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  1. 1. Tea
  2. 2. Introduction to Tea • Tea is an aromatic beverage com monly prepared by pouring boiling hot water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant. • After water, tea is the most widely consumed beverage in the world
  3. 3. Tea Vs Tisane • Herbal infusions made in hot water are called tisanes. Tisanes are generally made from fresh or desiccated plant components such as leaves, flowers, crushed seeds, roots, hips, fruit, or stems; and are also available in tea bags. The plants and herbs used in tisanes may be selected for either flavor or homeopathic properties, or a combination of both. The tisane may be sweetened if preferred and can be served either hot or cold, over ice. • To invigorate: rosemary, rosehip, lemon verbena, peppermint, borage • To calm: chamomile, lavender, basil, dill, orange peel • To relieve a sore throat or head cold: elderberries, rosehips, peppermint, sage, cayenne • To treat a cough: thyme, rose petals, eucalyptus, linden, licorice • To sooth an upset stomach: ginger, peppermint, lemon balm, chamomile • To ease a headache: rosemary, willow bark, peppermint
  4. 4. • Tea plants are propagated from seed or by cutting; it takes about four to 12 years for a tea plant to bear seed, and about three years before a new plant is ready for harvesting. In addition to a cool climate, tea plants require at least 127 cm (50 inches) of rainfall a year and prefer acidic soils.
  5. 5. • Many high-quality tea plants are cultivated at elevations of up to 1,500 m (4,900 ft) above sea level: at these heights, the plants grow more slowly and acquire a better flavour, also the slopes prevent stagnation of water.
  6. 6. • Only the top 1-2 inches of the mature plant are picked. These buds and leaves are called "flushes”. A plant will grow a new flush every seven to 15 days during the growing season, and leaves that are slow in development always produce better-flavored teas. • A tea plant will grow into a tree of up to 16 m (52 ft) if left undisturbed, but cultivated plants are pruned to waist height for ease of plucking.
  7. 7. • Two principal varieties are used: the China plant (C. s. sinensis), used for most Chinese, Formosan and Japanese teas (but not Pu-erh); and the clonal Assam tea plant (C. s. assamica), used in most Indian and other teas (but not Darjeeling). Within these botanical varieties, there are many strains and modern clonal varieties.
  8. 8. Origin of Tea • The first recorded drinking of tea is in China, with the earliest records of tea consumption dating back to the 10th century BC. It was already a common drink during the Qin Dynasty (third century BC) and became widely popular during the Tang Dynasty, when it was spread to Korea and Japan. Trade of tea by the Chinese to Western nations in the 19th century spread tea and the tea plant to numerous locations around the world.
  9. 9. • Tea was imported to Europe during the Portuguese expansion of the 16th century, at which time it was termed chá. In 1750, tea experts traveled from China to the Azores Islands, and planted tea, along with jasmines and mallows, to give the tea aroma and distinction. Both green and black tea continue to grow in the islands, which are the main suppliers to continental Portugal. Catherine of Braganza, wife of Charles II, took the tea habit to Great Britain around 1660, but until the 19th century, tea was not as widely consumed in Britain as it is today. Tea had become an everyday beverage for all levels of society by the late 19th century, but it was first consumed as a luxury item on special occasions.
  10. 10. International Tea Brands Taylors of Harrogate Tetley(Tata Global Beverages) Typhoo(Apeejay Group) PG Tips, Lipton(Unilever) Ahmad Tea Tylos Dilmah (Sri Lanka)
  11. 11. Leading Tea Brands of India • Tata Tea, Tetley, Kanan Devan, Chakra Gold, Gemini (Tata Global Beverages) • Lipton Yellow Label(Unilever) • Brooke Bond Red label, Taj Mahal, Taaza(Unilever) • Twinings • Duncan’s Double Diamond,Shakti, Runglee Rungliot (Duncan Goenka Group) • Bakri, Perfect, Good Morning (Gujarat Tea Processors & Packers Ltd) • Girnar Tea • Marvel Tea • Pataka Tea • Godrej Tea • Society(Hasmukhrai & Co)
  12. 12. Leaf grades • Smaller the leaf, the more expensive the tea
  13. 13. • Higher grades relate to Pekoe (P) which simply means that only whole leaves have been used. • Souchong: Round leaf, with pale liquid. • Pekoe: Shorter leaves than orange pekoe and not as wiry; the liquid generally has more color.
  14. 14. • OP - Orange Pekoe - large leaves, slightly thinner, youngest leaves on the branch but picked without the bud. The word "pekoe," which is used in grading black teas, is a corruption of the Chinese word meaning "silver-haired." This refers to the silvery down found on especially young tea leaves. "Orange" probably comes from the Dutch royal family, House of Orange. Long, thin, wiry leaves which sometimes contain bud leaf; light-or pale-colored liquid. Orange pekoe is simply a size; the term does not indicate flavor or quality.
  15. 15. • OP - Flowery Orange Pekoe - 'flowery' does not refer to any flower but to the 'tips' and unopened leaf buds that are included in this tea.
  16. 16. • GFOP - Golden Flowery Orange Pekoe - whole young tea leaves of which some have 'tips' in golden colour. • TGFOP - Tippy Golden Flowery Orange Pekoe - higher quality than previous one thanks to larger amount of golden 'tips' included. • FTGFOP - Finest Tippy Golden Flowery Orange Pekoe - the best quality tea consisting of youngest leaves with 'tips' and leaf buds. • SFTGFOP - Special Finest Tippy Golden Flowery Orange Pekoe - highest existing grade used for the best of the best.
  17. 17. Broken Grades • Smaller, broken leaves; comprise about 80 percent of the total crop. They make a darker, stronger tea than the leaf grades; only kind used in tea bags. • Broken Orange Pekoe: BOP - Broken Orange Pekoe - small whole leaves or broken large leaves of OP. It is known as medium grading in this classification. Thanks to smaller surface these tea leaves infuse faster than whole leaf varieties. • FBOP - Flowery Broken Orange Pekoe - higher grade than BOP as containing 'tips' and unopened buds. • Broken Pekoe: Slightly larger than broken orange pekoe, with somewhat less color; useful as a filler in a blend. • Broken Pekoe Souchong: A little larger than broken pekoe; also used as a filler. • Fannings: Much smaller than broken pekoe Souchong; main virtues are quick brewing and good color. • Dust: The smallest grade; useful for a quick-brewing, strong cup of tea;only used in blends of similar-sized leaf, generally for catering purposes.
  18. 18. Tea manufacturing process
  19. 19. Manufacturing process of black tea The orthodox method followed in South Asia has the following steps: 1. Plucking, sorting, grading 2. Withering 3. Rolling 4. Fermentation 5. Firing
  20. 20. Plucking • After maturation of the plant, the plucking is done. The pluckers gather the top two leaves and the bud. Picking can be manual or mechanical. Approximately 40 kilos of tea leaves are plucked in the first shift.
  21. 21. Withering • After plucking, all the tea leaves are gathered at one place and sent for the withering process. Here, tea leaves were spread on a perforated rack for 14- 18 hours or till the moisture content comes down to 50%. Today leaves are sent to withering rooms and dried in 8-12 hours by blowing dry warm air.
  22. 22. Rolling • Rolling is done with the help of press spindles or rollers where the green leaves are cut open and the released cell fluid reacts with the oxygen in the air. This process takes 30 minutes each and is repeated 3 times. The damp and lumpy darkened leaves are scattered with the help of a shaking or sieving machine. • CTC - Method (= Crushing – Tearing – Curling) • The leaves are then torn in specially constructed thorn drums and the stems and leaf ribs are separated.
  23. 23. Fermentation • The oxidation and fermentation process already starts with the rolling. The leaves are spread out on large boards in 10-15 cm thick layers in a special room with a room temperature of 40°C for 2/3 hours and additionally sprinkled with water. Thereby, the leaf takes up its copper-red to brown colour and starts to unfold its unique aroma which can be found again, when the tea is infused..
  24. 24. Firing • The leaves are transported through dryers on metal conveyor belts. The tea is dried for approximately 20 minutes with hot air of 80- 90°C which makes the cell fluid stick to the leaves and gives it its dark brown to black colour. The final humidity of the leaves is between 5-6%. Leaves are then packed and sent for sale.
  25. 25. Sorting/Grading • The finished tea is then sorted into common grades via mechanical jarring sieves. A good, high-yielding production has the following results /qualities: • S (=Super) F (=Finest) T (=Tippy) G (= Golden) F (= Flowery) O (=Orange) P (=Pekoe) F (=Flowery) P (=Pekoe)G (=Golden) F (=Flowery) B (=Broken) O (=Orange) P (=Pekoe).BO (=Orange) P (=Pekoe) F (=Fannings) (=Broken) • Leaf (SFTGFOP1, FTGFOP1, TGFOP1, GFOP, FOP) = 6% • small leaf (FP, PEKOE) = 20% • large Broken (FBOP) = 15% • feine Broken (GFBOP, GBOP) = 20% • Fannings (BOPF, OF) + Dust (PD); both grades are for tea bags only = 39%
  26. 26. Production Green Tea: China • 1) Plucking • The gren tea leaves are mainly plucked by women, thanks to their delicate hands, who are wearing a basket or linen over their shoulder in which they are collecting the leaves. The rule „two leaves and the bud“ is strictly followed. The plucked leaves are examined on the collection point and weighed before they are transported to the tea factory. Here, the supplied amounts are weighed again and registered before the actual tea production is started. • 2) Withering • Good qualties are spread out on laths which are covered with jute, wire or nylon nets and placed out in the sun to wither. The withering time takes, depending on the weather and humidity content of the leaf, between 14- 18 hours. Normal qualities are spread on large sieves for the withering process. Huge ventilators blow air from below through the leaf layers. 30% of the still thick, immalleable leaf's humidity is reduced during the withering process.
  27. 27. • 3) Heating • Now, the leaves are heated for 10 minutes with 280°C in wok-like, cast-iron pans. The leaves are pressed against the hot surface and turned. Sometimes, also larger, automatic drums are used in this process. Due to the impact of the heat, the plant's own enzymes are converted. An oxidation can no longer take place and, hence, the green colour and the rather fresh or herb taste are preserved. • 4) Rolling • In a so-calle rolling machine, the tea leaves are put in betwee two rotating metal plates. This process takes approximately 15 minutes. • 5) Drying • Subsequently, the leaves are put into special dryers. Here, there are two turning discs which are heated to 160°C.
  28. 28. Production Green Tea: Japan • Nowadays, the process of green tea distribution in Japan is almost entirely automated. The process is somewhat more complicated than that of the Chinese. It comprises the following steps: • 1) Withering • The withering reduces approximately 30% of the humidity content of the leaf within a time of 4-12 hours. • 2) Steaming • The leaves are now moved through a turning drum. Hot steam is added. After about 2 minutes, the leaves are extracted again. The amount of steam is the deciding factor in this step. Too much spoils the leaves and too little initiates the onset of the fermentation.
  29. 29. • 5) Drying • A further drying sequence follows. The leaves are brought into contact with hot air for approximately 30 minutes in order to dry them further. • 6) Polishing • In some factories, the leaves are now polished. This is done via pressing the leaves against a hot plate. This makes the leaves very flat and glowing. However, this step is not vital. • 7) Drying • The leaves are now dried a final time for about 20-30 minutes with a temperature of 60°C. The finished green tea contains a rest humidity of ca. 3-4%.
  30. 30. Special kind of tea blends • English Breakfast tea is a traditional blend of teas originating from Assam, Ceylon and Kenya. It is one of the most popular blended teas and the most common form of British tea culture. It was initially known simply as Breakfast Tea, and was popularised by Queen Victoria. • English breakfast tea is a black tea blend usually described as full-bodied, robust, and/or rich, and blended to go well with milk and sugar, in a style traditionally associated with a hearty English breakfast. • The black teas included in the blend vary, with Assam, Ceylon and Kenyan teas predominating, and Keemun sometimes included in more expensive blends. Common brands of English breakfast tea include Twinings, Dilmah, Taylors of Harrogate, Ahmad Tea, Qualitea, Darvilles of Windsor and supermarket brands.
  31. 31. • Irish Breakfast tea is a full-bodied, brisk, malty brew. It is a blend of several black teas: most often Assam teas and, less often, other types of black tea. • Irish brands Lyons, Barry's, Nambarrie's, and Punjana are heavily weighted toward Assam. Most commonly, Irish Breakfast tea is drunk with milk, but some prefer to drink it straight or with lemon.
  32. 32. • Earl grey: blend of Indian and china teas and bergamot oils. It is light and delicately scented. Bergamot is a pear shaped orange and the oil is extracted from the rind. • Assam: strong, recuperative tea. • Darjeeling: Flavor of muscatel. Can be drunk with lemon or milk. • Jasmine: China tea mixed with scented jasmine flavours. Best drunk with a slice of lemon. • Lady Londonderry’s mixture: A special blend of , Indian and Formosa teas. • Green gunpowder: China tea with curled leaves, which looks like gunpowder. • Lapsang souchong: A distinctive china tea with a tarry taste; quite pungent. • Tisanes: Teas that have a herbal base, eg.- jasmine and chamomile.
  33. 33. Five golden rules for making tea • Use a good quality tea. Storage of tea is best done in airtight containers in a moisture-free place, and away from odours. • Use fresh, lime free water which is just boiled. • Rinse the teapot well with boiling water before putting the tea in. The requirements are: one teaspoon of tea per person and one for the pot. • Take the pot to the water. The water must be near 95°C to enable the leaves to infuse properly. • Brew the tea; never stew it, or it turns bitter. Allow the tea to brew only for 3-5 minutes, and stir well and strain before pouring.
  34. 34. Black tea • Most widely produced and consumed tea. The leaves are allowed to wither for 16-24 hours. They are rolled to release juices and enzymes. They are then crushed and exposed to air to undergo chemical changes. Fermentation is undertaken for 2-6 hours at 21-27 degree c. It is spread on platforms. Oxidation and enzymatic conditions change. This turns the leaves brown and gives black tea its distinctive taste. • Black CTC Tea
  35. 35. Green tea • Leaves undergo less processing. Withering and fermentation are omitted. Leaves are first steamed to prevent any change in colour. It is rolled and dried. The beverage has a greenish yellow colour and is bitter. It is favoured mainly by the Japanese and Chinese.
  36. 36. Oolong tea • Oolong is a traditional Chinese tea (Camellia sinensis) produced through a unique process including withering under the strong sun and oxidation before curling and twisting. The degree of fermentation can range from 8% to 85% depending on the variety and production style. This tea category is especially popular with Chinese tea connoisseurs .
  37. 37. White tea • Lightly oxidized tea of the Chinese Camellia sinensis plant grown and harvested primarily in China, mostly in the Fujian province • The leaves and buds are allowed to wither in natural sunlight before they are lightly processed to prevent oxidation or further tea processing. • The name "white tea" derives from the fine silvery-white hairs on the unopened buds of the tea plant, which gives the plant a whitish appearance.
  38. 38. Yellow tea • This tea is processed in a similar manner to green tea, but instead of immediate drying after fixation, it is stacked, covered, and gently heated in a humid environment. This initiates oxidation in the chlorophyll of the leaves through non-enzymatic and non-microbial means, which results in a yellowish or greenish-yellow colour.
  39. 39. Indian tea culture-Chai drinking • “Chai” is CTC(Crush, Tear, Curl) tea with milk and sugar copiously drunk through the day and offered to guests across India. Mamri tea is a specific type of Assam tea that has been cured in a special way that creates granules as opposed to "leaf" tea. It is inexpensive and the tea most often used in India. • Masala chai (literally "mixed-spice tea") is made by brewing a strong Assam tea with a mixture of aromatic Indian spices, herbs and milk.
  40. 40. Kashmir-Kahwah • Kahwah is a traditional green tea consumed in Afghanistan, northern Pakistan, some regions of Central Asia as well as the Kashmir Valley. The tea is made by boiling green tea leaves with saffron strands, cinnamon bark and cardamom pods and occasionally Kashmiri roses to add a great aroma. Generally, it is served with sugar or honey, and crushed nuts, usually almonds or walnuts.
  41. 41. Kashmir- Noon Chai • Noon Chai (also called Salt tea, Sheer Chai,) is a traditional tea beverage made in Kashmir. The name "Noon" refers not to the time of day, but is a local word for salt- "Noon". • It is made from special tea leaves, milk, and salt. A pinch of baking soda is added to help give it a pink color.
  42. 42. Tibetian butter tea • Butter tea is a drink of the Tibetans and Chinese minorities in southwestern China. It is also consumed in Bhutan. It is a churned tea and is made from tea leaves, yak butter, and salt.
  43. 43. Chinese tea culture • It is a daily necessity for the Chinese to have three meals and at least a cup of tea a day. In some places the way of making tea is very complex and has a local nature. And just as in Russia the tea utensils-the teacup, tea saucer, teapot, and tea tray-are works of art. There are hundreds of famous teas in China and there are a great many famous springs and streams to provide water to make tea as it is believed that those springs have mineral and curing features. Due to the importance of tea in Chinese society and culture, tea houses can be found in most Chinese neighbourhoods and business districts
  44. 44. Japanese tea culture • Tea (ocha) is one of the most common beverages in Japan and is an important part of Japanese food culture and tea ceremony. Green tea is served everywhere and at any time of the day, in cups without a handle and is never drunken with sugar or milk. The most polite way of drinking green tea is to hold the cup with one hand and support it from below with the other hand. Matcha is a bitter green tea made out of tea leaf powder, used in tea ceremony.
  45. 45. English tea culture • Afternoon Tea is a social event governed by etiquette and accompanied by light sandwiches and cakes, the “Devonshire cream tea” accompanied with scones and clotted cream is well known . Tea is poured in the cup first, allowing the milk to be added to suit the drinker’s taste. Offering tea is considered polite.
  46. 46. Russian tea culture • Tea is drunk out of glasses in Russia. In the homes of the wealthy these glasses are held in silver holders (podstakannik). Water is heated in a samovar, the cylinder is filled with live coals, and keeps the water boiling hot. Hot water to heat the pot is first put in and then poured out; dry tea is then put in, boiling water poured over it; after which the pot is placed on top of the samovar. Tea is served with lemon, accompanied by jams, pastries and confections.
  47. 47. Moroccan tea culture (Atai) • Moroccan-style green tea with mint is now commonly served all through North Africa. Just like in most of tea-drinking countries tea here is served all through the day. Tea is something to be served to guests, and it is impolite to refuse it.