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“If you teach a person what to learn, you are
preparing that person for the past.
If you teach a person how to learn, you are
preparing for the future.”
- Cyril houle
• Awareness or analysis of one’s own learning or
• “Thinking about thinking” or “learning how to learn”
• Acquired knowledge about cognitive process.
• This term was coined by John Flavell(1979-1987)
KNOWLEDGE OF PERSON VARIABLES
• Knowledge about how human beings learn and
• For example, studying early in the morning and
late at night.
• Working better in a quiet library rather than at
home where there are lot of things that make it
hard for you to focus and concentrate.
KNOWLEDGE OF TASK VARIABLES
• Knowledge about the nature of task.
• It is about knowing what exactly needs to be
accomplished, gauging its difficulty and knowing
the kind of effort it will demand for you.
• For example, being aware that you take more time
in reading a book in educational philosophy than
reading a novel.
KNOWLEDGE OF STRATEGY VARIABLES
• Involves awareness of the strategy you are using
to learn a topic.
• Meta-attention is the awareness of specific
strategies so that you can keep your attention
focused on the topic or task at hand.
• Meta-memory is your awareness of specific
strategies that work best for you.
Omrod, includes the following in the practice of
• Knowing the limits of one’s own learning and memory
• Knowing what learning tasks one can realistically accomplish
within a certain amount of time.
• Knowing which learning strategies are effective and which
• Planning an approach to a learning task that is likely to be
• Using effective learning strategies to process and
learn new material.
• Monitoring one’s own knowledge and
• Using effective strategies for retrieval of
previously stored information.
• Knowledge is said to be metacognitive if it is
keenly used in a purposeful manner to ensure
that a goal is met.
Huitt believes that metacognition includes the ability to ask
and answer the following types of questions:
• What do I know about this subject, topic, issue?
• Do I know what I need to know?
• Do I know where I can go to get some information, knowledge?
• How much time will I need to learn this?
• What are some strategies and tactics that I can use to learn this?
• Did I understand what I just heard, read or saw?
• How will I know if I am learning at an appropriate topic?
• How can I spot an error if I make one?
• How should I revise my plan if it is not.
METACOGNITIVE STRATEGIES TO
SOME EXAMPLES OF TEACHING STRATEGIES TO
1. Have students monitor their own learning and
2.Teach students study or learning strategies.
• TQLR – it is a metacognitive strategy before
listening to a story or a presentation.
• PQ4R – this strategy is used in a study of a unit or
T - TUNE IN
- It is first important for the learner himself to be aware that
he is paying attention, and that he is ready to learn.
Q – QUESTION
- the learner is given questions or he thinks of questions
about what he will soon learn.
L – LISTEN
- the learner exerts effort to listen.
R – REMEMBER
- the learner uses ways or strategies to remember what was
P – PREVIEW
• Scan the whole chapter before delving in each paragraph
Q – QUESTION
• Read the guide question provided, or think of your own questions about the
R – READ
• Check out sub headings as you read. Find out the meaning of words that are not
clear to you.
R – RECITE
• Work on answering the questions you had earlier.
R – REVIEW
• Pinpoint topics you may need to go back and read in order to understand better.
R – REFLECT
• Think about what you read.
3. Have students make predictions about information
to be presented next based on what they have read.
4. Have students relate ideas to existing knowledge
5. Have students develop questions; ask question of
themselves, about what’s going on around them.
6. Help students to know when to ask for help.
7. Show students how to know when to transfer
knowledge, attitudes, values, skills to other situations
NOVICE AND EXPERT LEARNERS
• A person who has just started learning or doing
• Employed metacognitive strategies in learning.
• Monitored their learning and consequently adjusted
their strategies to make learning more effective.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN NOVICE AND
• Knowledge in different subject areas
• Problem Solving
• Learning/thinking strategies
• Selectivity in processing
• Production of output
• The LCP were put together by the American Psychological
Association. The following 14 psychological principles pertain to
the learner and the earning process.
• The 14 principles are divided into those referring to:
- Cognitive and metacognitive
- Motivational and affective
- Developmental and social
- Individual difference factors
COGNITIVE AND METACOGNITIVE
1. Nature of Learning Process
• the learning of complex subject matter is most effective when it is
an international process of constructing meaning from information
2. Goals of the Learning Process
• the successful learner, over time and with support and
instructional guidance, can create meaningful, coherent
representations of knowledge.
3. Construction of Knowledge
• the successful learner can link new information with existing
knowledge in meaningful ways.
• Knowledge widens and deepens as students continue to build
links between new information and experiences and their
existing knowledge base.
4. Strategic Thinking
• the successful learner can create and use a repertoire of
thinking and reasoning strategies to achieve complex learning
• Successful learners use in their approach to learning reasoning,
problem solving, and concept learning.
5. Thinking about thinking
• Successful learners can reflect on how they think and
learn, set reasonable learning or performances goals,
select potentially appropriate learning strategies or
methods, and monitor their progress towards these
6. Context of Learning
• Learning is influenced by environmental factors,
including culture, technology and instructional
MOTIVATIONAL AND AFFECTIVE
7. Motivational and emotional influences on learning
• the rich internal world of thoughts, beliefs, goals, and expectation for success or failure
can enhance or interfere with the learner’s quality of thinking and information
8. Intrinsic motivation to learn
• Intrinsic motivation is stimulated by tasks of optimal novelty and difficulty, relevant to
personal interests, and providing for personal choice and control.
9. Effects of motivation on effort
• Effort is another major indicator of motivation to learn. The acquisition of complex
knowledge and skills demands the investment of considerable learner energy and
strategic effort, along with persistence over time.
DEVELOPMENTAL AND SOCIAL
10. Developmental influences on learning
• learning is most effective when differential developmental within and across
physical, intellectual, emotional, and social domains is taken into account.
• Individuals learn best when material is appropriate to their developmental level
and is presented in an enjoyable and interesting way.
11. Social influence on learning
• Learning can be enhanced when the learner has an opportunity to interact and
to collaborate with others on instructional tasks.
INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES FACTORS
12. Individual differences in learning
• Individuals are born with and develop their own capabilities and talents.
• Educators need to help students examine their learning preferences and expand or modify
them, if necessary.
13. Learning and diversity
• the same basic principles of learning, motivation, and effective instruction apply to all
14. Standards and assessment
• Assessment provides important information to both the learner and teacher at all stages of the
Alexander and Murphy gave a summary of the 14
principles and distilled them into five areas:
1. The knowledge base
• One’s knowledge serves as the foundation of all future learning.
2. Strategic processing and control
• Learners can develop skills to reflect and regulate their thoughts and behaviors
in order to learn more effectively.
3. Motivation and affect
• Factors such as intrinsic motivation, reasons for wanting to learn, personal goals
and enjoyment of learning tasks all have a crucial role in the learning process.
4. Development and Individual Differences
• Learning is a unique journey for each person
because each learner has his own unique
combination of genetic and environmental
factors that influence him.
5. Situation or context
• Learning happens in the context of a society as
well as within an individual.