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Music Video

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Music Video

  3. 3. AS1: Task One: Understand the purpose of music videos: You will need to write about the following:  availability of artist  promotional  creating a brand  extension of income  extension of outlets (music channel, direct DVD and CD sales, website, download)  synergy (films, TV programmes)  the strategies producers’ use (major label, independent, artist self-produced)
  4. 4. Availability of Artist  In 1964, The Beatles starred in their first feature film A Hard Day's Night, directed by Richard Lester.  A year later in1965 they then began making promotional clips for distribution and broadcast in other countries.  They did so to enable them to promote their record releases without having to make in-person appearances.
  5. 5. Availability of Artist  It was only after the success of Queen’s "Bohemian Rhapsody" that it became regular practice for record companies to produce promotional videos for artists' single releases.  These videos could then be shown on television shows, such as Top of the Pops, without the need for the artist to appear in person.
  6. 6. Availability of Artist  Before promo video’s became popular if the artist was unavailable they would have their music broadcast and accompanied rather than dancers such as Pan's People.  Brian May said the video was produced:  A) so the band could avoid miming such a complex song on Top of the Pops.  B) as they would be unable to appear on the programme every week as they were scheduled to appear on tour (It was number 1 for 9 weeks).
  7. 7. Promotional  Music videos quickly became a key promotional tool for the artists and for some time this was there main function.  Fundamentally, a music video is an advertisement.  It is designed to draws attention to the music and illustrate the song.  Appeals to a visual audience
  8. 8. Appeals to a Visual Audience  PSY – Gangnam Style  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CH1XGdu-hzQ  Why is this a good example of a promo video?
  9. 9. Creating a Brand  Often artists/groups are sold as a brand and the music video acts as a product of the brand, in the hope that the audience will be inspired to “buy into the brand”  They often do this through the “mise-en-scene” and extend the “look” of the video” into the rest of their lives.  The artist will aim to have a consistent “image” across a range of platforms, music video, websites, cd covers, etc  For some artists the ‘image’ is of greater importance than the quality of the product. The Spice Girls are a good example of this.
  10. 10. Spice Girls  Each Spice Girl had their own identity.
  11. 11. Creating a Brand  Other times it is the song and the meaning of the song that is sold, and the artists ‘image’ has little to do with the sale of the song.
  12. 12. Marketing an image Compare the image of these two artists: Lady Gaga Adele
  13. 13. What makes it memorable?  Ok Go – “Here it Goes Again” “White Knucklers”  Lady Gaga “Born This Way”  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wV1FrqwZyKw  PSY – Gangnam Style  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CH1XGdu-hzQ  Why is this a good example of a promo video?  How does it achieve a range of different promotional aspects?
  14. 14. Extension of income  A Music Video provides a great opportunity to increase income.  Watching the video may encourage audiences to purchase a number of items; singles, albums, merchandise such as t-shirts, wristbands etc.  It raises the profile of the artist/group and thus encourages audiences to attend tours and/or festivals  It can be an opportunity for “product placement” e.g. Christine Aguillera & perfume (Not Myself Tonight)
  15. 15. Extension of outlets  The music video allows the artist to extend the outlets on which they are accessible through, For example:  Music channel  Website  Youtube  Smart Phones  Each of these increases the possibly of the audience becoming a fan
  16. 16. Synergy  Another purpose to the music video can be to provide opportunities for Synergy  Synergy is what happens when two media products work together to mutually benefit each other.  For example:  Skyfall  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=StJLvbPIvTw  Both Adele and the producers of Skyfall stand to benefit from this arrangement.  The film promotes Adele’s song and Adele’s music video promotes the film. This is an example of Synergy.
  17. 17. The End of the Music Channel?  With competition from a variety of online platforms, music channels are no longer the strong promotional platforms they once were.  In many ways the music video channel is in danger of becoming defunct and irrelevant.  Online streaming and downloads mean that music videos are instantly accessible.  Gone are the days of TOTP!
  18. 18. Producers’ strategies  There are different types of artists:  Major label  Independent  Artist self-produced  For each of these the music video has a different purpose.  Each if these uses music videos in different way but for each the music video is still a really important tool.
  19. 19. Major Record Labels  The music industry is dominated by four multi national corporations; • Universal • Sony Music • Warner Brothers • EMI  These are referred to as ‘The Majors’. The majority of these are backed by conglomerates with stakes in other industries such as; Film, TV and Electronics.
  20. 20. Major-Independents  Most of these ‘Majors’ own, or license, a series of smaller subsidiary companies in order to reach different kinds of audiences in different kinds of genre.  Columbia  Island  Syco  RCA  Virgin,  These companies are known as ‘major-independents’.
  21. 21. Major Label Strategies - VEVO  For Major labels the purpose of the music is clear. They provide a strong online presence and allow them to make more profit through advertising.  One strategy is to use an online platform like Vevo.  Vevo is a music video website owned and operated by Universal Music Group, Google, Sony Music Entertainment, and Abu Dhabi Media.  It was launched in December 2009. It makes a profit through advertising that plays before each music video.  Vevo offers music videos from three of the "big four" major record labels: Universal, Sony Music Entertainment, and EMI Records. Warner Music Group was initially reported to be considering hosting its content on the service, but formed a rival alliance with MTV Networks
  22. 22. Independents  There are a huge number of small companies with little or no financial connection to the majors.  These companies often concentrate on a small number of acts, within specialised niches in the industry, Hip Hop/Rap/Electronica/Dance  These are called ‘Independents’. An example of a highly successful independent is ‘Warp Records’.
  23. 23. Independent Label Strategies  Independent or “indie” producers often see their work as an art-form and not just an advertisement for the music industry.  There music videos are often a stepping stone for up and coming directors to further their careers.  These types of producers often become well sort after by mainstream artists.  Lots of independent
  24. 24. Chris Cunningham  Chris Cunningham made his directorial debut in 1997 with the music video for "Come to Daddy" by Aphex Twin.  It was praised, banned, and raved about by many people in the business. He has since gone on to have a career making films and advertisement
  25. 25. Spike Jonze  An American director, producer, screenwriter and actor, whose work includes music videos, advertisements, film and television.  He shot to fame with videos for Fatboy Slim including “Praise You" and "The Rockafeller Skank“  His feature films include:  Being John Malkovich (1999)  Where the Wild Things Are (2009)  Her (2013)
  26. 26. Artist self-produced  Artist self-produced videos have the smallest budgets and are usually unknown artists.  Making a music video is absolutely vital to promoting their early career. It allows them to utilise websites such as Youtube which can lead to great success.
  27. 27. Justin Bieber  Justin Bieber was discovered in 2008 by American talent manager Scooter Braun.  He came across Bieber's videos on YouTube and then became his manager.
  29. 29. AS1: Task 2: Includes:  Andrew Goodwin’s six key conventions  Different forms of music video such as digital or stop-motion animation; in-concert; “as live” footage; studio based   Different styles of music video such as a narrative based; impressionist; surrealist; pastiche; parody; homage;
  30. 30.  Andrew Goodwin in Dancing in the Distraction Factory (1992) has identified the following features of music videos:
  31. 31. Key features  Music videos demonstrate genre characteristics.  There is a relationship between lyrics and visuals (either illustrative, amplifying, contradicting).  There is a relationship between music and visuals (either illustrative, amplifying, contradicting).  The demands of the record label will include the need for lots of close-ups of the artist and the artist may develop motifs which recur across their work (a visual style).  There is frequently reference to the notion of looking (screens within screens, telescopes, etc) and particularly voyeuristic treatment of the female body.  There is often intertextual reference (to films, TV programmes, other music videos, etc).
  32. 32. Convention 1: Genre Characteristics  Andrew Goodwin clear states that different genres of music use different key conventions in their videos:  Can you think of any?
  33. 33. Convention 2: Relation of Lyrics/Music to the Visuals  In his second convention, Andrew Goodwin states that there is always a relationship between the lyrics of the song and the visual images seen in the music video.  He says that this can happen in three different ways:
  34. 34. Convention 2: Relation of Lyrics/Music to the Visuals Music videos can use a set of images to illustrate the meaning of lyrics & genre, this is the most common. Meanings are amplified often through repetition. Part of the song is amplified by visually drumming it into our vision. This is where the meaning of the song is completely ignored They can also use the pace of the editing to clearly illustrate, amplify or contradict the music song
  35. 35. Relation of Lyrics to the Visuals  Music videos can use a set of images to illustrate the meaning of lyrics & genre, this is the most common.  Riptide – Vance Joy https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=uJ_1HMAGb4k
  36. 36. Relation of Lyrics to the Visuals  The images in a music video can add additional meanings that aren’t at first always obvious in the lyrics. This is know as amplifying.  The Script – Hall of Fame https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mk48x RzuNvA
  37. 37. Relation of Lyrics to the Visuals  This is where the meaning of the song is completely ignored, they might even contradict the lyrics.  Call On Me – Eric Prydz https://www.youtube.com/watc h?v=QQSYo_pC-QA
  38. 38. Convention 3: Relation of Music to the Visuals  Andrew Goodwin’s third convention is that the visuals in a music video will almost always have a connection to the pace of the music/song.  Again the video can be edited so that it either, illustrates, amplifies or contradicts the beat of the song. Arctic Monkeys https://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=bpOSxM0rNPM Skrillex - Bangarang https://www.youtube.c om/watch?v=YJVmu6 yttiw Nirvana – Smells Like Teen Spirit https://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=hTWKbfoik eg
  39. 39. Convention 4: Develop a Style  Andrew Goodwin’s fourth convention is that across all music videos the demands of the record label will attempt to develop a motif (a reoccurring style) that regularly recurs across their work.  They often demand that lots of close-ups of the artist are used to help create a clear visual style/image.
  40. 40. Style/ Motifs  Lady Gaga has a striking visual style
  41. 41. Katy Perry
  42. 42. Convention 5: Frequent notion of looking  Andrew Goodwin states in his fifth convention that in music videos there are frequent references to the notion of looking (screens within screens, telescopes, etc) and particularly voyeuristic treatment of the female body. Rihanna – What’s My Name? https://www.youtube.com /watch?v=U0CGsw6h60 k Beyoncé Video Phone https://www.youtube .com/watch?v=CGk vXp0vdng
  43. 43. Convention 6: Intertextual References  For his final convention Andrew Goodwin states that music videos often are filled with intertextual reference (to films, TV programmes, other music videos, etc). Jenifer Lopez – I’m Glad https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pms9Pr L67Gw
  44. 44.  Beyonce – Single Ladies https://www.youtube .com/watch?v=4m1 EFMoRFvY Mexican Breakfast – Gwen Verdon https://www.youtube.c om/watch?v=7pZW9u XJxGE