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7 f2015 Mercantiism, the Commonwealth Navy, and War

  1. War and Mercantilism Commonwealth Navy First Anglo-Dutch War 1652-1654 Anglo-Spanish War 1654-1660
  2. Mercantilism • Thomas Mun (1571-1641) • Emphases – Acquisition of gold and silver – Balance of trade – State Intervention
  3. First Crude Estimates of National Account
  4. Aspects • Monopolizing markets with staple ports • Banning the export of gold and silver • Forbidding trade to be carried in foreign ships • Forbidding colonies to trade with other nations • Subsidies for manufacturing and exports • Maximizing the use of domestic resources
  5. Commonwealth Navy • Administration – Admiralty Committee • Generals of the sea – Qualifications • Loyalty • Military record • Naval experience not necessary
  6. Generals-at-Sea Edward Popham (d. 1651) Richard Deane (d. 1653) Robert Blake (d. 1657) George Monck John Disbrow William Penn (dismissed, 1665) Edward Montague Vice-admirals James Peacock (d. 1653), Richard Badiley (d. 1657)
  7. Manning the Navy • Preference for gentry as captains • “Tarpaulin captains” "Better plain men than none" Cromwell • Rewards for seamen from captured ships • Problems – Poor food and clothing – Impressment
  8. Classes of Captains • Seaman “tarpaulin captain” – Merchant, craftsman, – Serve apprenticeships • Gentleman – Court background, younger sons of gentry – Sometimes served short time as crew; often sailed as volunteers
  9. Classes of Captains A seaman captain takes up less of the shipp for his accommodation. A gentleman captain claims the steridge for his grandeur, quarter deck for his pidgeons etc. A seaman is familiar amongst his men, talking to severall on the watch, is upon deck all night in foul weather, gives the most active a dram of his bottle. A gentleman has a sentinall at his great cabbin doore (to keep silence in the belfry) and oft times beates his master for not comeing to him forthwith when hee rings his bell in the night...."
  10. Daily Rations 1622 1689 Bread/biscuits 1 lb. 1 ½ lb Beer 1 gallon 1 gallon Meat 2 lb salt beef 1 lb pork and peas 4 days/week 2 lb Haddock 3 days/week Butter and cheese 2 oz. butter 4oz. cheese 3 days/week 8 oz./month
  11. Shipbuilding 1649-1651 20 new ships; capture or buy 25 ships • Frigates Fast, light ships
  12. Challenges for the Commonwealth Navy • Pirate and privateer attacks on Mediterranean shipping – French – Barbary Coast states • Royalists in exile under Prince Rupert • Dutch
  13. Dealing with Royalists Abroad • Attack Portuguese shipping to sway Portugal to not harbor Royalists under Prince Rupert • 1651 Scilly Isles • 1651 Jersey – Amphibious landing at night
  14. Convoys October 1650 Rump Parliament passes act authorizing naval ships in convoys 1651 First Mediterranean convoy
  15. Dutch Navy 1648 Peace of Münster between Dutch Republic and Spain ends 80 years of conflict – Lifting of Spanish embargo – Widening split between House of Orange and Republic – Dutch reduce size of their navy – Increase in Dutch trade in the Mediterranean Competition with English trade
  16. Dutch Advantage • Could ship colonial goods more cheaply • Offered a greater variety of products • Had sugar colonies in Brazil and then Suriname
  17. Navigation Act of 1651 English ships only for • Imported goods from Asia and Africa • Imported goods from non-English America • Exports from England's American colonies Imported fish or whale products had to be caught by English ships Imported goods from Europe had to arrive in in English ships or in ships coming directly from the producing country.
  18. Battles of the First Anglo-Dutch War
  19. First Anglo-Dutch War 1652 March 1652 Immediate cause: English demand that Dutch ships strike their flags in the presence of an English warship and submit to search for contraband. Dutch resist. May Blake's fleet clashes with Tromp in the Channel. October Battle of Kentish Knock November Battle of Dungeness Tromp defeats divided English fleets
  20. England Naval Expenses
  21. October 1652, Battle of Kentish Knock
  22. March 1653, Battle of Leghorn
  23. First Anglo-Dutch War February 1653 Battle of Portland: English regain command of the Channel. July Battle of Scheveningen: last battle; Admiral Tromp killed; Dutch lose 30 men-at-war, 1,600 sailors February 1654 Netherlands States General the recognizes the Protectorate; peace
  24. July 1653 Battle of Scheveningen Death of Admiral Tromp
  25. First Anglo-Dutch War February 1654 Netherlands States General the recognizes the Protectorate; Negotiate peace
  26. 1654, Treaty of Westminster • Reciprocal indemnification for trade injuries • East India company remains blocked from East Indies • Secret provision excludes Prince William of Orange from government • Arbitration of disputes by Switzerland • Failure to get union of the countries and negotiate boundaries between Dutch and English colonies
  27. 1654 Anglo-French Conflict Robert Sedgwick plans to attack New Netherlands from Massachusetts Peace with Dutch With 100 MA volunteers & 200 English professionals attacks French forts Pentagouet, St. John & Port Royal (now Annapolis)
  28. Attempt to Control the Mediterranean 1655 Blake prevents French attack on Naples Diplomatic efforts with Tunis fail to get release of English captives Destruction of Tunisian/Turkish fleet at Porto Farina Ransom of English captives in Algiers
  29. Anglo-Spanish War- “Western Design” • Attack Spanish empire in the West Indies – William Penn, General of the Sea – Robert Venables, general of the land forces • Failed to capture Santo Domingo, Hispaniola • Went on to capture Jamaica
  30. Christopher Myngs (1625-66) • Claimed to be son of shoemaker (actually a landowner • Mediterranean in December 1651 with convoy • Second in command and then Captain of the Elizabeth in the First Dutch War • Brought settlers from Nevis to Jamaica
  31. Myngs • Suspected in playing a part in £200,000 to £300,000, missing after capture of a Spanish ship • Exonerated • Vice-admiral in Restoration Navy • Killed in 2nd Anglo-Dutch War
  32. Anglo-Spanish War 1656 Blockade of Cadiz and sinking of silver ships causes financial losses for Spain Raids on Vigo and Malaga 1657 Destruction of Spanish fleet at Santa Cruz but no attempt to take port
  33. Peace 1659 Peace of the Pyrenees – End of war between France and Spain 1660 After Restoration Charles II makes peace 1662 Sale of Dunkirk to France Consequences of war Jamaica Loss of English shipping trade Regain of Dutch shipping trade

Notes de l'éditeur

  1. The parliamentary navy was ordered by the Council of State on 22 February 1649 as follows: "that the ships at sea in service of the State shall onely beare the red Crosse in a white flag". The appropriate order was signed by Oliver Cromwell on 23 February. On 5 March 1649 the Council ordered "that the Flagg that is to be borne by the Admiral, Vice-Admiral, and Rere-Admiral be that now presented, viz., the Armes of England [Red St. George Cross on white] and Ireland [gold harp on blue] in two severall Escotcheons in a Red Flagg, within a compartment."
  2. East India Company and British merchants favored exports of bullion
  3. experienced officers of gentle birth were in short supply, a great many "tarpaulin captains" made their way forward in the navy; "Better plain men than none," as Cromwell put it religious indifference of most seamen "immunized them against heresy and sedition"
  4. In 1689 for example the men's daily rations consisted nf 1}, lb. of fresh bread or biscuit, 2 lbs. of fresh or salt meat. and 1 gallon nf been and 8 oz. of butter and cheese every month besides; in the year 1622 the daily rations were I ll). of his- cuits and I gallon of beer; 4 days in the week the men rc(‘ci\‘c«l 2 lbs. of salt beef or I H). of pork with peas. and 3 (lays in the week haddock. and 2 oz. of butter and .1. oz. of cheese; Ship's cheese quickly went rancid, cloaking the entire ship in a cloying cloud of noxious stench. If it didn't turn putrid, the cheese hardened like a rock, so sailors carved it with their knives into but- tons for their clothing. Vast quantities of cheese were hove over- board, considered too foul even for seasoned sailors. After subsisting for months on maggot-infested ship's biscuit made putrid by storage, briny, unwholesome water, mouldy cheese, roach-ridden porridge, and stale beer, the crews became weakened and succumbed to an array of illnesses.
  5. English ships were defined as those owned by Englishmen (including English colonists) and having a crew of over one half Englishmen (including English colonists).
  6. Dutch send naval fleet under Tromp to protect merchant ships.
  7. he English were initially successful and defeated the Dutch Vice-Admiral Witte de With in the Battle of the Kentish Knock, October of 1652. The English, mistakenly thinking the war was over, divided their ships and were surprised and routed by the fleet of Admiral Maarten Tromp at the battle of Dungeness in the English Channel.
  8. The battle of Scheveningen was the last engagement of the First Anglo-Dutch War. The death of the Dutch commander-in-chief, Marten Tromp, early in the battle, led to confusion in the Dutch fleet, which was heavily defeated, though the English fleet also had to return to refit. This was the first battle at which van de Velde the Elder was certainly present in his galjoot (a kind of small Dutch coasting vessel), in which he shows himself in his pen-painting of the battle BHC0277. The drawing is annotated by van de Velde in Dutch ‘de Leste charsije tegenover’ [altered from ‘ontrent’] ‘de Middach sijnde ontrent 2 urren’ [altered from ‘de Vier urren’] ‘& verliet tromp de groote steng ontrent middachs’ – in translation ‘The last pass near midday being about two o’clock and Tromp lost his main topmast about midday’