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Introduction to Tea
• Tea is an
aromatic beverage com
monly prepared by
pouring boiling hot
water over cured leaves
of the Camellia
• After water, tea is the
most widely consumed
beverage in the world
Tea Vs Tisane
• Herbal infusions made in hot
water are called tisanes. Tisanes
are generally made from fresh or
desiccated plant components
such as leaves, flowers, crushed
seeds, roots, hips, fruit, or stems;
and are also available in tea bags.
The plants and herbs used in
tisanes may be selected for either
flavor or homeopathic properties,
or a combination of both. The
tisane may be sweetened if
preferred and can be served
either hot or cold, over ice.
• To invigorate: rosemary, rosehip,
lemon verbena, peppermint,
• To calm: chamomile, lavender,
basil, dill, orange peel
• To relieve a sore throat or head
cold: elderberries, rosehips,
peppermint, sage, cayenne
• To treat a cough: thyme, rose
petals, eucalyptus, linden, licorice
• To sooth an upset
stomach: ginger, peppermint,
lemon balm, chamomile
• To ease a headache: rosemary,
willow bark, peppermint
• Tea plants are propagated
from seed or by cutting; it
takes about four to 12
years for a tea plant to
bear seed, and about
three years before a new
plant is ready for
harvesting. In addition to
a cool climate, tea plants
require at least 127 cm
(50 inches) of rainfall a
year and prefer acidic
• Many high-quality tea
plants are cultivated at
elevations of up to
1,500 m (4,900 ft)
above sea level: at
these heights, the
plants grow more
slowly and acquire a
better flavour, also the
stagnation of water.
• Only the top 1-2 inches of the mature plant are
picked. These buds and leaves are called
"flushes”. A plant will grow a new flush every
seven to 15 days during the growing season, and
leaves that are slow in development always
produce better-flavored teas.
• A tea plant will grow into a tree of up to 16 m
(52 ft) if left undisturbed, but cultivated plants
are pruned to waist height for ease of plucking.
• Two principal varieties are used: the China
plant (C. s. sinensis), used for most Chinese,
Formosan and Japanese teas (but not Pu-erh);
and the clonal Assam tea plant (C. s.
assamica), used in most Indian and other teas
(but not Darjeeling). Within these botanical
varieties, there are many strains and modern
Origin of Tea
• The first recorded drinking of tea is in China,
with the earliest records of tea consumption
dating back to the 10th century BC. It was
already a common drink during the Qin
Dynasty (third century BC) and became widely
popular during the Tang Dynasty, when it was
spread to Korea and Japan. Trade of tea by the
Chinese to Western nations in the 19th
century spread tea and the tea plant to
numerous locations around the world.
• Tea was imported to Europe during the Portuguese
expansion of the 16th century, at which time it was
termed chá. In 1750, tea experts traveled from China to
the Azores Islands, and planted tea, along
with jasmines and mallows, to give the tea aroma and
distinction. Both green and black tea continue to grow in
the islands, which are the main suppliers to continental
Portugal. Catherine of Braganza, wife of Charles II, took
the tea habit to Great Britain around 1660, but until the
19th century, tea was not as widely consumed in Britain as
it is today. Tea had become an everyday beverage for all
levels of society by the late 19th century, but it was first
consumed as a luxury item on special occasions.
International Tea Brands
Taylors of Harrogate
Tetley(Tata Global Beverages)
PG Tips, Lipton(Unilever)
Dilmah (Sri Lanka)
Leading Tea Brands of India
• Tata Tea, Tetley, Kanan Devan, Chakra Gold, Gemini (Tata Global
• Lipton Yellow Label(Unilever)
• Brooke Bond Red label, Taj Mahal, Taaza(Unilever)
• Duncan’s Double Diamond,Shakti, Runglee Rungliot (Duncan
• Bakri, Perfect, Good Morning (Gujarat Tea Processors & Packers Ltd)
• Girnar Tea
• Marvel Tea
• Pataka Tea
• Godrej Tea
• Society(Hasmukhrai & Co)
• Smaller the leaf, the
more expensive the tea
• Higher grades relate to Pekoe (P) which simply
means that only whole leaves have been
• Souchong: Round leaf, with pale liquid.
• Pekoe: Shorter leaves than orange pekoe and
not as wiry; the liquid generally has more
• OP - Orange Pekoe - large leaves, slightly thinner,
youngest leaves on the branch but picked without
the bud. The word "pekoe," which is used in
grading black teas, is a corruption of the Chinese
word meaning "silver-haired." This refers to the
silvery down found on especially young tea
leaves. "Orange" probably comes from the Dutch
royal family, House of Orange. Long, thin, wiry
leaves which sometimes contain bud leaf; light-or
pale-colored liquid. Orange pekoe is simply a size;
the term does not indicate flavor or quality.
• OP - Flowery Orange Pekoe - 'flowery' does
not refer to any flower but to the 'tips' and
unopened leaf buds that are included in this
• GFOP - Golden Flowery Orange Pekoe - whole young
tea leaves of which some have 'tips' in golden colour.
• TGFOP - Tippy Golden Flowery Orange Pekoe - higher
quality than previous one thanks to larger amount of
golden 'tips' included.
• FTGFOP - Finest Tippy Golden Flowery Orange Pekoe -
the best quality tea consisting of youngest leaves with
'tips' and leaf buds.
• SFTGFOP - Special Finest Tippy Golden Flowery
Orange Pekoe - highest existing grade used for the best
of the best.
• Smaller, broken leaves; comprise about 80 percent of the total crop. They make a
darker, stronger tea than the leaf grades; only kind used in tea bags.
• Broken Orange Pekoe: BOP - Broken Orange Pekoe - small whole leaves or broken
large leaves of OP. It is known as medium grading in this classification. Thanks to
smaller surface these tea leaves infuse faster than whole leaf varieties.
• FBOP - Flowery Broken Orange Pekoe - higher grade than BOP as containing 'tips'
and unopened buds.
• Broken Pekoe: Slightly larger than broken orange pekoe, with somewhat less color;
useful as a filler in a blend.
• Broken Pekoe Souchong: A little larger than broken pekoe; also used as a filler.
• Fannings: Much smaller than broken pekoe Souchong; main virtues are quick
brewing and good color.
• Dust: The smallest grade; useful for a quick-brewing, strong cup of tea;only used in
blends of similar-sized leaf, generally for catering purposes.
Manufacturing process of black tea
The orthodox method followed in South Asia
has the following steps:
1. Plucking, sorting, grading
• After maturation of the
plant, the plucking is
done. The pluckers
gather the top two
leaves and the bud.
Picking can be manual
Approximately 40 kilos
of tea leaves are
plucked in the first shift.
• After plucking, all the tea
leaves are gathered at
one place and sent for the
withering process. Here,
tea leaves were spread on
a perforated rack for 14-
18 hours or till the
moisture content comes
down to 50%. Today
leaves are sent to
withering rooms and
dried in 8-12 hours by
blowing dry warm air.
• Rolling is done with the help of
press spindles or rollers where
the green leaves are cut open and
the released cell fluid reacts with
the oxygen in the air. This process
takes 30 minutes each and is
repeated 3 times. The damp and
lumpy darkened leaves are
scattered with the help of a
shaking or sieving machine.
• CTC - Method (= Crushing –
Tearing – Curling)
• The leaves are then torn in
specially constructed thorn
drums and the stems and leaf ribs
• The oxidation and
fermentation process already
starts with the rolling. The
leaves are spread out on large
boards in 10-15 cm thick layers
in a special room with a room
temperature of 40°C for 2/3
hours and additionally
sprinkled with water. Thereby,
the leaf takes up its copper-red
to brown colour and starts
to unfold its unique aroma
which can be found again,
when the tea is infused..
• The leaves are transported
through dryers on metal
conveyor belts. The tea is
dried for approximately 20
minutes with hot air of 80-
90°C which makes the cell
fluid stick to the leaves and
gives it its dark brown to
black colour. The final
humidity of the leaves is
between 5-6%. Leaves are
then packed and sent for
• The finished tea is then sorted
into common grades via
mechanical jarring sieves. A
good, high-yielding production
has the following results
• S (=Super) F (=Finest) T
(=Tippy) G (= Golden) F (=
Flowery) O (=Orange) P
(=Pekoe) F (=Flowery) P
(=Pekoe)G (=Golden) F
(=Flowery) B (=Broken) O
(=Orange) P (=Pekoe).BO
(=Orange) P (=Pekoe) F
• Leaf (SFTGFOP1, FTGFOP1,
TGFOP1, GFOP, FOP) = 6%
• small leaf (FP, PEKOE) = 20%
• large Broken (FBOP) = 15%
• feine Broken (GFBOP, GBOP) =
• Fannings (BOPF, OF) + Dust
(PD); both grades are for tea
bags only = 39%
Production Green Tea: China
• 1) Plucking
• The gren tea leaves are mainly plucked by women, thanks to their delicate
hands, who are wearing a basket or linen over their shoulder in which they
are collecting the leaves. The rule „two leaves and the bud“ is strictly
followed. The plucked leaves are examined on the collection point and
weighed before they are transported to the tea factory. Here, the supplied
amounts are weighed again and registered before the actual tea
production is started.
• 2) Withering
• Good qualties are spread out on laths which are covered with jute, wire or
nylon nets and placed out in the sun to wither. The withering time takes,
depending on the weather and humidity content of the leaf, between 14-
18 hours. Normal qualities are spread on large sieves for the withering
process. Huge ventilators blow air from below through the leaf layers. 30%
of the still thick, immalleable leaf's humidity is reduced during the
• 3) Heating
• Now, the leaves are heated for 10 minutes with 280°C in wok-like,
cast-iron pans. The leaves are pressed against the hot surface and
turned. Sometimes, also larger, automatic drums are used in this
Due to the impact of the heat, the plant's own enzymes are
converted. An oxidation can no longer take place and, hence, the
green colour and the rather fresh or herb taste are preserved.
• 4) Rolling
• In a so-calle rolling machine, the tea leaves are put in betwee two
rotating metal plates. This process takes approximately 15
• 5) Drying
• Subsequently, the leaves are put into special dryers. Here, there are
two turning discs which are heated to 160°C.
Production Green Tea: Japan
• Nowadays, the process of green tea distribution in Japan is
almost entirely automated. The process is somewhat more
complicated than that of the Chinese. It comprises the
• 1) Withering
• The withering reduces approximately 30% of the humidity
content of the leaf within a time of 4-12 hours.
• 2) Steaming
• The leaves are now moved through a turning drum. Hot
steam is added. After about 2 minutes, the leaves are
extracted again. The amount of steam is the deciding factor
in this step. Too much spoils the leaves and too little
initiates the onset of the fermentation.
• 5) Drying
• A further drying sequence follows. The leaves are brought
into contact with hot air for approximately 30 minutes in
order to dry them further.
• 6) Polishing
• In some factories, the leaves are now polished. This is done
via pressing the leaves against a hot plate. This makes the
leaves very flat and glowing. However, this step is not vital.
• 7) Drying
• The leaves are now dried a final time for about 20-30
minutes with a temperature of 60°C. The finished green tea
contains a rest humidity of ca. 3-4%.
Special kind of tea blends
• English Breakfast tea is a traditional blend of teas originating
from Assam, Ceylon and Kenya. It is one of the most popular
blended teas and the most common form of British tea culture. It
was initially known simply as Breakfast Tea, and was popularised by
• English breakfast tea is a black tea blend usually described as full-bodied,
robust, and/or rich, and blended to go well
with milk and sugar, in a style traditionally associated with a hearty
• The black teas included in the blend vary, with Assam, Ceylon and
Kenyan teas predominating, and Keemun sometimes included in
more expensive blends. Common brands of English breakfast tea
include Twinings, Dilmah, Taylors of Harrogate, Ahmad
Tea, Qualitea, Darvilles of Windsor and supermarket brands.
• Irish Breakfast tea is a full-bodied, brisk, malty brew. It is a
blend of several black teas: most often Assam teas and, less
often, other types of black tea.
• Irish brands Lyons, Barry's, Nambarrie's, and Punjana are
heavily weighted toward Assam. Most commonly, Irish
Breakfast tea is drunk with milk, but some prefer to drink it
straight or with lemon.
• Earl grey: blend of Indian and china teas and bergamot oils. It is light and
delicately scented. Bergamot is a pear shaped orange and the oil is
extracted from the rind.
• Assam: strong, recuperative tea.
• Darjeeling: Flavor of muscatel. Can be drunk with lemon or milk.
• Jasmine: China tea mixed with scented jasmine flavours. Best drunk with
a slice of lemon.
• Lady Londonderry’s mixture: A special blend of , Indian and Formosa
• Green gunpowder: China tea with curled leaves, which looks like
• Lapsang souchong: A distinctive china tea with a tarry taste; quite
• Tisanes: Teas that have a herbal base, eg.- jasmine and chamomile.
Five golden rules for making tea
• Use a good quality tea. Storage of tea is best done in
airtight containers in a moisture-free place, and away
• Use fresh, lime free water which is just boiled.
• Rinse the teapot well with boiling water before
putting the tea in. The requirements are: one
teaspoon of tea per person and one for the pot.
• Take the pot to the water. The water must be near
95°C to enable the leaves to infuse properly.
• Brew the tea; never stew it, or it turns bitter. Allow
the tea to brew only for 3-5 minutes, and stir well and
strain before pouring.
• Most widely produced and
consumed tea. The leaves are
allowed to wither for 16-24
hours. They are rolled to
release juices and enzymes.
They are then crushed and
exposed to air to undergo
Fermentation is undertaken
for 2-6 hours at 21-27 degree
c. It is spread on platforms.
Oxidation and enzymatic
conditions change. This turns
the leaves brown and gives
black tea its distinctive taste.
• Black CTC Tea
• Leaves undergo less
and fermentation are
omitted. Leaves are first
steamed to prevent any
change in colour. It is
rolled and dried. The
beverage has a greenish
yellow colour and is
bitter. It is favoured
mainly by the Japanese
• Oolong is a traditional
Chinese tea (Camellia
sinensis) produced through
a unique process including
withering under the strong
sun and oxidation before
curling and twisting. The
degree of fermentation can
range from 8% to
85% depending on the
variety and production
style. This tea category is
especially popular with
Chinese tea connoisseurs .
• Lightly oxidized tea of the
Chinese Camellia sinensis plant
grown and harvested primarily
in China, mostly in
the Fujian province
• The leaves and buds are
allowed to wither in natural
sunlight before they are lightly
prevent oxidation or further
• The name "white tea" derives
from the fine silvery-white
hairs on the unopened buds of
the tea plant, which gives the
plant a whitish appearance.
• This tea is processed in a
similar manner to green tea,
but instead of immediate
drying after fixation, it is
stacked, covered, and gently
heated in a humid
environment. This initiates
the chlorophyll of the leaves
through non-enzymatic and
non-microbial means, which
results in a yellowish or
Indian tea culture-Chai drinking
• “Chai” is CTC(Crush, Tear, Curl)
tea with milk and sugar
copiously drunk through the
day and offered to guests
across India. Mamri tea is a
specific type of Assam tea that
has been cured in a special
way that creates granules as
opposed to "leaf" tea. It is
inexpensive and the tea most
often used in India.
• Masala chai (literally "mixed-spice
tea") is made by brewing
a strong Assam tea with a
mixture of aromatic Indian
spices, herbs and milk.
• Kahwah is a traditional green
tea consumed in Afghanistan,
northern Pakistan, some
regions of Central Asia as well
as the Kashmir Valley. The tea
is made by boiling green tea
leaves with saffron strands,
cinnamon bark and cardamom
pods and occasionally Kashmiri
roses to add a great aroma.
Generally, it is served with
sugar or honey, and crushed
nuts, usually almonds or
Kashmir- Noon Chai
• Noon Chai (also called
Salt tea, Sheer Chai,) is a
traditional tea beverage
made in Kashmir. The
name "Noon" refers not
to the time of day, but is a
local word for salt-
• It is made from special
tea leaves, milk, and salt.
A pinch of baking soda is
added to help give it a
Tibetian butter tea
• Butter tea is a drink of
the Tibetans and
Chinese minorities in
southwestern China. It
is also consumed in
Bhutan. It is a churned
tea and is made from
tea leaves, yak butter,
Chinese tea culture
• It is a daily necessity for the Chinese
to have three meals and at least a
cup of tea a day. In some places the
way of making tea is very complex
and has a local nature. And just as in
Russia the tea utensils-the teacup,
tea saucer, teapot, and tea tray-are
works of art. There are hundreds of
famous teas in China and there are a
great many famous springs and
streams to provide water to make tea
as it is believed that those springs
have mineral and curing
features. Due to the importance of
tea in Chinese society and culture,
tea houses can be found in most
Chinese neighbourhoods and
Japanese tea culture
• Tea (ocha) is one of the most
common beverages in Japan
and is an important part of
Japanese food culture and tea
ceremony. Green tea is served
everywhere and at any time of
the day, in cups without a
handle and is never drunken
with sugar or milk. The most
polite way of drinking green
tea is to hold the cup with one
hand and support it from
below with the other hand.
Matcha is a bitter green tea
made out of tea leaf powder,
used in tea ceremony.
English tea culture
• Afternoon Tea is a social
event governed by etiquette
and accompanied by light
sandwiches and cakes, the
“Devonshire cream tea”
accompanied with scones
and clotted cream is well
known . Tea is poured in the
cup first, allowing the milk
to be added to suit the
drinker’s taste. Offering tea
is considered polite.
Russian tea culture
• Tea is drunk out of glasses in
Russia. In the homes of the
wealthy these glasses are held in
silver holders (podstakannik).
Water is heated in a samovar, the
cylinder is filled with live coals,
and keeps the water boiling hot.
Hot water to heat the pot is first
put in and then poured out; dry
tea is then put in, boiling water
poured over it; after which the
pot is placed on top of the
samovar. Tea is served with
lemon, accompanied by jams,
pastries and confections.
Moroccan tea culture (Atai)
• Moroccan-style green
tea with mint is now
commonly served all
through North Africa.
Just like in most of tea-drinking
here is served all
through the day. Tea is
something to be served
to guests, and it is
impolite to refuse it.