURE IMPREGNATED UP TO 30 YEAR LIFE TYPES CREOSOTE PENTACHOROPHENOL - OILY, CAN’T PAINT WATERBORNE SALTS - GREENISH - CAN PAINT Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) being phased out HIGH MOISTURE USES – WHY NOT USE DECAY RESISTANT WOODS??? (CEDAR, REDWOOD, CYPRESS) COST & STRENGTH
  24. Common flat heads, used mostly for structural connections Finish Nails virtually headless, finish woodwork Common - Used for Framing, Large Shank & Head Box - Smaller Shank, less chance for splitting wood, Used Shingles, Rough Casings Casing, Finish, Brad - Finish Components, Sink Head Deformed Shank - Very Hard to Remove, DW & Flr. Concrete - Masonry & Concrete Cut - Finish Flooring - SQ Head Reduces Cracking Roofing - One of Many, Some Have lead/Rubber Washers
  25. Size - Measured in “pennies” (Price of 100 nails long ago) Corresponding Lengths Same for Common & Finish Most Common Light Frame Nails - 16d for 2”, 10D AND 8D Coatings Bright/ Plain uncoated steel MOST COMMON USED - NON CORROSIVE OR CONCEALED CONDITION Corrosion-resistant “ EXPOSED TO WEATHER RUST OR STAIN LUMBER GALVANIZED, ALUM., SS Resin/Vinyl Decrease Drive & Increase Holding This nail has a smaller shaft – commonly called a ‘sinker’
  26. Anchorage Face - Perpendicular to Grain End - Parallel Toe - Angle to Grain Which Has the Most Holding Power??? Which is most common???
  27. APPLICATIONS FRAMING SHEATHING ROOFING
  28. “ Head” type PHILLIPS SLOTTED SQUARE HEAD PAN, FLAT, ROUND, ETC. Sizing - Gauge & Length WIRE GAUGE (SAMPLES #8 & #10) LENGTH IN INCHES (AND FACTIONS) Installation HAND SCREW DRIVER “ SCREW GUN”, OR DRILL HOLDING POWER TIGHTER, STRONGER THAN NAILS CAN BE “BACKED” OUT, & REINSERTED Uses CABINETWORK SOME FRAMING APPLICATIONS DECKING - BETTER HOLD - LESS SQUECK
  29. Lag Screws Large screws Very LARGE Screws, Wrench, ¼ “@ 2-6 in., ½ to 10” FOR HEAVIER STRUCTURAL CONNECTIONS Square or octagonal head Installed w/ wrench Drywall screws Used to attach drywall Drywall Screws (Size, 1 ¼, 1 5/8, 2 “, Screw Gun - Fast, Wood or Metal,
  30. Heavier structural connections COMMONLY USED W/ TIMBER CONSTRUCTION Sizes 1/4 inch to 1 inch+ LENGTH; ABOUT ANY (PRACTICALLY 10-12”) Types Machine SQUARE OR OCTAGONAL HEAD USED WITH WASHER Carriage ROUND BUTTON HEAD SQUARE SHANK INHIBITS TURNING Washers DISTRIBUTE THE COMPRESSIVE FORCE
  31. NUMEROUS TYPES AND SHAPES MOST COMMON - JOIST HANGER LIGHT WOOD FRAMING - ATTACHED WITH SCREWS OR NAILS HEAVY TIMBER - ATTACHED WITH BOLTS / LAGS
  32. ON SITE LESS USES BECAUSE OF NEED TO CLAMP USES FLOOR SHEATHING BASE (SOLE) PLATES WALL PANELS PANELING (WHERE THERE IS A NEED FOR CONCEALED FASTENERS) INCREASE STIFFNESS, ELIMINATE “SQUEAK”
  33. Uses FLOORS & ROOFS Sizes Typically, 9-1/2” TO 24 “ DEEP LENGTH UP TO 40 FEET+ Composition & cost TOP & BOTTOM - LUMBER OR Laminated WEB - OSB, PLYWOOD COST - COMPARABLE TO 2x