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Movement and behavior of scarlet
macaws (Ara macao) during the post-
fledging dependence period
1 Conservation Biology Pro...
INTRODUCTION
STUDY OBJECTIVE
Describe the movements, behavior, and social development of
scarlet macaws during the post-fledging depend...
MOTIVATION
1) Post-fledgling dependence period is little-known, yet potentially
sensitive in terms of population demograph...
• Transmitters housed in a brass cylinder mounted
on metal band with locking nut closure
• Estimated battery life: 52 week...
• Radiocollared and monitored 8 macaws from 4
broods over a 3-yr period
• Macaws tracked 2-5 days
per week for 6-11 weeks
• Visual locations recorded
when possible; if not
positions were triangu...
Behavioral and Social Data Collection
• Behavioral States
– Resting
– Manipulation
– Interaction with parents
– Interactio...
RESULTS
Phase I (2-36 days)
• Social interaction only with
parents and sibling
Phase II (37-63 days)
Movement patterns related to ...
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0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Week
Frequency
Alone
With parents
With sibling
With ot...
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0.1
0.2
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0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Week
Frequency
Locomotion
Foraging
Interaction w/ sibl...
• Cost of guarding 3-6 nestboxes concentrated in a small area for
the duration of the nesting season is US $1500
• We reco...
• Heavy utilization of rare
coastal mangrove habitat
immediately after fledging
• Guacalillo Mangrove warrants
inclusion o...
• Documented extensive use of
lands involved in cattle production
• Promote artificial nest box and
nest protection progra...
Implications for in situ vs. ex situ management
• Our results suggest that the post-fledging period is a sensitive
time wh...
• Disease
• Introduce inappropriate
or maladaptive behaviors
Risks associated with macaw releases
• Genetics: unknown
orig...
Long-term conservation of the Central
Pacific scarlet macaw population
• Increase recruitment of naturally fledged birds i...
Potential role for ex-situ management
Reestablishing macaw populations where they have
been locally eliminated
Liberaciones de Ara macao en Costa
Rica (1997-2017)?
• 11 organizaciones +?
• 16 sitios de liberación +?
• Han liberadas ~...
Preguntas Antes de Crear
Organización/Liberar Animales
• Genética- se tomó en cuenta?
• Enfermedades- Examinadas?
• Hábita...
• Poseen las aves habilidades
para la sobrevivencia y la
convivencia social?
Manejo ex situ
Lapas Gallo Pinto???
Manejo in-situ
Taller de manejo in-situ Ara macao
UCR-San Ramón (4 nov 2017)
Movement and behavior of scarlet macaws (Ara macao) during the post fledging dependence period
Movement and behavior of scarlet macaws (Ara macao) during the post fledging dependence period
Movement and behavior of scarlet macaws (Ara macao) during the post fledging dependence period
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Movement and behavior of scarlet macaws (Ara macao) during the post fledging dependence period

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Movimiento y comportamiento de la lapa roja durante el periodo posterior al abandono del nido

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Movement and behavior of scarlet macaws (Ara macao) during the post fledging dependence period

  1. 1. Movement and behavior of scarlet macaws (Ara macao) during the post- fledging dependence period 1 Conservation Biology Program, University of Minnesota Mark Myers1 and Christopher Vaughan2 2 Department of Wildlife Ecology & Gaylord Nelson Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION
  3. 3. STUDY OBJECTIVE Describe the movements, behavior, and social development of scarlet macaws during the post-fledging dependence period.
  4. 4. MOTIVATION 1) Post-fledgling dependence period is little-known, yet potentially sensitive in terms of population demography. 2) Management options to reduce poaching. • In situ – Artificial nestbox program – Guard active nest cavities – Community involvement and education • Ex situ – Remove eggs or nestlings from high-risk nests – Hand-rear and release young macaws
  5. 5. • Transmitters housed in a brass cylinder mounted on metal band with locking nut closure • Estimated battery life: 52 weeks METHODS
  6. 6. • Radiocollared and monitored 8 macaws from 4 broods over a 3-yr period
  7. 7. • Macaws tracked 2-5 days per week for 6-11 weeks • Visual locations recorded when possible; if not positions were triangulated • Locations were pooled for sibling pairs due to lack of independence Radiotelemetry data collection • 3 locations recorded per tracking day; one during each of three periods
  8. 8. Behavioral and Social Data Collection • Behavioral States – Resting – Manipulation – Interaction with parents – Interaction with sibling – Locomotion – Foraging • Social states – Alone – With sibling – With parents – With unrelated macaws • Instantaneous scan sample of focal individuals (Altmann 1974) • 15-min observation windows; data recorded every 60 sec • 308 observation windows during first 11 weeks post-fledging
  9. 9. RESULTS
  10. 10. Phase I (2-36 days) • Social interaction only with parents and sibling Phase II (37-63 days) Movement patterns related to age • Daily movements limited (meters) • Limited range (100’s ha) • Extensive range (1000’s ha) • Integration into flocks of unrelated macaws • Daily movements between mangrove roost and feeding areas (kilometers)
  11. 11. 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Week Frequency Alone With parents With sibling With other macaws Social integration of scarlet macaws during the post-fledging dependence period
  12. 12. 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Week Frequency Locomotion Foraging Interaction w/ sibling Manipulation Interaction w/ parents Resting Behavioral development of scarlet macaws during the post-fledging dependence period
  13. 13. • Cost of guarding 3-6 nestboxes concentrated in a small area for the duration of the nesting season is US $1500 • We recommend extending protection and monitoring into the early post-fledging period • Two of 8 fledglings fell to low perches during the initial 14 days post-fledging, and one was killed by a small carnivore. Need to extend protection into early post-fledging period DISCUSSION
  14. 14. • Heavy utilization of rare coastal mangrove habitat immediately after fledging • Guacalillo Mangrove warrants inclusion on the list of “Wetlands of International Importance” under the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. • Northernmost occurrence of the subspecies Ara macao macao Importance of coastal mangrove habitat
  15. 15. • Documented extensive use of lands involved in cattle production • Promote artificial nest box and nest protection programs among macaw-friendly landowners • Encourage cattle husbandry practices that benefit macaws Cattle production and macaw conservation are not mutually exclusive
  16. 16. Implications for in situ vs. ex situ management • Our results suggest that the post-fledging period is a sensitive time when young macaws gradually develop behaviors and social relationships required for successful life in the wild. • Conditions are difficult to reproduce in captive settings. • From the avian literature, environmental and social contexts of early learning influence developmental trajectory.
  17. 17. • Disease • Introduce inappropriate or maladaptive behaviors Risks associated with macaw releases • Genetics: unknown origin of brood stock • Deficient predator avoidance
  18. 18. Long-term conservation of the Central Pacific scarlet macaw population • Increase recruitment of naturally fledged birds into the population • Active management and protection of natural and artificial nest cavities • Collaboration with local landowners and communities
  19. 19. Potential role for ex-situ management Reestablishing macaw populations where they have been locally eliminated
  20. 20. Liberaciones de Ara macao en Costa Rica (1997-2017)? • 11 organizaciones +? • 16 sitios de liberación +? • Han liberadas ~700 lapas rojas desde 1997? Éxito? • Con cuales fines tienen los proyectos? • Futuro?
  21. 21. Preguntas Antes de Crear Organización/Liberar Animales • Genética- se tomó en cuenta? • Enfermedades- Examinadas? • Hábitat- hay alimentos todo el año, sitios de anidación, sitios de pernoctar, etc? • Aprendió en cautiverio (fuentes de comida- donde/cuando/como, depredadores-cuales/defensa, anidación-como/cuando/donde, ser humano?, habilidades sociales, sitios de pernoctar, etc.) • Existe monitoreo para determinar grado de éxito y como mejorarlo?
  22. 22. • Poseen las aves habilidades para la sobrevivencia y la convivencia social?
  23. 23. Manejo ex situ Lapas Gallo Pinto???
  24. 24. Manejo in-situ
  25. 25. Taller de manejo in-situ Ara macao UCR-San Ramón (4 nov 2017)

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