Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Nous utilisons votre profil LinkedIn et vos données d’activité pour vous proposer des publicités personnalisées et pertinentes. Vous pouvez changer vos préférences de publicités à tout moment.

Behavioral science teaching notes

26 744 vues

Publié le

Useful for BA, BBA, MA and MBA graduates for learning about organizational psychology and behavioral science

Publié dans : Business, Technologie, Formation
  • Identifiez-vous pour voir les commentaires

Behavioral science teaching notes

  1. 1. Definition of some essentialterminologies in behavioralscience1June 6, 2013 PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  2. 2. 1. Study of Behavioral ScienceThe scientific study of behavior, facts about the peoplewhat they do and what they should do is behaviorscience.Focuses upon the human and better understanding ofhuman behavior.Organizes facts surrounding the actions of people.Many artists and authors, along with others have hadperceptive views of human behavior.Our interest should be strongest in the specificknowledge gained through scientific study.Primarily, Behavioral Science focuses in the threedisciplines - anthropology, psychology and sociology.June 6, 2013 2PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  3. 3. ImportanceIt establishes the fitness of individual in workingenvironment.Better human behavior and attitudes among theemployees in an organization.Rationalize human actions.Exploring the areas of development amongpeople working together in an organizations.Establishing better organizational acrossorganization.Promote the value of cross-cultural diversity.June 6, 2013 3PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  4. 4. In 4th century BC, Aristotle, the first behavioral scientist,labeled merits in many aspects.Comte (1830s) wrote about the discipline of sociologyand core value of sociology.Ford Foundation (1950s) performed the study offavorable attitudes towards behavioral science over shortspan of time.Galileo and Merton (1963) said behavioral sciencecomprise a new science of ancient subject.Berelson (1963) pointed out the revolutionary change inthe fields, i.e. technical and specialized.Senn (1966) considered behavioral science as a validdescription of the work.Emergence of Behavioral Sciences as a DisciplineJune 6, 2013 4PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  5. 5. 2. Behavioral Disciplines The three disciplines comprising the core-anthropology,psychology, and sociology-must be included. Beyond this,the list is more or less arbitrary. Undoubtedly, mention must be made of economics,political science, and history. The more applied areas such as management; marketingand psychiatry. Similarly, the emerging areas include game theory, decisiontheory, information theory, cybernetics and so on.June 6, 2013 5PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  6. 6. Behavior Genetics Study of relative influence of genetic andenvironment on behaviorGenes The biochemicalunits of heredity Many genestogether make upchromosomesEnvironmentAny influence, other than genetic, on anindividual’s behaviorThat is transmitted from -- the culture someone is raised in, the family, socioeconomic group, role, status, prestige, and so on.63. Defining Basic Behavioral ConceptsJune 6, 2013 PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  7. 7. Role of Nature and Nurture Nature side involves the genetic code passedfrom biological parents to the child. Nurture side includes environmentalinfluences from prenatal development on.7June 6, 2013 PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  8. 8. Chromosomes Threadlike structures made up of DNA 46 pairs in each cell 23 received from each parent8June 6, 2013 PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  9. 9. Chromosomes9June 6, 2013 PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  10. 10. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) A complex molecule Contains the genetic information ofeach chromosome10June 6, 2013 PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  11. 11. 11June 6, 2013 PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  12. 12. The Genetic Makeup of One Cell1 human cell (Zygote)23 chromosome pairsare contained in46 chromosomesequal toabout 100,000 genesequal toAbout 3 billion base pairsequal to12June 6, 2013 PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  13. 13. Similarities Despite our differences, human beingsthroughout the world share a number ofsimilarities13June 6, 2013 PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  14. 14. Evolutionary Psychology The study of evolution of behavior andthe mind Uses the principle of natural selection14June 6, 2013 PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  15. 15. Natural Selection Darwin’s principle that those traitscontributing to the survival of thespecies will most likely be passed on tothe next generation. Survival of the generation will rely ontheir competence to survive in changingenvironment.15June 6, 2013 PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  16. 16. Identical Twins Twins who developed from a singlefertilized egg Are genetically identical Called monozygotic twins16June 6, 2013 PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  17. 17. 17June 6, 2013 PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  18. 18. Fraternal Twins Twins who developed from separate eggs Genetically no different than other siblings Called dizygotic twins18June 6, 2013 PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  19. 19. Heritability The proportion of an individual’scharacteristics that can be attributed togenetics (heredity) The degree to which traits are inherited19June 6, 2013 PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  20. 20. Twin Studies Used to determine the heritability of agiven trait Data is collected from both identicaland fraternal twins on the trait Compare the data between the twogroups Important not to conclude that aspecific behavior is inherited20June 6, 2013 PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  21. 21. Adoption Studies Compare adopted children’s traits withthose of their biological parents and theiradopted parents Traits similar with biological parents --attribute the traits to heredity Traits similar with the adopted parents --attribute the traits to the environment21June 6, 2013 PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  22. 22. Early Brain Development Early experience is critical in braindevelopment. In later life continued use is necessaryto maintain neural connections in thebrain.22June 6, 2013 PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  23. 23. Peer Influence Peer influence in adolescence developmentmay play very powerful role. Many studies suggest a peer groupbehavior is correlated with one’s schoolperformance, smoking, and other habits.23June 6, 2013 PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  24. 24. Culture Shared attitudes, beliefs, norms andbehaviors of a group, may be in a family. Culture is communicated from onegeneration to the next. The way how a system has been operatingover the period is culture.24June 6, 2013 PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  25. 25. Norms Rules for accepted and expected behaviorunderstood in a defined context. Norms consist of the “proper behavior”within a group.25June 6, 2013 PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  26. 26. Individualism Giving priority to one’s goals over thegoals of the group Defining one’s identity in terms ofpersonal attributes rather than the group’sidentification Tend to see people as separate andindependent26June 6, 2013 PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  27. 27. Collectivism Giving priority to the goals of one’s groupover one’s personal goals Defining one’s identity in terms of thegroup’s identification rather than personalattributes See people as connected to others Individual needs are sacrificed for thegoodness of the group.27June 6, 2013 PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  28. 28. UNIT II: DEVELOPMENT OF INDIVIDUALDIFFERENCES1. Nature and Nurture2. Span of Development3. Individual Differences4. Biological Basis for Individuality5. Personality6. Socio-cultural Factors7. Achievement8. Age RecapitulationJune 6, 2013 28PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  29. 29. 1. Nature and Nurture No two people in the world are exactly thesame At the same time, many similarities may exist What would you do if you were stuck in anelevator?June 6, 2013 29PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  30. 30. Nature and Nurture: Heredity and Environment Genetic arrangement also determines thephysical and functional basis of individualbehavior. How much of what we are is due to heredity. The fundamental positions can be recognized instatements like “you can’t make a silk purse outof sow’s ear”.June 6, 2013 30PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  31. 31. Nature and Nurture Contd… Example: Twins are born. One of them liveswith the father in USA while the other liveswith the mother in a village in Nepal. They may have a lot of similar hereditarycharacteristics, but the environment affectstheir individual differences. They will have different culture, thinking,feeling and lifestyle.June 6, 2013 31PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  32. 32. 2. Span of Development A exploration of the biological, cognitive, andpsychosocial changes that occur different periodsof life of human. Life span development begins with conceptionand continues all throughout life from changesthat begin at conception and last untildeath(internet 30-11-2067).June 6, 201332PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  33. 33.  Children go through many changes throughoutlife that develop over time such as physicalgrowth cognitive development andpsychological development.June 6, 2013Broadly, the span of development may becategorized in three phases:a. Infancy and childhood,b. Adolescence, andc. Maturity and old age33PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  34. 34. Infancy and childhoodJune 6, 2013 Infancy is the foundation of life. Infancy is the very first stage ofthe life. It commences from theneonatal stage. In this stage natural ability torespond against situations likehunger, cold, fear by cryingoccurs. The natural capacity torecognize nearer , dearer, andbeloved ones by a smile.34PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  35. 35.  Physical growth is rapid during infancy. Due togood nutrition, infants almost triple in weight(to about 20 pounds or 9 kilograms) and increasein body length by about one-third (28 or 29inches, 71 to 74 cms) during the first year alone. Infants and children learn from their parents,families, surrounding and schools. Imitating words, standing upright with support,commencing walking, playing with caregivers. Toothing, independent playing with toys,demanding with claims, recalling familyrelations, pet loving, peer playing, singing, etc.June 6, 201335PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  36. 36.  Development of creativity, science, maths,language and construction skills. Gaining family and social values, norms andbehavior. Reading and recalling storing, knowingabout great personalities.June 6, 2013 36PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  37. 37. AdolescenceJune 6, 2013 The transition from child to adulttakes place more gradually during aperiod known as adolescence. Rapid spurt in physical growth gainedby sexual maturation and as endingwhen individuals assume theresponsibilities associated with adultlife marriage, entry into the workforce. Due to sexual maturity, menstruationbegins in girls and boys get spermsproduced as they are 14-15.37PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  38. 38.  Boys develop facial and chest hair and their voicedeepen. Recognition of best personalities and makingtheir ones role models. Adaptation of behavior as of ones role model. Setting objectives of life, sets mission and vision. Making friends cycle, choosing best friend. Attraction towards opposite sex. Adolescents may be easily drifted to addictiondue to poor nurturing environment.June 6, 2013 38PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  39. 39. Maturity and old ageJune 6, 2013 Involvement in chosen career path. Involvement in family affairs. Creativity rises rapidly, usually in aperson’s late thirties to earlyforties, then gradually declines. Able to retain as much informationin this limited capacity. Ability to transfer informationfrom working memory to longterm memory may decrease withage because of changes in brain.39PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  40. 40.  Total brain weight decreases five percent byage seventy ten percent by age eighty andtwenty percent by age ninety. Decision making on marriage, child plan andproperty accumulation as well as business. Emergence of a new family out of prenatalfamily Old age planning and social involvementduring retirement also appear in action.June 6, 2013 40PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  41. 41. 3. Individual Differences• Obviously the people differ from each.• How and why they differ is less clear and is thesubject of individual difference.• Individual difference seems to be a studyvariance, how people are different.• The difference between individuals that separatesfrom one another and makes one as a uniqueindividual in oneself.• Individual difference is any difference in the wayin which people behave or think.June 6, 2013 41PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  42. 42. Causes of individual differences There are manyfactors that make aperson differentfrom others: Family Traits Culture Heredity Early pre-schoollinguisticexperienceJune 6, 2013 42PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  43. 43. Individual Difference: The Distribution of Traits Most human traits are distributed, a continuum,with most people in the middle and few at either. The resulting curve is called normal curve ofdistribution. The curve contain two-third of individual withthe range from one sigma, or standard deviation. The curve represent the distribution of manytraits such as height, weight or IQ scores.June 6, 2013 43PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  44. 44. Individual traitsIndividual traits measurethose dimension ofindividual that play a rolein his reaction to lifesituation.The important traits are: Mental ability Language ability Interest Aptitude AchievementJune 6, 2013 Openness Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness NeuroticismMeasures of individual traits44PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  45. 45. Caveats in appraisal In obtaining and using information aboutindividual difference, the decision maker must beaware of many factor that should make himcontinuous about applying the result obtained. This is specially true in selection situation whereperson are chosen for specific task. Provide information about individual differencein academic or other organization setting.June 6, 2013 45PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  46. 46. Test factorSome terms in test factor are: Score Profile Norms Reliability Validity Selection ratio Diagnostic use Use in selectionJune 6, 2013 46PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  47. 47. 4. The Biological Basis for BehaviorThe basis for individuality The nucleus of the cell contains 23 pairs or 46 intotal chromosomes. Each chromosome contains countless tinybodies called genes. Each chromosomes and each gene in thechromosome are paired to provide thecharacteristics of the person. One pair of gene is dominant while the other isrecessive.June 6, 2013 47PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  48. 48. Patterns of Development There are certain patterns in the developmentof the organism both in uterus and after birth. The new organism unfolds according to two setplans; it grows and develops as follows:1. Cephalocaudally: development proceeds fromhead to tail.2. Proximimodistally: individual structure showsgrowth and development from the midpointto the extremities, or from proximate parts tothose that are more distant.June 6, 2013 48PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  49. 49. Patterns of development contd…1. Input Process Information receiving, or sensation, serves as abasis for behavior. The part the age factor plays in the reception ofstimuli concerns us here2. Central ProcessPsychological developments includingperception, learning, mental ability, conceptformation, problem solving, language ability,etc.June 6, 2013 49PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  50. 50. Patterns of development contd…3. Output: Psychomotor activities- Psychomotor activities are those actionsinvolving some voluntary movement of thebody ranging from fine manual hardiness tomore complex co-ordination of limb andtrunk movements.- Psychomotor skills show a change over lifespan of individual.June 6, 2013 50PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  51. 51. • Personality Development• Mental health• Retirement• Interest & AttitudeJune 6, 2013 51PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  52. 52. Personality pictureJune 6, 2013 52PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  53. 53. • Personality is defined as the enduring personalcharacteristics of individuals.• The shaping of the personality of the individual is doneby many forces, the primary ones originating within thefamily.• personality also colors our values, beliefs, andexpectations .• Hereditary factors that contribute to personalitydevelopment do so as a result of interactions with theparticular social environment in which people live.June 6, 2013 53PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  54. 54. • More serious or affective responses are part of theproblem of psychopathology, the study of mentaldiseases.• About 25 percent of a old age disorders such assenile brain disability.• No more than 2 percent of the older group canexpect to be hospitalized for mental illness.June 6, 2013 54PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  55. 55. Retirement Retirement is the point where a person stopsemployment completely. A person may also semi-retire by reducing work hours. Nowadays most developed countries havesystems to provide pensions on retirement in oldage, which may be sponsored by employersand/or the state. A person may retire at whatever age they please.However, a countrys tax laws and/or state old-agepension rules usually mean that in a givencountry a certain age is thought of as the"standard" retirement age.June 6, 2013 55PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  56. 56. Retirement PictureJune 6, 2013 56PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  57. 57. Famous People Who Have Had Mental Illness Hans Christian Anderson, Ludwig VonBeethoven, Winston Churchill, Kurt Cobain,Charles Darwin, Emily Dickenson, ThomasEdison, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Betty Ford, PaulGauguin, King George III, Johan Goethe, ErnestHemingway, Victor Hugo, Ignatius of Loyola,Thomas Jefferson, John Keats, Abraham Lincoln,Martin Luther, Michelangelo, FlorenceNightingale, King Saul, Robert Louis Stevenson,Sir Isaac Newton.June 6, 2013 57PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  58. 58. Interest & Attitudes The interest s of the young are differentiatedmore on the basis of sex. Boys are moreappeal in football, fishing, marbles, etc.whereas girls play house, sew, and play atcooking. Adolescents keep somewhat the samepatterns of masculine and feminineinterests but with some close parallels atcertain points.June 6, 2013 58PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  60. 60. Attitudes of society Prevalent views of individuals and groups in society usuallyappear with particular “themes” for each ageing group. Attitudes are usually oversimplified in presenting a pictureof “typical” behavior. In our society the elder male has been the one whooccupies the position of responsibility ,and legalrestrictions ,for instance, follow suit. Organization pressure the older workers to leave and makeroom for the younger ones on the treadmill behind themmakes the company policy more emphatic.June 6, 2013 60PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  61. 61. Socio economic influences.The attitudes in different strata of society, if they aredifferent ,help in shape the person in that level orgrouping accordingly..When the broader social influences arising from classplacement do play a role , their effects are perpetuatedthrough future generations.June 6, 2013 61PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  62. 62. Child-rearing practices Parents in higher socio economic levels havetraditionally been among the first to adopt thosepractices of rearing children which have beenpromoted by “experts” and have done so with greaterenthusiasm. Middle class parents are more prone to stressachievement and encourage education. The correlation in attitudes between the children andtheir teachers was even lower than in first twocomparisons.June 6, 2013 62PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  64. 64. Beyond the family There are influences beyond those arising from thesocial placement of the family as individuals areexposed to agencies outside the home, particularly theschool. Children from broken homes or disrupted familiesmay find release in school or play activities. May be enrolled in different vulgar activities like drugaddiction ,girls trafficking etcJune 6, 2013 64PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  65. 65. Involved in addictionJune 6, 2013 65PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  66. 66. Mental illness The classic study of community and its byHollingshead and redlich(1958) found a relationshipbetween class placement and types of mental illness. Psychos were most often diagnosed in the lowerclasses by age 55 a ratio of 7 ti1 was found between theupper and lower class levels in the community.June 6, 2013 66PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  67. 67. Picture of mental illnessJune 6, 2013 67PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  68. 68. Physical Disability In the physical area the same relationshipbetween social economic status and health arepresent. The lower income groups, when this taken as anindication of socioeconomic level show a higherdisability rate. This point out a clear basis insocioeconomics factors rather than ethnic orracial ones.June 6, 2013 68PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  69. 69. 7. Achievement Questions of occupational achievement orproductivity do not occur in a society untiladulthood. The age span is considered meaningful.- Employment patterns with age1. Job productivity2. Professional achievement- Other factors in achievement1. Absenteeism2. Reassignment- AccidentsJune 6, 2013 69PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  70. 70. 8. Age-Recapitulation General statements about the abilities of theindividuals of different ages are generallystereotypes. Differences between people of the same age maybe great due to social and personality differences. There may be wide variation in basic physicalfactors as well. Selye (1956) has noted that the amount of “wearand tear” to which the person has been exposed,not time elapsed since birth, is a true measure ofphysiological ageing.June 6, 2013 70PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  71. 71. Conclusions Though there are many similarities in human beings,there is not yet a single case of 100% identical person inthis world due to varying level of nature and nurturefactors affecting the formation, and development ofindividual life. Individual means different from others. Human life represents a beautiful pattern ofdevelopment of differences across the life cycle. Level of interest, attitude, desire, strength, intellect,etc. differs across various spans of human life. Keeping an elderly person in the manufacturingassembly line would be considered as unethical ashiring a minor as a labor.June 6, 2013 71PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  72. 72.  Unit 3: Cultural Behavior1. Concept and dynamics2. Relation social constructs3. Common social responsesJune 6, 2013 72PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  73. 73. CONCEPT AND DYNAMICS1. Meaning and importance ofculture2. Cultural dynamics andchange3. Development process4. Cultural lagsJune 6, 2013 73PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  74. 74. Meaning and importance of culture Culture is a set of rules of or standards sharedby members of a society, which when actedupon by the members produce behavior thatfalls within a range of variation the membersconsider proper and acceptable. Culture is a social way of functioning of peopleon something brought in practice over time. Culture is the learned way of living which istransmitted socially from generation togeneration and person to person over a certainduration.June 6, 2013 74PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  75. 75. Cultural dynamics and change The very nature of culture is the transformationthat is initiated under changing environment. All the patterns of human behavior undergotransformation as the micro as well as macrolevel social structural system goes on changing. Cultural dynamism brings home newer andmore innovative ways of living making livesmore colorful and prosperous. Dynamism is vital for development.June 6, 2013 75PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  76. 76.  Change is initiated through newer humancontacts by means of migration, war ,trade ,foreign or new community based workingopportunities and exploration. Similarly, climatic change, ecological changesand struggle for survival also bring in changesin humanity and its behavior. Equally important is the innovation andtechnological development.June 6, 2013 76PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  77. 77. Development process(cultural dynamism drives forward the developmental process)1. Enculturation: the process whereby a developing personis molded by the culture is enculturation.2. Acculturation: the process of change toward the newcultural form is called acculturation.3. Assimilation: when the newer members areincorporated into the broad stream of functioning of thegeneral society, it may be said that assimilation has takenplace.4. Integration: assimilation implies integration into thecommunity.June 6, 2013 77PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  78. 78. Culturallags Cultural lag is an essential outcome ofcultural dynamism. Cultural gaps are developed down betweenthe earlier and later generations due togeneration gaps and newer innovation andtechnological development.June 6, 2013 78PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  79. 79. The broad socialstructuralvariables thatinitiate for thepromotion ofintact socialrelationshipsamong similarsocial groups.June 6, 2013 79PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  80. 80. Race Race refers to the possession of certainbiological characteristics on which aclassification is made, a somewhat arbitrary andvery often superfluous and meaninglessprocess.June 6, 2013 80PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  81. 81. Nationality Nationality is a purelypolitical conceptreferring to allegianceto a political entity.One may be labeledsimply by identifyingthe boundaries of thecountry of which one isa citizen.June 6, 2013 81PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  82. 82. Ethnicity An ethnic group is one which isdistinguished from the generalpopulation on the basis ofdifferences in culture. Many ethnic groups may existwithin the boundaries of oneparticular country. Countries like Yugoslavia, India,etc. have many groupsdemonstrating cultural variationthrough the differences inlanguage, religion, attitudes,values, norms and dress as well.June 6, 2013 82PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  83. 83. Society A society is a largeaggregate of people whohave a way of life incommon, a settledexistence, and can bedefinitely located on ageographic basis. Society refers to a groupwhile culture indicatespatterns of behavior.June 6, 2013 83PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  84. 84. June 6, 2013 PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE 84 Language in global workplace Fashion and interpersonal discourses Personal and family status and its presentation inthe developing and developed societies Differences in perception over some crosscultural communication system Official arrangement, location management andlanguage and symbols used across the world Use of silent languages across the world
  85. 85. June 6, 2013 PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE 85 Cultural dynamism ultimately results in thedifferentiating political and economic patternsacross the world These patterns also bring in the changes innational fundamental structure.
  86. 86. June 6, 2013 PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE 861. Cultural pattern in simple and large societies2. Cross-cultural communication
  87. 87. Difference between responses Large societies1. Individualism2. Focused on gainingprosperity for self3. Productivity focused4. Evolution of multi leveldiversity5. Sources of learningchange6. Intergenerationalexploration7. Complex political andeconomic patterns Simple societies1. Collectivism2. Focused on development ofthe societies at large3. People focused4. Promotion of years longtradition and values5. Destination for imitatingchange6. Generational gaps7. Simple political andeconomic patternsJune 6, 2013 87PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  88. 88. June 6, 2013 PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE 881. Culture represents diversity2. Getting fit into a new culture is a moresystematic and critical process.3. Cross-cultural communication, dynamism, andsocial responses show the varying social patternsin which human life passes on.4. In work places, diversity and cross-culturalcommunication plays a vital role in individualand group success.
  89. 89. June 6, 2013 89PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  90. 90. 1. Social structure.2. Social Organization.3. Individual Differences.4. Social Stratification.5. Social Institutions.June 6, 2013 90PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  91. 91. Social structure refers to the patterned socialarrangements which form the society as awhole, and which determine, to some varyingdegree, the actions of the individualssocialized into that structure. For e.g. Being a doctor he/she should notdrink alcohol but some variation form his/herprofessional and personal life amongst thedoctor there may be some who can drinkalcohol in his/her personal life.June 6, 2013 91PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  92. 92.  Social structure may also be defined asthe socialties that bind individuals,groups and social systems. Social structuring does not only advocateon binding all members, but it alsoadvocate on how a differentiatedstructure is composed by establishingnumerous social groups on the basis ofthe homogeneity within heterogeneity.June 6, 2013 92PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  93. 93. WHAT ARE THE BASES OF STRUCTURINGOn the basis of individual variablesa. Ageb. Sexc. Raced. Skillse. Tenuresf. othersJune 6, 2013 93PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  94. 94. On the basis of Nationalitya. Asianb. Americanc. Europeand. Easterne. Westernf. Nepaleseg. Non-NepaleseJune 6, 2013 94PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  95. 95. On the basis of Developmenta. Developed societiesb. Underdeveloped societiesc. Negrosd. Red Indians and so on.June 6, 2013 95PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  96. 96. On the basis of Religion, Ethnicity andCulturea. Hindusb. Islamsc. Open societiesd. Closed societiesJune 6, 2013 96PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  97. 97. On the basis of Professiona. Professional associationsb. Unionsc. Federations, etc.June 6, 2013 97PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  98. 98. Definition: Social organization is the people in a societyconsidered as a system organized by acharacteristic pattern of relationships. Social organization refers to a group of socialpositions, connected by social relations,performing a social role. It simply refers to the patterns how individualsare arranged in social structures. For example; Rotary club, Nepalese Children’sEducation FundJune 6, 2013 98PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  99. 99. A. Forms of Social Organizationa. Kinship refers to the bond of membership in the family.Family enterprises are still popular worldwide.b. Status refers to the individual person’s place in a socialorganization.c. Fealty denotes the individual member’s relationshipwith other members based on trust, loyalty and mutualbenefits.d. Coordination refers to the arrangement of members indifferent social structure settings.e. Contract is based on exchange of one promise foranother.June 6, 2013 99PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  100. 100. B. Levels of OrganizationWe may identify three levels of social organization.a. Interpersonal levelb. Group levelc. Systems or social orderJune 6, 2013 100PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  101. 101. 3. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCEThe people differ from each other isobvious. How and why they differ is lessclear and is the subject of the study ofIndividual differences. Although to studyindividual differences seems to be to studyvariance, how are people different.It is also to study central tendency, howwell can a person be described in terms ofan overall within-person average.June 6, 2013 101PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  102. 102. The bases of individual differentiation areThe basic grounds of individual differentiation are;a. Status is simply a collection of rights and duties. A personhas more than one status. i.e A man who is a dutifulhusband, is also a father and a son.b. Role represents the dynamic aspect of status. When aman puts the rights and duty which constitute the statusinto effect, he is performing a role.c. Prestige is the evaluation of status and the role thataccompanies the basis for a ranking.June 6, 2013 102PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  103. 103. 4. Social InstitutionsDefinition:An institution is any structure or mechanismof social order and cooperation governing thebehavior of a set of individuals within a givenhuman community.The term "institution" is commonly applied tocustoms and behavior patterns important to asociety, as well as to particular formalorganizations of government and publicservice.June 6, 2013 103PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  104. 104. Types of Social Institutions:Political Institutions.For e.g.; Nepal congress party, YCL, etcEconomic Institutions.For e.g.; business, industry, etcEducation.For e.g.; school, college, tuition centre,etcThe Family.June 6, 2013 104PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  105. 105. 5. Social StratificationSocial stratification is ranking someindividuals and groups as more deserving thanothers; from this a social hierarchy is formedwhich is a set of ranked statuses from highest tolowest.Social stratification is also a form ofinequality in which categories of people aresystematically ranked in a hierarchy on the basisof their access to scarce but valued resources.For example: age, race/ethnicity, gender, etcJune 6, 2013 105PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  106. 106. BASES OF STRATIFICATIONObjective evaluationSubjective placementReputational selectionJune 6, 2013 106PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  107. 107. Objective evaluation For e.g.; objective tests are scored by scanningmachines and computers. Objective tests are oftenconstructed with selected-response item formats, suchas multiple-choice, matching, and true-false.June 6, 2013 107PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  108. 108. Subjective placementFor e.g.; When a man sees a beautiful women heimmediately places value on her, he does thissubjectively, the amount of value that he places on hercannot be measured, it is a subjective placementJune 6, 2013 108PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  109. 109. Reputational selectionIt is a broader and sometime more ambiguous attemptto get persons in the community to act as judges andassign rankings to members of that community on thebasis of criteria those judges have developedJune 6, 2013 109PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  110. 110. Conclusions Social structure is as relationships betweendifferent entities or groups or as enduring andrelatively stable patterns of relationshipemphasizes the idea that society is grouped intostructurally related groups or sets of roles, withdifferent functions, meanings or purposes. One example of social structure is the idea of"social stratification", which refers to the ideathat society is separated into different levels,guided by the underlying structures in thesocial system.June 6, 2013 110PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  111. 111.  This approach has been important in theacademic literature with the rise of variousforms of structuralism. It is important in the modern study oforganizations, because an organizationsstructure may determine its flexibility,capacity to change, and many other factors. Therefore, structure is an important issue formanagement.June 6, 2013 111PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  112. 112. UNIT 5: SOCIAL PROCESSConceptCausesApplicationSocial Process and HumanBehaviorPU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 112
  113. 113.  A society or a human society is a group of peoplerelated to each other through persistent relations suchas social status, roles and social networks. A large social grouping that shares the samegeographical territory and is subject to the samepolitical authority and dominant cultural expectations.Concept of SocietyPU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 113
  114. 114. SOCIETYPU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 114
  115. 115. There are many perspectives developed advocatingabout human beings in a society.Primarily, Anthropology and Polictical Science playthe most dominant role in such studies.Human being in a societyPU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 115
  116. 116.  Societies are most often organized according totheir primary means of subsistence. Social scientists have identified hunter-gatherersocieties, nomadic pastoral societies,horticulturalist or simple farming societies, andintensive agricultural societies, also calledcivilizations. Some consider industrial and post-industrialsocieties to be qualitatively different fromtraditional agricultural societies.AnthropologyPU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 116
  117. 117.  Societies have also been organized according to their politicaland class hierarchy from the beginning of civilization as seen byhumans. The combination of men and their resources in an affectivemanner to take the decision for the betterment of the society as awhole is the ruling of a civilization. Political science is a social science concerned with the theoryand practice of politics and the analysis of political systems andpolitical behavior. In order of increasing size and complexity, there are bands,tribes, chiefdoms, and state societies. These structures may have varying degrees of political power,depending on the cultural geographical, and historicalenvironments that these societies must contend with.Political SciencePU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 117
  118. 118.  Human is a social creature and learns many behavioralaspects from the society itself. Social values and norms make up for the society to act asa foundation for behavioral transformation. Society serves as a source of human nurturing. For example: Two twins who share similar genetic codeone adopted in an American family and an Indian familywill have opposite behavior where one is conservativeand thinks more of the society where as another is a freeperson who think his interest is above that of others.Human Behavior in a Social ProcessPU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 118
  119. 119.  In this presentation we will study in detail what are thevarious factors that make the human being in a societywhat he is today. How does the changes in the society, generation andthe views of the individual that bring upon thechanges in the society and the social process itselfJune 6, 2013 PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE 119Objective
  120. 120. Every Path is DifferentPU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 120
  121. 121.  Development of the social individual Aggregate Social Process Collective Behavior Social Mobility Population Dynamic Conflict & DisintegrationSOCIAL PROCESSPU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 121
  123. 123. Socialization, what it is Socialization is a term used by sociologists, socialpsychologists, anthropologists, politicians andeducationalists to refer to the process of inheriting norms,customs and ideologies. It may provide the individual with the skills and habitsnecessary for participating within their own society; asociety itself is formed through a plurality of shared norms,customs, values, traditions, social roles, symbols andlanguages.PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 123
  124. 124.  Socialization is the primary means by which humaninfants begin to acquire the skills necessary to performas a functioning member of their society, and is themost influential learning processes one canexperience]. In simple words, socialization refers to gettingfamiliar with a new group or societySocialization (contd.)PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 124
  125. 125.  The rules that every society uses to point out what kindof behavior is desirable or appropriate are called norms. The guidelines for behavior are based on cultural valuesof the social system at large. Norms are fundamental in socialization. In this processthe child incorporates the values of the society byfollowing the rules given to him by the society.Conformity to normsPU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 125
  126. 126.  Conformity to norms are learned and are rewarded insocial appraisal. Complying with the social norms is one of the pre-requisites of socialization process. Acceptance is very important in this respect.Conformity to norms (contd.)PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 126
  127. 127.  The aggregate social process is all the factors of thesociety that come with various factors in an aggregateform in order to make up an individual fit into thesociety. Change is the single driver of overall social process. Change in individuals, groups and society is obviousfor development and prosperity.AGGREGATE SOCIAL PROCESSESPU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 127
  128. 128. Change as a Basic Processi. Concept of changeii. Social Changeiii. Change in Groupsiv. Individual Factors in changePU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 128
  129. 129. Social Change Social change refers to an alteration feature of the socialorder Social change is a very basic term and must be assignedfurther context. It may refer to the notion of social progress or socio culturalevolution. The philosophical idea that society moves forward bydialectical or evolutionary means.PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 129
  130. 130. ChangePU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 130
  131. 131.  It may refer to a paradigmatic change in the socio-economic structure. For instance, a shift away fromfeudalism and towards capitalism. Change also may be referred to as social revolution,such as the Communist revolution presented inMarxism, or to other social movements, such asWomens suffrage or the Civil rights movement.Social Change (contd.)PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 131
  132. 132. Change in groupsThe process of change in small groups and organizationsoccupies the attention of researchers as the critical nature ofthe process is recognized in the light need to functioneffectively in the midst of rapidly developing social andtechnological event.The response to change are conditioned both by individualfactors and those relating to the nature.Socialization and conformity to norms may have closerrelation with the change in groups.PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 132
  133. 133.  Individual Factors in change1. Attitude: It varies from person to person and may lead tochange.2. Motivation: This impacts every individual differently assome are quickly motivated and some are not.3. Age: This is without a doubt the most important factor tochange as it links also with knowledge and maturity.4. Similarly, other equally important individual factorsinfluencing change are interest, task achievement, rolestatus in the group and perceived rationality of being themember of the group. Why have I been the member of thisgroup?PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 133
  134. 134. 1. Accommodation: The process of adjustment that takes placewhen individuals accede to various compromises or developworking relationships in order to be able to functiontogether is called accommodation.2. Assimilation: The melting of individuals with previouslydiverse backgrounds into the general society to the generalsociety to the point where attitudes and values are heldcommonly in that society is called Assimilation.3. Alienation: is a tendency of a worsening of relations. One ofthe key reasons of it is increasing gap between union andcompany in a deteriorating labor dispute.PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 134
  135. 135. 1. Integration: When used with respect to socialorganization in it’s broadest outlines, refers tothe amount of contact existing between socialgroups within the society is known asintegration.2. Isolation is known as the lack of integration inthe society. Isolation of groups within a societyis a matter of degree, since complete isolation isnot possible if a society exists.3. Anomie: A “normlessness” that results from anindividual departure from group values isanomie.June 6, 2013 PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE 135
  136. 136. Collective behavior is non institutionalized,unconventional group activity such as panics,crazes, mass delusions, incited crowds, riots, andreform or revolutionary movements.A sociological approach to collective behaviorfocuses on social conditions such as politicalstructures and shared beliefs as these conditionsinfluence patterns of collective behavior.Collective BehaviorPU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 136
  137. 137.  Emotional Contagion Broad PatternsFactors in Collective BehaviorPU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 137
  138. 138.  This means the mood the individual in a group or crowd have incommon. Emotional contagion is the tendency to catch and feel emotionsthat are similar to and influenced by those of others. One view developed by John Cacioppo of the underlyingmechanism is that it represents a tendency to automaticallymimic and synchronize facial expressions, vocalizations,postures, and movements with those of another person and,consequently, to converge emotionally. A broader definition of the phenomenon was suggested by SigalG. Barsade, "a process in which a person or group influences theemotions or behavior of another person or group through theconscious or unconscious induction of emotion states andbehavioral attitudes.”Emotional ContagionPU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 138
  139. 139. This is often the emotional and shifting behaviorseen in mass action that adds to ourunderstanding of social behavior even thoughmuch of collective activity may be more routineand less dramatic than the activity that makesheadlines1. Crowds2. Panic3. RumorPU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 139
  140. 140.  Crowds A crowd is a large and definable group of people, while"the crowd" is referred to as the so called lower ordersof people in general (the mob). A crowd may be defined on the basis of a commonpurpose or set of emotions, such as at a political rally, ata sports event, or during looting, or simply be made upof many people going about their business in a busyarea (eg, shopping). Everybody in the context of general public or thecommon people is normally referred to as the masses.Proximate (contd)PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 140
  141. 141.  PanicPanic is a sudden sensation of fear which is so strong asto dominate or prevent reason and logical thinking,replacing it with overwhelming feelings of anxiety andfrantic agitation consistent with an animalistic fight orflight reaction.Panic may occur singularly in individuals or manifestsuddenly in large groups as mass panic (closely related toherd behavior).Proximate(contd)PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 141
  142. 142.  RumorA rumor is often viewed as "an unverified account orexplanation of events circulating from person to person andpertaining to an object, event, or issue in public concern“However, a review of the research on rumor conducted byPendleton in 1998 found that research across sociology,psychology, and communication studies had widely varyingdefinitions of rumor.Thus, rumor is a concept that lacks a particular definition inthe social sciences.But most theories agree that rumor involves some kind of astatement whose veracity is not quickly or ever confirmedProximate(contd)PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 142
  143. 143. 1. Fashion2. Fads3. Crazes4. Boom5. Social MovementBroad Influence ProcessPU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 143
  144. 144.  FashionFashion may be defined as a socially sanctionedvariation in material form or activity. Changes inclothes, style, music art, is often seen in our culturewhere fashion plays an important role. FadsA limited or more superficial manner of dress or otherbehavior is known as fads. These come quickly and goquickly. They have less acceptance than fashion. Craze is a form of fad eg hippie eraPU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 144
  147. 147. FADS (HIPPIE era)PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 147
  148. 148.  Boom A boom-bust cycle is an episode characterized by asustained increase in several economics indicatorsfollowed by a sharp and rapid contraction. Commonly the boom is driven by an rapid expansionof credit to the private sector accompanied with risingprices of commodities and stock market index. Following the boom phase, asset prices collapse and acredit crunch arises, where access to financingopportunities are sharply reduced below levelsobserved during normal times. The unwinding of the bust phase brings a considerablylarge reduction in investment and fall in consumptionand a economic recession may follow.PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 148
  149. 149.  Social Movements Social movements are a type of group action. They are large informal groupings of individualsand/or organizations focused on specific political orsocial issues, in other words, on carrying out, resistingor undoing a social change.PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 149
  150. 150.  Career Mobility Generational Mobility Other Factors In MobilitySOCIAL MOBILITYPU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 150
  151. 151.  The upward or downward mobility in an occupation orthe change from one occupation to another. People do move from one place to another and fromone occupation to another but they often do not movevery far from their occupation or profession.Career mobilityPU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 151
  152. 152.  Generational mobility is a measure of the changes insocial status which occurs from the parents to thechildrens generation. It can effect anyone in the population, as one’seconomic standing can increase or decrease from theposition they were born into. Our society is constantly changing, and because of thisvarious opportunities can cause one to advance ordigress in their economic standing. One’s talents can cause them to surpass the economicposition into which they were bornGenerational mobilityPU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 152
  153. 153.  Fertility Migration UrbanizationPOPULATION DYNAMICSPU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 153
  154. 154. Fertility and mortalityDemography, the study of the population, provides afurther basis for the discussion of social dynamics,changes in the population arising from variation s inthe birth rate or the drop in the mortality with thetechnological development can have profound socialresults.It also supports age mix.PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 154
  155. 155. MigrationWhen people moves from one place to another, eitherinternal or external, then it is said to be migration.Types of migration Internal migration External migrationPU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 155
  156. 156. Urbanization The move from cottage to the factories increasedurbanization. Cities have grown because they provide diversifiedservice to the inhabitants, but such a diversity mayhave undesirable consequences in the conflicts itproduces. Urbanization has been concomitant ofindustrialization and commercialization.PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 156
  157. 157.  Family pattern Community conflict Crime and delinquency Industrial conflictConflict and DisintegrationPU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 157
  158. 158. Family pattern Family is the first and most fundamental socialize ofthe vidual, any conflict should begin from thisprimary unit of the society. Environmental stresses on the family occurs theconflict and disintegration, such as unemployment.PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 158
  159. 159. Community conflict The competing elements in the community provide abasis for the emergence of conflict. Frustration in a rapidly changing set of intergroupconditions provide an emotional basis for conflict. However the social loss in discrimination is extensive.PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 159
  160. 160. Crime and delinquency Crime is the behavior that violates the criminal law.Delinquency is the similar activity by a juvenile. This is the behavior that deviates from official normsand is disruptive of the legal order. It is the social disorganization that should come to theattention of duly constituted agents of the state and beacted on with all the machinery available to them.PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 160
  161. 161. Industrial conflict Industrial conflict involves various parties to dispute-workers,management and the political bodies. The most visible form of the industrial conflict, the strike,represents only the small part of the total discord. The bases for industrial conflicts lie in the fundamental factorsin individual and social behavior. Frustration, aggression and counter aggression have been welldocumented. Means of conflict resolution must incorporate consideration ofthese dynamics.PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 161
  162. 162. The major conclusion that we have come to assemblefrom our study are as follows: Society plays as a major nurture role in the development ofan individual. The masses may also bring a change in the views of anindividual as the individual may sacrifice his own needs tobecome a part of the mass. Time changes the society and its principles whichautomatically brings a change in individuals.ConclusionsPU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEJune 6, 2013 162
  163. 163.  We have reached to the end of our presentationby concluding that society and individuals areinterlocked with each other where changes in onedirectly affect the other. The differences we see in various society and theimpact of individuals on society has always beenthe leading factor of the proper functioning ofhuman beings.June 6, 2013 PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE 163Final Conclusions on Social Process
  164. 164. June 6, 2013 164PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE Attitude Values & Norms Prejudice Job Attitude & Satisfaction
  165. 165.  Meaning and importance, formation of attitudes,measurement of attitudes, consistency inattitudes, attitude change Meaning and importance values and other factorscategories of norms, variations in norms Characteristics, bases of prejudice, reduction ofprejudice Job satisfaction factors in job satisfaction, jobsatisfaction and performanceJune 6, 2013 165PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  166. 166. Attitudes and ValuesAttitudeAn attitude is a predisposition to react, positively ornegatively, to a person, place, or circumstances.It may also be defined as the tendency (learning) torespond to a particular situation.Two main elements of attitude are, thepredisposition and the direction of thatpredisposition.June 6, 2013 166PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  167. 167. OpinionAn opinion is the expression of one’sjudgment of a particular set of facts, anevaluation of the circumstancespresented to him.June 6, 2013 167PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  168. 168. Attitude vs. Opinion Attitude generates stimuli by the help ofpredisposition. Stimuli helps one to judge a particular set offacts, or the evaluation of facts. Opinion is the final outcome of thisjudgment.June 6, 2013 168PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  169. 169. Beliefs A belief is the acceptance of a statement or a set ofcircumstances. Beliefs are much stronger than the opinions. Beliefs are less affected by the pro or con positionsfundamental in attitude, than are opinions.June 6, 2013 169PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  170. 170. Attitude, opinions, and beliefs are closely tiedtogether in real life that it is difficult to separatethem except on a limited conceptual basis.The literature shows a high degree of overlapbetween them.June 6, 2013 170PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  171. 171. • Norms are rules to govern the behavior ofthe members in a group.• It is also guidelines or directions whichhelps to know what is accepted orprohibited in the society.• Norms are dependent on values.June 6, 2013 171PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  172. 172. Categories of normsa. Formal or institutionalizedb. Informal or uninstitutionalizedVariation in norms• Change in pace• Informal norms may be violating• Difference norms in different society• University alterationJune 6, 2013 172PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  173. 173. Values The basic convictions that a specific mode ofconduct or end-state of existence is personallyor socially preferable to an opposite or conversemode of conduct or an state of existence isreferred to as value. For example, serving customers withtruthfulness vs. cheating them.June 6, 2013 173PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  174. 174. Value System A hierarchy based on a ranking of anindividual’s values in terms of their intensity. For example, generation-wise faith on God;older generation has more faith whereas thenewer generation has less. For newer American society, the elderly peopleare just a burden.June 6, 2013 174PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  175. 175. Types of ValuesTerminal Values: The desirable end-states ofexistence; the goals a person would like toachieve during his/her life time.Instrumental Values: The preferable modes ofbehavior means of achieving one’s terminalvalues.June 6, 2013 175PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  176. 176. Where do we get values from? our homes, school, society, friends, TV, church, music, books, families, culture, employers, time-period in which you wereraised (70’s anti-establishment,peace, individuality. 80’s money,prestige, don’t get caught, etc.90’s earth, green peace, healthand fitness), etc.June 6, 2013 176PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  177. 177. Some examples of valuesMoralMaterialAestheticIntrinsicExtrinsicUniversal/AmericanGroup specific valuesJune 6, 2013 177PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  178. 178. Moral DevelopmentJune 6, 2013 178PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  179. 179. June 6, 2013 179PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  180. 180. “It’s not doing thingsright,but doing the rightthings. “June 6, 2013 180PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  181. 181. Prejudice Is making a decision about a person or group ofpeople without sufficient knowledge Pre-judging Based on stereotypes Is an attitude Are not born being prejudice Is learned. Causes discriminationJune 6, 2013 181PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  182. 182. Stereotype Stereotypes are "mental cookie cutters"--theyforce a simple pattern upon a complex massand assign a limited number of characteristicsto all members of a group.Is a standardized conception or imageof a specific group of people or objects.June 6, 2013 182PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  183. 183. Stereotype Occurs without our awareness: Someadvertisements show mothers serving meals to theirfamilies (but very few show fathers doing this). Many television advertisements show young boysplaying with action toys such as trucks and super-herofigures (but girls are not shown doing this) Many magazine photographs and advertisements showteenage girls grooming themselves such as putting onmake-up, brushing their hair and generally worryingabout their appearance (but few show teenage boysdoing these things).June 6, 2013 183PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  184. 184. Objects can be stereotyped as well.Places :-"All inner cities arecorrupt and sinful."•"Small towns are safeand clean." •"InEngland, it rains allthe time.”Things :-“All American cars arecheaply and terriblymade.""A good house has alarge lawn, big garage,and at least twobathrooms."June 6, 2013 184PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  185. 185. Attitudes and Job SatisfactionJune 6, 2013 185PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  186. 186. AttitudesEvaluative statements or judgments concerningobjects, people, or events.Three components of attitude include:AttitudeBehavioralCognitiveAffectiveThe emotional orfeeling segmentof an attitudeThe opinion orbelief segment ofan attitudeAn intention tobehave in a certainway toward someoneor somethingJune 6, 2013 186PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  187. 187. What are the Major Job Attitudes? Job Satisfaction A positive feeling about the jobresulting from an evaluation of itscharacteristics Job Involvement Degree of psychologicalidentification with the job whereperceived performance is importantto self-worth Psychological Empowerment Belief in the degree of influence overthe job, competence, jobmeaningfulness, and autonomyJune 6, 2013 187PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  188. 188. Are These Job Attitudes Really Distinct? No, these attitudes arehighly related. Variables may beredundant (measuringthe same thing under adifferent name) While there is somedistinction, there isalso a lot of overlap.June 6, 2013 188PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  189. 189. Job Satisfaction One of the primary job attitudes measured. Broad term involving a complex individual summationof a number of discrete job elements. How to measure? Single global rating (one question/one answer) - Best Summation score (many questions/one average) - OK Are people satisfied in their jobs? In the U. S., yes, but the level appears to be dropping. Results depend on how job satisfaction is measured. Pay and promotion are the most problematic elements.June 6, 2013 189PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  190. 190.  Pay influences job satisfaction only to a point. After about $40,000 a year (in the U. S.), there is norelationship between amount of pay and jobsatisfaction. Money may bring happiness, but not necessarily jobsatisfaction. Personality can influence job satisfaction. Negative people are usually not satisfied with their jobs. Those with positive core self-evaluation are moresatisfied with their jobs.Causes of Job SatisfactionJune 6, 2013 190PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  191. 191. Employee Responses to DissatisfactionExit• Behaviordirected towardleaving theorganizationVoice• Active andconstructiveattempts toimproveconditionsNeglect• Allowingconditions toworsenLoyalty• Passivelywaiting forconditions toimproveActivePassiveConstructiveDestructiveJune 6, 2013 191PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  192. 192. Outcomes of Job Satisfaction Job Performance Satisfied workers are more productive AND moreproductive workers are more satisfied! The causality may run both ways. Organizational Citizenship Behaviors Satisfaction influences OCB through perceptions offairness. Customer Satisfaction Satisfied frontline employees increase customersatisfaction and loyalty. Absenteeism Satisfied employees are moderately less likely to misswork.June 6, 2013 192PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  193. 193. More Outcomes of Job Satisfaction Turnover Satisfied employees are less likely to quit. Many moderating variables in this relationship. Economic environment and tenure Organizational actions taken to retain highperformers and to weed out lower performers Workplace Deviance Dissatisfied workers are more likely to unionize,abuse substances, steal, be tardy, and withdraw.June 6, 2013 193PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  194. 194.  Individual and Individualism Individualism and Freedom Organization and Its Social Responsiveness Society and Role of Individual and Organization in theSocietyUnit 7: Individual, Organization and SocietyJune 6, 2013 194PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  195. 195.  Concept. Cause of individual freedom. Escape from freedom. Individuals are vulnerable to anxiety. Application of individualism and freedom.Individualism and freedomJune 6, 2013 195PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  196. 196.  Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, orsocial outlook that stresses "the moral worth of the individual". Individualists promote the exercise of ones goals and desires and soindependence and self-reliance while opposing most externalinterference upon ones own interests, whether by society, family orany other group or institution. Freedom is the available scope for agents to make choices freefrom certain kinds of constraints. Historically, the constraint ofdominant concern has been the metaphysical constraint ofdeterminism. The opposing positions within that debate are metaphysiclibertarianism, the claim that determinism is false and thus thatfree will exists (or is at least possible); and hard determinism, theclaim that determinism is true and thus that free will does notexist.Individualism and freedomJune 6, 2013 196PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  197. 197.  Free from the constraints of a restrictive social orpolitical structure. Development of behavioral sciences. Individual to adopt the personality patterns. It is the dizziness of freedom. Ideas, decision making, etc.Individualism and freedomJune 6, 2013 197PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  198. 198.  Individuals operating within larger social structures. Social impact of organizational activities. Individualism and organization. Old concept. Grand strategy.ORGANIZATIONJune 6, 2013 198PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  199. 199.  Freedom and autonomy are being framedincreasingly around the relationships. Providing a basis for personal growth oractualization. Feeling toward individualism and organization. Individual can find full opportunity for selfexpression. Experience dependence and submissiveness.Organization contd…June 6, 2013 199PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  200. 200.  Social responsibility is an ethical ideologyor theory that an entity, be it an organization orindividual, has an obligation to act to benefit thesociety at large. Responsibility can be passive, by avoiding engagingin socially harmful acts, or active, by performingactivities that directlyadvance social goals. Consumers have become more conscious of whomthey are doing business with and which productsthey should buy. Many companies who are looking for long-termprofitability are looking for ways to become moresocially responsible.Social responsibilityJune 6, 2013 200PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  201. 201. Corporate Social Responsibility isthe continuing commitment bybusiness to behave ethicallyand contribute to economicdevelopment while improving thequality of life of the workforce andtheir families as well as of the localcommunity and society at largeJune 6, 2013 201PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  202. 202. • Individual Level Challenges• Organizational Level Challenges• Social Level ChallengesJune 6, 2013 202PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  203. 203.  Individual challenges are challenges you do on yourown (you do not need to belong to a team toparticipate) Challenges Who are we? What do we do? What we’ve done? What we think?Individual ChallengesJune 6, 2013 203PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  204. 204.  Organizational Behavior is the study and applicationof knowledge about how people, individuals, andgroups act inorganizations. Challenges The truth Leadership Success maker and breaker We can assist you Leadership create cultureOrganizational ChallengesJune 6, 2013 204PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  205. 205. 1. THE TRUTHThe truth is organizational challenges/problems/difficulties donot come in nice, tight and neat packages as stated above.Organizational challenges today come crashing collectively inrelentless waves and it is up to leadership at every level - fromthe Board, to the CXOs, to the Directors, Mangers,Supervisors and Junior Executives to raise their capabilities todeal with these challenges and deliver profitably in theseincreasingly demanding times.2. LEADERSHIP IS THE KEYAll intelligent human being know that leadership has alwaysbeen and will always be the key differentiator betweensuccessful and unsuccessful organizations. Therefore theorganizations that will thrive in the future will be those whosuccessfully groom leaders at all levels independent ofposition and title.June 6, 2013 205PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  206. 206. 3. SUCCESS MAKER OR BREAKERWe have moved into the era where personal, visionary and inspiringleadership is the success-maker and the lack of it a certain success-breaker.4. WE CAN ASSIST YOUWe can assist you set up your organization for the levels ofsuccess you desire through our practical, cutting-edge, best-practices-factored, principled-based, immediately-actionable,core-knowledge approach to delivered specific, measurable,tangible and intangible desired results.5. SUCCESS MAKER OR BREAKERWe have moved into the era where personal, visionary andinspiring leadership is the success-maker and the lack of it acertain success-breaker.June 6, 2013 206PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  207. 207.  Feeling isolated Distance from family Dealing with ignorance Establishing healthyrelationship with thepeopleSocial ChallengesJune 6, 2013 207PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  208. 208. Feeling isolatedAny new faculty member can feel isolated, as a result of moving to anew location and working long hours, mostly independently. Toovercome these feelings, reach out:Host a potluck party for all of the other new faculty members (or thosein the sciences, if you are at a very large institution), early in the term.Find out about international students on campus: do they have a socialorganization? When does it meet? Go and introduce yourself.Distance from familyWebcasts can be free and provide a great way to see and interact withfolks at a distance, not just hear them. For example, you can drawcollaborative pictures with children far away on the computer and talkwith them at the same time.June 6, 2013 208PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  209. 209. Dealing with racism/ignoranceWhile you may never have to deal with this kind of intolerance, its bestto be prepared. Proactively build a network of friends/supporters atyour institution by reaching out to colleagues.Teach them about your culture as you learn about theirs.Work to create cultural exchanges on your campus, perhaps through theoffice of multicultural affairs.Establishing healthy working relationships with studentsTake some guidance from your senior colleagues here, but rememberthat your relative youth may already provide a less formal atmospherethan that of those colleagues.Dont confuse being popular with doing a good job!June 6, 2013 209PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  210. 210. Please think for the ‘system’ and then ‘teams’ rather thanonly for ‘self’June 6, 2013 210PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  211. 211. Transform in self, teams, and organizational systems willhappen through good behavior and relationshipsJune 6, 2013 211PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  212. 212. Each one of you are especially natured and nurtured to be adifferent individual with respect to human universalityJune 6, 2013 212PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  213. 213. Teaching learning of Behavioral Science at WhitehouseGSM under my stewardship is aimed to develop a morecompetent, skilled and humane individuals to make them‘fit’ in more diverse and challenging work situations andenvironment across the world, forever.- Chandra P Rijal, PhD in LeadershipJune 6, 2013 213PU BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE