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  1. 1.  1 1 © J. Sommer 2004   “You’ll never get me up on one of those butterfly things.” Change ManagementChange Management  What is it?  What are the barriers to change?  How can you help?  Change strategy  People are different Why do you think the caterpillar does not want to be a butterfly?
  2. 2.  2 2 © J. Sommer 2004   there are many different responses and answers, including:  Caterpillars have no need to fly. They are well-grounded!  Caterpillars can eat anything green and find food everywhere.  Butterflies are a stage beyond caterpillars.  Butterflies have to fly to get anywhere. Caterpillars can crawl and climb.  It's easier for butterflies to develop perspective than caterpillars.  We can attempt to resist and suffer the stress and difficulties.  You have to stop being a caterpillar in order to become a butterfly.  Change is not always a conscious decision. Change will occur, inevitably.  We can choose to be active participants in change. Or not, maybe.  We go through stages of development and butterflies are one stage closer to death.  Risk avoidance is normal.  Change is often actively resisted.  Change is inevitable.  Caterpillars don't like wings.  Caterpillars must hate flying since they don't try.  There is a need for vision and perspective -- we're all on a journey.  Caterpillars focus only on eating and survival.  Butterflies get blown around by the wind and caterpillars can drag their feet!  Metamorphosis is an uncontrollable process with an unclear result.  Metamorphosis is a dark, damp, confined place, so I'm scared!  and my favorite answer: I'll NEVER be a butterfly; My mother was a moth. Teaching the caterpillar to fly – S. J. Simmerman
  3. 3.  3 3 © J. Sommer 2004   Quick: You work for an organization that is spending millions of dollars on a very important new process that will completely change how you work, and who you work with and require you to think about your job in a totally new way! The success of the company depends on you and your co-workers. Go knock ’em dead tiger! - Catherine Rezak “The Alignment Factor”
  4. 4.  4 4 © J. Sommer 2004   Nestle executive in a 2002 interview with CIO magazine the executive summarized what the company had learned. “No major software implementation is really about software. It’s about change management… When you move to SAP, you are changing the way people work… You are challenging principles, their beliefs and the way they have done things for many years” Jon Madonna, CEO KPMG Marwick in Jumping the Curve “Nothing stops an organization faster than people who believe that the way they work yesterday is the best way to work tomorrow. To succeed, not only do your people have to change the way they act, they’ve got to change the way they think about the past.” Niccolo Machiavelli The Prince 1532 “There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success, than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things.” ““Thoughtable QuotesThoughtable Quotes ©©””
  5. 5.  5 5 © J. Sommer 2004   Quality of the Change Initiative X Alignment of People = Results Michael Fischer; Kimberly Clark
  6. 6.  6 6 © J. Sommer 2004   Change ManagementChange Management A planned approach to integrating change which includes formal processes for assessing the impact of the change on both the people it affects and the way they do their jobs. Application of techniques to gain acceptance and understanding of the change and change behavior to take advantage of the new functionality. Change is the interplay among various forces that are involved in growing something new. Deep change comes only through real growth – through learning and unlearning. 70% of all change initiatives fail due to failure to address human component of change. HBR by Michael Beer & Nitin Nohria True stability results when presumed order and disorder are balanced. A truly stable system expects the unexpected and is prepared to be disrupted, wants to be transformed. – Tom Robbins
  7. 7.  7 7 © J. Sommer 2004   Implementation of large scale business transformation initiatives, likeImplementation of large scale business transformation initiatives, like SAP, by nature result in significant and fundamental change...SAP, by nature result in significant and fundamental change... CHANGE MANAGEMENT Helps Determines How People Will React To These Changes, And Therefore, The Ultimate Success Of The Transformation of the VISION, KNOWLEDGE, & RESPONSIBILITY  How people do their jobs changes  What the job, work content is may change  Who people work with and report to may change  The tools (systems, reports, etc.) of the job and how people interface with them change  Implementing the initiative requires additional, unfamiliar work, maybe in unfamiliar locations  New skills, behaviors will be required  Employee assignment  Controls (over process and information) will change  How information is provided, accessed, and shared will change
  8. 8.  8 8 © J. Sommer 2004   PhasesofChange Phase Description Shock and Surprise Confrontation with unexpected situations. This can happen ‘by accident’ (e.g. losses in particular business units) or planned events (e.g. workshops for personal development and team performance improvement). These situations make people realize that their own patterns of doing things are not suitable for new conditions any more. Thus, their perceived own competence decreases. Denial and Refusal People activate values as support for their conviction that change is not necessary. Hence, they believe there is no need for change; their perceived competency increases again. Rational Understanding People realize the need for change. According to this insight, their perceived competence decreases again. People focus on finding short term solutions, thus they only cure symptoms. There is no willingness to change own patterns of behavior. Emotional Acceptance This phase, which is also called ‘crisis’ is the most important one. Only if management succeeds to create a willingness for changing values, beliefs, and behaviors, the organization will be able to exploit their real potentials. In the worst case, however, change processes will be stopped or slowed down here. Exercising and Learning The new acceptance of change creates a new willingness for learning. People start to try new behaviors and processes. They will experience success and failure during this phase. It is the change managers task to create some early wins (e.g. by starting with easier projects). This will lead to an increase in peoples perceived own competence. Realisation. People gather more information by learning and exercising. This knowledge has a feedback-effect. People understand which behavior is effective in which situation. This, in turn, opens up their minds for new experiences. These extended patterns of behavior increase organizational flexibility. Perceived competency has reached a higher level than prior to change. Integration People totally integrate their newly acquired patterns of thinking and acting. The new behaviors become routine.
  9. 9.  9 9 © J. Sommer 2004   Phases of ChangePhases of Change Oliver Recklies
  10. 10.  10 10 © J. Sommer 2004   Moving beyond the barriers to changeMoving beyond the barriers to change 1. Expect resistance 2. Remember the “20-50-30” rule 3. Get resistance out into the open 4. Choose opening moves carefully 5. Explain the rationale for change 6. Provide a clear aiming point 7. Promise problems 8. Beware of bureaucracy 9. Wear your commitment on your sleeve 10.Take care of the “me” issues 11.Alter the reward system to support change 12.Seek opportunities to involve your people 13.Over-communicate 14.Make sure people have the know-how needed 15.Track behavior and measure the results 16.Outrun the resisters Price Pritchett; “Resistance – Moving beyond the barriers to change” 1996
  11. 11.  11 11 © J. Sommer 2004   J. M. Juran’s AnalogyJ. M. Juran’s Analogy Juran likens the team to the bee crashing into the window over and over again until it falls from exhaustion. Resistance to a project can be invisible unless they are sensitized to the existence of a cultural pattern.
  12. 12.  12 12 © J. Sommer 2004   Expect ResistanceExpect Resistance Resistance is the common side effect of change. It has been said people do not resist change, they resist being changed. What complicates the picture is that different individuals and groups react in different ways at the same time to the same change. Change triggers the organization’s immune system sort of like antibodies. Resistance can be valuable by defending the health of the organization and individuals. But it can also cause problems. Resistance is a very reliable barometer to measure the impact of change, but not a good gauge of how appropriate the change may be.
  13. 13.  13 13 © J. Sommer 2004   Change Friendly 20% Resister 30% Fence Sitter 50% 20-50-30 Rule20-50-30 Rule Generally time is best spent trying to woo the fence sitters, BUT you must manage the Resisters. Never presume you must have buy-in from everyone before moving forward. For some, buy-in will only come later (if at all) after the results are in which prove the change was both appropriate and successful.
  14. 14.  14 14 © J. Sommer 2004   Categories of resistersCategories of resisters Understand who are the roadblocks to change 1. Those who call attention to themselves – high profile in their resistance. Make most noise generally smallest group. 2. Moderates. Some disguise it to be politically correct. Normally largest group. 3. Undercover. Resist on the sly, subversive resistance many time through others. The most dangerous type. They demonstrate signs of passive resistance with stronger undertones.
  15. 15.  15 15 © J. Sommer 2004   —Enthusiasm —Cooperation —Cooperation under pressure —Acceptance —Passive resignation —Indifference —Apathy; loss of interest in the job —Doing only what is ordered —Regressive behavior —Non-learning —Protests —Working to rule —Doing as little as possible —Slowing down —Personal withdrawal (increase time off) —Committing “errors” —Spoilage —Deliberate sabotage Acceptance — Indifference — Passive Resistance — Active Resistance — Spectru Arnold S. Judson, Changing Behavior in Organizations: Minimizing Resistance to Change
  16. 16.  16 16 © J. Sommer 2004   Resistance guidelinesResistance guidelines Always make it safe and easy for people to open up Operate from premise that people resist for what they consider good reasons. Evaluate the legitimacy, understand the reasons. Get beyond superficial answers to the true issues (root cause – Ask the 5 Why’s) Try to understand their position, most resist for good reasons Listen to them, they may really be an ally and prevent you from doing something dumb. Treating resisters with respect and dignity may alone keep resistance from escalating. Discounting it gives them the feeling they must fight. Disallowing it will drive it underground.
  17. 17.  17 17 © J. Sommer 2004   Choose your opening moves carefullyChoose your opening moves carefully  Subtle approach - change quietly and gradually under the radar Middle of the Road - slow start then accelerate. Bold & Dramatic to shock the organization and overcome inertia. Know your organization and people. Opening move is crucial. The way you start says a lot about the way you finish. Wrong initial messages can cause irreparable harm. Need to help people pass through the transition phase and convert initial emotions into positive ones of hope, motivation and enthusiasm.
  18. 18.  18 18 © J. Sommer 2004   Explain the rationale for changeExplain the rationale for change  Resistance is rooted in lack of understanding Give Vision, objectivity & perspective Give them the logic that is driving the change The change should tie to business, departmental, personal objectives. Don’t expect everyone to “get it” if you explain it only once or twice “Breaking form for the sake of breaking form is only an empty gesture unless the context, the stuff inside the form is intrinsically special and unique.” - The Republic of Tea
  19. 19.  19 19 © J. Sommer 2004   Provide a clear aiming pointProvide a clear aiming point  Well defined and understandable goals Provide a clear map, a picture of the future that is clear not fuzzy Aiming point should be desirable for the business and people. Needs a good marketing campaign. Change needs to be purposeful for people to commit Change should be a bridge to the Vision “If you don't know where you are going, you might wind up someplace else.” - Yogi Berra
  20. 20.  20 20 © J. Sommer 2004   Promise problems – uncomfortable transitionPromise problems – uncomfortable transition Resistance spikes when issues arise During the “sales pitch” of the project be honest about what is coming Create a project “Warning Label” Better chance handling problem if known ahead of time Attitude “turn lemons into lemonade” can do approach to handling problems Everyone is either part of the problem or part of the solution – be part of the solution "In the transition from being a caterpillar to becoming a butterfly, for a time you're nothing more than a yellow, gooey sticky mess."
  21. 21.  21 21 © J. Sommer 2004   Beware of bureaucracyBeware of bureaucracy resisters are not only peopleresisters are not only people Bureaucracy is politics, systems, processes; anything that bogs down the organization. Its primary virtue is to stabilize, providing structure. It can have a habit of reproducing itself – without removing out dated bureaucracy. Encourages doing things the same as always. Beware of “informal” networks. “We cannot become what we want to be by remaining what we are.” - Max DePree “Things are this way because they got this way and unless things change, things will continue to remain the same.”
  22. 22.  22 22 © J. Sommer 2004    Ambiguity, Uncertainty  Confusion  Renegotiation of power  Shifting roles and responsibilities  Elimination of Not Invented Here  Think out of the box  Solicit input, feedback  Go fast - decide and move forward People will often resist change because they are comfortable with how things are, right now. Goals are set based on the Square Wheels. By identifying Square Wheels and Round Wheels, we increase discomfort with the way things are and we make change more likely. Risk comes from not changing. We need to make the round wheels useful. Change attributes in conflict with bureaucracy “And after all, how would we know we were making any progress if things didn’t go ‘Thump, Thump?’” - Scott J. Simmerman “Don’t let the sound of your own wheels drive you crazy” – The Eagles
  23. 23.  23 23 © J. Sommer 2004   Wear commitment on your sleeveWear commitment on your sleeve People will “test the limits” looking to find their own proof of how serious you are about the change. Once you have settled on a course of action you must be obvious, passionate and determined to follow through. EFFECT (to bring about or execute) not just AFFECT (to influence) Which is really committed to breakfast?
  24. 24.  24 24 © J. Sommer 2004   Take care of “me” issuesTake care of “me” issues  People want to know how it will affect me Toughest thing to deal with is not knowing Lack of adequate communication results in rumors and increased number of resisters People instinctively start to resist change when they can’t draw a bead on what’s about to happen to them Initial emotions are fear, denial, shock, resentment, stress, cynicism over latest flavor-of-the-month program, negative prior experience of similar project, etc. “There’s nothing I’m afraid of like scared people” - Robert Frost
  25. 25.  25 25 © J. Sommer 2004   Team Lessons from Geese V FormationTeam Lessons from Geese V Formation Encourage them to learn from the V-team.  - Agree on the goal.         - Work as a team. Don’t create drag.     - Be willing to help others.   - Be willing to get help from others. - Do all you can with your talents, knowledge and abilities.   - Be willing to lead.      - Be willing to let others lead.         - Honk to encourage each other.              - Stand by those who get sick or wounded along the way. In the fall when you see geese heading south for the winter flying along in the "V" formation, it has been learned that as each bird flaps its wings, it creates an uplift for the bird immediately following. By flying in a "V" formation, the whole flock adds at least 71% greater flying range than if each bird flew on its own.
  26. 26.  26 26 © J. Sommer 2004   Alter reward system to support changeAlter reward system to support change ?Do people perceive they will lose in the change process? ?Will work be harder for a time, longer? More work? ?Initially will there be more job stress? ?Does hanging on to old habits make good sense to people? ?Are the compensation criteria aligned to the new or old system? Give people eye-catching reasons to do things differently. Pass out “psychological paychecks” (praise, honor, attention, awards, etc.) to supporters. Consider if negative reinforcement is needed for those fighting the change. Make it visible.
  27. 27.  27 27 © J. Sommer 2004   Seek opportunities to involve peopleSeek opportunities to involve people Change is more likely to be accepted if we don’t think it is being forced upon us without representation Look for opportunities to involve people, for them to have a role However; “Change by committee” gets clumsy. Don’t want to set the false expectation that all must agree or all must have input before the change will occur. The good news is if they see representative involvement and are given proper communication, their concerns are more likely to be addressed
  28. 28.  28 28 © J. Sommer 2004   Spectrum —Making and implementing decisions —Task assignments with accountability —Formulating proposed plans and solutions to problems —Planning groups —Task forces —Analysis of problems and alternatives —Task forces —Formally established councils or committees —Group suggestions and recommendations —Formally established councils or committees —Informal groups —Individual suggestions —Face to face discussions of problems —Face to face invitations to voice opinions —Electronic exchanges —Attendance at briefings —Inclusion on distribution lists —Read project communications Part of Decision Making Process Part of Planning and Design Input to Planning and Design Consultation Input Inclusion Passive Active Arnold S. Judson, Changing Behavior in Organizations: Minimizing Resistance to Change
  29. 29.  29 29 © J. Sommer 2004   Over CommunicateOver Communicate Somebody once said; “The more unpleasant the message the more effort should go into communication” Failure to communicate will fuel the rumor mill.  Multiple modes of communication  Multiple types of communication  Frequent and consistent messages  Listen, provide a means to have a two-way street  A direct correlation between quality of communication and resistance
  30. 30.  30 30 © J. Sommer 2004   Make sure people have the know-how neededMake sure people have the know-how needed What do people do most when they don’t know what to do? What looks like obstinacy or lack of cooperation on the part of your people may prove to be a simple lack of know-how. Fears of becoming obsolete, unclear expectations, inability to perform to prior levels, failure. They may decide it is best to do nothing as opposed to doing something wrong. May find what they think is short cut and instead harm another part of the process. “Tell me and I forget, Show me and I remember, Involve me and I learn”. - Anonymous Learning not Training
  31. 31.  31 31 © J. Sommer 2004   Experiential Learning ProcessExperiential Learning Process  Vision, Big picture  Learner driven, team based  Build insight  Allow time for reflection& internalization  Mistakes are a tool for learning  Nurture new mental models Average Retention Rate
  32. 32.  32 32 © J. Sommer 2004   Track behavior and measure resultsTrack behavior and measure results Major change efforts require monitoring. Things go wrong and unexpected situations develop. Be flexible, adaptable, responsive. Some resistance is telling you the game plan has flaws. Other resistance is a hindrance to the success of the project. You need to differentiate. Need to track: Time tables Deliverables Uncooperativeness Attitudes Destructive Criticism Drifting off course or regressing back to old ways Circumventing system in place with “back room” processes. "It is a bad plan that admits of no modification." — Publilius Syrus First Century BC
  33. 33.  33 33 © J. Sommer 2004   Outrun the resistersOutrun the resisters Resisters rely on a strategy of delay. They hate fast. They hope slow turns into stop. Evan after the decision has been made they want to sit down, talk things over, weigh risks again…again, consider other options, ruminate over what might possibly go wrong and value deliberation. In today’s business slow change doesn’t have a very high success rate. There are far more failures from going too slowly that from exceeding some imaginary speed limit. “It gets late early out there” – Yogi Berra
  34. 34.  34 34 © J. Sommer 2004   How can you help?How can you help? Everyone who is part of implementing the change management process is a Change Agent (“seed carriers”). The next slide illustrates the desirable characteristics for a change agent.
  35. 35.  35 35 © J. Sommer 2004   Change AgentsChange Agents
  36. 36.  36 36 © J. Sommer 2004   The Blue Hat is used to manage the thinking process. It's the control mechanism that ensures the Six Thinking Hats® guidelines are observed. The Green Hat focuses on creativity; the possibilities, alternatives, and new ideas. It's an opportunity to express new concepts and new perceptions. The Red Hat signifies feelings, hunches and intuition. When using this hat you can express emotions and feelings and share fears, likes, dislikes, loves, and hates. The Yellow Hat symbolizes brightness and optimism. Under this hat you explore the positives and probe for value and benefit The White Hat calls for information known or needed. "The facts, just the facts.“ The Black Hat is judgment - the devil's advocate or why something may not work. Spot the difficulties and dangers; where things might go wrong. Probably the most powerful and useful of the Hats but a problem if overused. A process to engage people in a constructive manner to creatively solve problems
  37. 37.  37 37 © J. Sommer 2004   MANAGING CHANGE CHANGE LEVERS MAXIMS TO LIVE BY P R E S E N T S T A T E F U T U R E S T A T E PREPARING for CHANGE (Awareness & Desire):  Why do we need to change?  What is the present state like?  What is the future state like?  What is going to change?  How will affect me?  What are our risks/problems?  Who are the resistors?  What will be the keys to success? IMPLEMENTING CHANGE (Knowledge & Ability):  What is our change process?  How do we involve people?  How do we best internalize changes?  How do we best use our change levers?  How do we position change as a opportunity?  How do we implement new roles, skills and abilities?  How do we minimize the negative impact to people and business? CEMENTING the CHANGES (Reinforcement):  Monitor behavior & results  Implement reward system  Have all concerns been surfaced and addressed?  Are the sponsors champions of the project?  Is the 2-way communication system working effectively?  Are the 6 Thikning Hat principles being used?  Is the learning system effective?  Is the organization ready?  Clear understanding of the need for change  Quality of leadership  Commitment of Sponsors  Clear vision of future & Strategy  Change Structure  Effective 2 way communication  Measurement systems  Infrastructure aligned  Reward systems aligned  Organizational structure aligned  Skill of change agents  Communicate, communicate, communicate  Continuous improvement is key to success  We'll keep trying until we get it right  Invest in Quick Wins & Celebrate successes  Everyone is different, capitalize on it  Think outside the box, experiment  Create ownership and involvement  Walk the talk  Hold people accountable  Utilize 6 Thinking Hats approach MANAGING CHANGE Copyright Richard M. DiGeorgio Modified by John Sommer  Vision, Big picture  Learner driver, team based  Build insight  Allow time for reflection& internalization  Mistakes are a tool for learning  Nurture new mental models TRAINING
  38. 38.  38 38 © J. Sommer 2004   Communication Executive Committee Core Team Field Team Users Project Management Vision Rationale Support Vision Rationale Support Integrate the change ChangeManagementRolesforSoftwareImplementation Configur e TrainTest Design Identify Changes Project Communication Executive Sponsor Change Management Teams Champion Action Plans Issue Resolution Timely Decisions Positive Reinforcement Communication
  39. 39.  39 39 © J. Sommer 2004   Working the people componentWorking the people component change is about peoplechange is about people We need to understand the people in order to implement an effective strategy of change management. The next set of slides focus on understanding personality types. There are various methods to determine a person’s personality type. I present one, PCM, in this presentation. The objective is to increase the awareness of differences and complexities of people. While it is great to know everyone’s type in order to best understand how to interact, gaining a better understanding of yourself will also be of tremendous benefit.
  40. 40.  40 40 © J. Sommer 2004   "If you want them to listen to what you say, talk their language." Taibi Kahler, Ph.D. The Process Communication Model (PCM) provides a reliable and validated method of identifying and understanding personality structures, life passages, and communication dynamics. Based on a scientific award–winning clinical discovery PCM has been researched through thirty years and experienced by half a million people on five continents in such applications as sales, business, education, politics, religion, medicine, parenting, and personal relationships. Individual personality structure is comprised of six, separate and mutually exclusive behavior types, called Workaholic, Reactor, Persister, Rebel, Dreamer, and Promoter. Likened to a six-floored condominium, personality structure is ordered, indicating the relative amount of time a person experiences and demonstrates the behaviors of a given type floor.
  41. 41.  41 41 © J. Sommer 2004   PCM ExamplePCM Example Workaholic Persistor Dreamer Rebel Promoter base current
  42. 42.  42 42 © J. Sommer 2004   PCM DemographicsPCM Demographics 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 % Female Male Total Pop Workaholic Reactor Persister Dreamer Rebel
  43. 43.  43 43 © J. Sommer 2004   WORKAHOLIC PERSONALITY  Perception: Thinks first; identifies and categorizes people and things.  Character strengths: Logical, responsible and organized.  Examples: Mr. Spock, Des Cartes, Jonathan Hart, HAL, Emily Bronte, George Washington Carver, Joan Crawford, Joe Friday  % of U.S. Population: 25%; 25% are female, 75% are male.  Facial Expressions: Horizontal lines on the forehead.  Office/Home: Organized, functional, orderly, contemporary; Awards, certificates, plaques displayed. Everything in its place.  Traits: Ability to think logically; takes in facts and ideas and synthesize them.  Management Style: Democratic  Channels of Communication: Requestive REACTOR PERSONALITY • Perception: Feels first; takes in people and things by feeling about them. • Character strengths: Compassionate, sensitive and warm. • Examples: E.T., Mr. Rogers, Jennifer Hart, Uncle Remus, Dr. "Bones" McCoy, C3PO, Lassie, Dinah Shore, Barney • % of U.S. Population: 30%; 75% are female, 25% are male. • Facial Expressions: Half moon lines over the eyes • Office/Home: Cozy, soft, nest-like; plants, family pictures, pleasant smells, comfortable furniture, soft colors, soothing music. • Traits: Ability to nurture, be empathic and to give to others. Good at creating harmony. • Management Style: Benevolent • Channels of Communication: Nurturative PERSISTER PERSONALITY • Perception: Judges first; evaluates people and things with opinions. • Character strengths: Dedicated, observant and conscientious • Examples: Martin Luther King, Mother Teresa, Madame Curie, Superman, Florence Nightingale, Archie Bunker, Eleanor Roosevelt. • % of U.S. Population: 10%; 25% are female, 75% are male. • Facial Expressions: Furrows between the eyes. • Office/Home: Functional; traditional furniture, period pieces, antiques or oriental motif. • Traits: Ability to give opinions, beliefs, judgments. • Management Style: Democratic • Channels of Communication: Requestive DREAMER PERSONALITY • Perception: Reflections; is motivated externally • Character strengths: Imaginative, reflective and calm. • Examples: Clark Kent, Charlie Brown, Gary Cooper, Radar O’Riley, Forrest Gump, Greta Garbo, Albert Einstein • % of U.S. Population: 10%; 60% are female, 40% are male. • Facial Expressions: Smooth face, few lines even with age. • Office/Home: A place to work or live, plain, rustic, no frills; environment is not that important. • Traits: Ability to be introspective; works well with things, tasks. Usually very adept with work requiring hand skill. • Management Style: Autocratic (receives) • Channels of Communication: Directive (receives) REBEL PERSONALITY • Perception: Reacts to people and things with likes and dislikes. • Character strengths: Spontaneous, creative and playful. • Examples: John Belushi, Dennis the Menace, James Dean, Scarlett O’Hara, Hawkeye Pierce, Lucy, Snoopy, Genie (in Aladdin) • % of U.S. Population: 20%; 60% are female, 40% are male. • Facial Expressions: Smile lines around the eyes and mouth. • Office/Home: Full of stimulation, posters, games, toys, lights and sounds. • Traits: Ability to play and enjoy the present. • Management Style: Laissez Faire • Channels of Communication: Playful PROMOTER PERSONALITY • Perception: Action oriented. • Character strengths: Adaptable, persuasive and charming. • Examples: Tokyo Rose, P.T. Barnum, Errol Flynn, Preston Tucker, James Bond, Snydley Whiplash, Marco Polo, Calamity Jane • % of U.S. Population: 5%; 40% are female, 60% are male. • Facial Expressions: Ruddy complexion. Uses expressions to make a point. • Office/Home: Thick carpets, stuffed chairs, trophies, blacks and reds. • Traits: Ability to be firm and direct. • Management Style: Autocratic • Channels of Communication: Directive
  44. 44.  44 44 © J. Sommer 2004   WORKAHOLIC PERSONALITY PHASE Psychological Needs: Requires being recognized for thinking and for accomplishments. "Good work," "Great idea," "A job well done." Requires time structure. Wants to know deadlines. Distress Sequences: 1st Degree: Expects self to be perfect. Doesn’t delegate well. 2nd Degree: Frustrated with people who don’t think clearly enough. Over controls with criticisms about money, order, fairness or cleanliness. (I’m OK… You’re not OK.) 3rd Degree: Rejects others: "They can’t even think." REACTOR PERSONALITY PHASE Psychological Needs: Requires being recognized as a person. "I care about you," "Do you like me for me?" Requires an environment that pampers the senses. Distress sequences: 1st Degree: Over adapts and pleases others in an attempt to be accepted. 2nd Degree: Feels confused, makes mistakes or invites criticism. (I’m not OK…You’re OK.) 3rd Degree: Gets rejected: "I didn’t feel wanted." PERSISTER PERSONALITY PHASE Psychological Needs: Requires conviction/belief recognition. "I admire that about you." "I value your opinion." Requires work recognition. "Great job." Distress Sequences: 1st Degree: Expects others to be perfect. Focuses on what is wrong instead of what is right. 2nd Degree: Frustrated with people who don’t share beliefs. Pushes beliefs (preaches at) or crusades. Righteous and suspicious. (I’m OK…You’re not OK.) 3rd Degree: Forsakes others: "They don’t have any commitment." DREAMER PERSONALITY PHASE Psychological Needs: Requires having private time and own space. Distress Sequences: 1st Degree: Experiences having to be strong. Spreads self too thin. 2nd Degree: Feels shy, inadequate, embarrassed and withdraws. (I’m not OK… You’re OK.) 3rd Degree: Gets left out: "Nobody told me what to do." REBEL PERSONALITY PHASE Psychological Needs: Requires playful contact. Enjoys humor. Likes stimulating fun environment. Distress Sequences: 1st Degree: Tries to understand or tries do something. Invites others to think or do the thinking for them. Delegates inappropriately. 2nd Degree: Gets kicked, becomes angry, and blames. (I’m OK…You’re not OK.) 3rd Degree: Gets censured: "I’ll show you." PROMOTER PERSONALITY PHASE Psychological Needs: Requires incidence, a great deal of excitement in a short period of time. Distress Sequences: 1st Degree: Expects others to fend for themselves. Doesn’t adequately support people. 2nd Degree: Bends or breaks the rules. Vindictive. Manipulates with believing that the end justifies the means. (I’m OK…You’re not OK.) 3rd Degree: Abandons others: "Can’t take it, huh?"
  45. 45.  45 45 © J. Sommer 2004   Now go forth and teach others to flyNow go forth and teach others to fly Go to the people Learn from them Love them Start with what they know Build on what they have But of the best leaders When their task is accomplished Their work is done The people will remark: "We have done it ourselves." 2000 Year Old Chinese Poem

Notes de l'éditeur

  • GSS include