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Rodrigo Cardoso
OTB – Research for the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands
Secondary yet me...
Renovated interest in second-tier cities
As tourism and business destinations in media, investment and development priorit...
Disparities among second-tier cities in Europe: more volatile than capitals
“[…] the recession has had a
major impact on m...
What are their persistent setbacks?
Economic - Functional
• Larger cities strive on agglomeration economies based on
size ...
Cities reconfigured at the regional scale: the process of metropolisation
Image: NASA
Achieving agglomeration benefits beyond concentration in single centres
Deepened and widened integration with larger terri...
‘A sum of small cities doesn’t make a large city’
• Polycentric urban areas do not achieve agglomeration benefits commensu...
Evidence about the potential benefits of integration
• Increases in productivity and functional performance according to c...
Evidence about the potential benefits of integration
Relevance of functional, institutional and cultural dimensions for me...
Potentials of integration affect cities differently
Madrid Randstad
Manchester
Which ones have the greatest incentive to p...
Do second-tier cities have greater advantages in pursuing metropolitan
region integration than large primate cities?
Can t...
1. Size & Functions
Greater relative population increase through urban region integration in second-tiers than
in largest ...
1. Size & Functions
Greater relative population increase through urban region integration in second-tiers than
in largest ...
1. Size & Functions
Second-tier cites have fewer urban functions than their size would suggest, and so are
likely to rely ...
1. Size & Functions
Greater relative functional performance increase through urban region integration in
second-tiers than...
1. Size & Functions
But much greater unexplored potential around second-tier cities…
Part of the metropolitan region (BBSR...
2. Organizing capacity
• In periods of austerity and under-investment, the strategy for most second-tier cities
is more ab...
2. Organizing capacity
• Second-tiers need to develop larger marginal efficiency in use of investment & resources.
• Impor...
3. Political influence
• Second-tiers are weak interlocutors when dealing with higher levels of government.
• Integration ...
3. Political influence
Sites of power and decision-making, primate cities can often achieve these purposes without
the cri...
The second-tier urban region is not a homogeneous thing…
Image: Datashine.org
Emerging research and policy concerns
• Urban region integration strategies are not equally relevant for all second-tiers;...
Thank you!
r.o.v.cardoso@tudelft.nl
Cardoso R. and Meijers E. (…) The advantages and challenges of metropolitan integratio...
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RODRIGO CARDOSO: Secondary yet Metropolitan? The advantages and challenges of metropolitan integration for second-tier cities

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Secondary yet metropolitan? The advantages and challenges of metropolitan integration for second-tier cities

with Rodrigo Cardoso (OTB),

TUESDAY April 18, 12:30 room BGWEST290

Faculty of Architecture, Julianalaan 134




Typology of European Metro Regions Source: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/
Why metropolitan integration is both more important and more difficult for second-tier cities

Do European second-tier cities have a greater interest than first-tier cities in pursuing metropolitan integration strategies, and do they also have greater difficulty in achieving it? The advantages of integration considered here include capturing the agglomeration benefits emerging from the aggregate metropolitan size, such as increased functional performance, acquiring greater political-institutional weight and influence over higher policy levels, and increasing regional organising capacity to better exploit existing resources. The paper discusses the persistent disadvantages of second-tier cities in comparison to first-tier cities (usually large capitals) to show that these disadvantages tend to overlap with the areas where greater metropolitan integration can have a positive impact.

The research relies on existing sets of evidence whose connections and implications have been overlooked, and on empirical data comparing the demographic and functional structures of first-tier and second-tier metropolitan regions. The argumentation suggests that pursuing metropolitan region formation is indeed very relevant for second-tier cities, most prominently for those which are embedded in larger and densely occupied urbanised areas, and located in countries where a first-tier city dominates the economic and political life.

However, several obstacles emerging from their spatial-functional structure as well as from existing policies make metropolitan integration more difficult for those cities. The conclusion discusses which issues must be overcome to allow the second-tier metropolitan region to become a key scale of territorial development strategies in the European urban system.
More information at http://spatialplanningtudelft.org/?p=5492

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RODRIGO CARDOSO: Secondary yet Metropolitan? The advantages and challenges of metropolitan integration for second-tier cities

  1. 1. Rodrigo Cardoso OTB – Research for the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands Secondary yet metropolitan? The advantages and challenges of metropolitan integration for second-tier cities Image: NASA
  2. 2. Renovated interest in second-tier cities As tourism and business destinations in media, investment and development priority in policy-making, specific urban typology in research.
  3. 3. Disparities among second-tier cities in Europe: more volatile than capitals “[…] the recession has had a major impact on many of them— in particular those which flourished during the boom decade. More than 75% of the cities experienced GDP falls 2008–2010. Capitals performed far better than second- tier cities during the crisis.” Parkinson et al. 2015 ESPON, 2013 ESPON, 2016
  4. 4. What are their persistent setbacks? Economic - Functional • Larger cities strive on agglomeration economies based on size and mass; feedback loop reinforces ‘fusion at the top’; unsure how networks of cities can substitute for that. • Lack of critical mass reduces level of amenities and maybe attractiveness for population and firms; many second-tiers have fewer metropolitan functions than their size suggests. Political - Historical • Public investment directed to handful of successful ‘national champion’ cities aimed at global competition, greater territorial imbalance of resources emerges. • Decision-making centralized in capitals provides incentive to prioritize its growth over others, perpetuating historical trend to ‘awe and impress’. How can these embedded disadvantages be mitigated?
  5. 5. Cities reconfigured at the regional scale: the process of metropolisation Image: NASA
  6. 6. Achieving agglomeration benefits beyond concentration in single centres Deepened and widened integration with larger territorial scales. • Strengthening networks of cities (nodal concept, centres and their strong interactions) • Agglomeration externality fields (zonal concept, varying intensity, places borrow size) IPPR North, 2016 West of England LEP, 2014 TYA Design LLC, 2010
  7. 7. ‘A sum of small cities doesn’t make a large city’ • Polycentric urban areas do not achieve agglomeration benefits commensurate with their aggregated size. • Integration said to harness the advantages that emerge at the metropolitan region scale. Size & Functions Greater population & labour market, better matching, more interaction, urbanisation economies. Larger array of amenities, higher level urban functions, greater attractiveness for people and firms. Efficiency & Capacity Regional organising capacity, more efficient pooling of shared resources, complementarity. Political Influence Greater influence in higher-level policymaking, more legitimacy for metropolitan governance.
  8. 8. Evidence about the potential benefits of integration • Increases in productivity and functional performance according to city size. • Metro areas with more fragmented governance have lower levels of productivity. • Integrated urban regions have greater control over spatial planning, public transport • Functional linkages can trigger urban development along connections and in nodes, and reduce spatial disparities, although at an environmental cost. • Cultural contrasts and institutional conflicts between places reduce likelihood to build economic relations. Ahrend et al. (OECD), 2015 Instit. fragmentation vs. productivity Urban size vs. productivity
  9. 9. Evidence about the potential benefits of integration Relevance of functional, institutional and cultural dimensions for metropolitan performance Effect of different forms of metropolitan integration in the increase of performance index (measured by the presence of top-level metro functions) in 117 European Polycentric Urban Regions. Meijers, Hoogerbrugge and Cardoso, 2017
  10. 10. Potentials of integration affect cities differently Madrid Randstad Manchester Which ones have the greatest incentive to pursue metropolitan integration? Liege All images: NASA
  11. 11. Do second-tier cities have greater advantages in pursuing metropolitan region integration than large primate cities? Can the degree of their disadvantages be mitigated by harnessing the strengths of the surrounding metropolitan region into a cohesive entity? Likely setbacks in: Greater relative gains in: Agglomeration benefits from size & functions Size and Functions Availability of resources, public investment Regional organising capacity Political influence at higher levels Political influence
  12. 12. 1. Size & Functions Greater relative population increase through urban region integration in second-tiers than in largest cities ESPON, 2005 ESPON, 2005
  13. 13. 1. Size & Functions Greater relative population increase through urban region integration in second-tiers than in largest cities 0,00 1,00 2,00 3,00 4,00 5,00 6,00 7,00 First-tier FUA/MUA Second-tier FUA/MUA Athens Budapest Dublin Kobenhavn Madrid Paris Talinn Zurich Ratio of population increase between FUA and MUA scale (ESPON 2007 defs.) (bubble size = population) Median 1st tier = x 1.38 Median 2nd tier = x 1.53
  14. 14. 1. Size & Functions Second-tier cites have fewer urban functions than their size would suggest, and so are likely to rely on functions lying elsewhere to enjoy a larger functional array… …and their surrounding urban regions are better served by urban functions than in the case of first-tier cities: BBSR, 2011 Cardoso and Meijers, 2016
  15. 15. 1. Size & Functions Greater relative functional performance increase through urban region integration in second-tiers than in largest cities -2,00 3,00 8,00 13,00 18,00 23,00 First-tier MR/MUA Second-tier MR/MUA Athens Budapest Dublin Kobenhavn Madrid Paris Talinn Zurich Ratio of urban functions index increase between MUA and Metro Region (ESPON + BBSR defs.) (bubble size = functional index) Median 1st tier = x 1.12 Median 2nd tier = x 1.77
  16. 16. 1. Size & Functions But much greater unexplored potential around second-tier cities… Part of the metropolitan region (BBSR- defined) population and functional mass which is not yet integrated in a designated Functional Urban Area (in pink). Meijers, Hoogerbrugge and Cardoso, 2017
  17. 17. 2. Organizing capacity • In periods of austerity and under-investment, the strategy for most second-tier cities is more about efficiently pooling scarce metropolitan resources than adding new ones. • Capitals and first-tier cities tend to be more protected from decreases in investment and resources and may have lesser urgency to efficiently pool them with other areas. www.leplacide.com
  18. 18. 2. Organizing capacity • Second-tiers need to develop larger marginal efficiency in use of investment & resources. • Important to capture investment & resources which are spread across region, as no single centre commands a sufficient array (see structure of metropolitan functions). • EU funds for productive sectors higher in second-tiers, favour metropolitan management. “inter-municipal agreements are becoming a popular tool for sharing resources between municipalities and other governmental units. […] municipal leaders can use these agreements to improve services and reduce costs while also promoting collaboration and regionalization.” MAPC, Greater Boston http://www.torinostrategica.it/
  19. 19. 3. Political influence • Second-tiers are weak interlocutors when dealing with higher levels of government. • Integration builds a larger demographic and economic actor, with louder political voice. • Greater recognition by central government and capital city of an ‘equal’ partner. • High profile mayors, close to higher level power, influence policy in the region’s interest. • Opportunity for international affirmation bypassing national strategies/pathways. http://theday.co.uk/politics/greater-manchester-to-be-northern-powerhouse http://www.mouvement-metropole.fr/www.respublica.org.uk
  20. 20. 3. Political influence Sites of power and decision-making, primate cities can often achieve these purposes without the critical mass coming from large-scale integration. Primate city sub-centres often less powerful & diverse, less important for metro economy. ‘Edge cities network’, built to help small centres at the edge of large capitals deal with the ‘pressures’ of that proximity. (Phelps et al., 2006) Socially ‘monochromatic’ centres around London (Cardoso, 2016, based on datshine.org maps) Hegemonic dangers of core city in ‘Metropole du Grand Paris’ “…the hyper-centre has created a hyper-periphery.” (Domingues, 2009)
  21. 21. The second-tier urban region is not a homogeneous thing… Image: Datashine.org
  22. 22. Emerging research and policy concerns • Urban region integration strategies are not equally relevant for all second-tiers; likely to be more important in countries with strong capital city dominance and in second-tier cities embedded in a densely urbanised surrounding territory. • Urban region integration strategies are not equally successful for all second-tiers; other factors come into play, such as location in national/international corridors, structure of national urban system, legacy of urban & municipal history, type of leadership, etc. • Second-tier cities may have greater interest, but also greater difficulty in shaping integration strategies to capture territorial potential (lack of power, demography, etc.). • Policy must consider disparities within urban regions (economic performance, quality of life) and the tools to minimize them; likely barriers are orientation of city-regional leaders, lack of metropolitan identity; both actual and perceived disparities count. • Consider widely different powers, structures, funds and autonomy of cities and city- regions across Europe; how can a dialogue be ensured to stabilise that scale?
  23. 23. Thank you! r.o.v.cardoso@tudelft.nl Cardoso R. and Meijers E. (…) The advantages and challenges of metropolitan integration for second-tier cities. Planning Theory and Practice (?) (revisions requested) Cardoso R. (2016) Overcoming barriers to institutional integration in European second-tier urban regions. European Planning Studies, 24(12), pp. 2197-2216. Cardoso R. and Meijers E. (2016) Contrasts between first-tier and second-tier cities: a functional perspective. European Planning Studies, 24(5), pp. 996-1015. Cardoso R. (2015). Cidades principais e secundárias na Europa: uma caracterização dos contrastes à escala da região urbana [Primate and second-tier cities in Europe: a characterization of contrasts at the urban region scale]. Revista GOT, 8, pp. 85-109. Cardoso R. (…). Localising urbanisation trajectories: comparing the emergence of second-tier urban regions in Europe 1890-2011. (revisions submitted; under peer-review). Secondary yet metropolitan? The advantages and challenges of metropolitan integration for second-tier cities

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