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  2. 2. CONTENT Topic Topic name Page no. Acknowledgement 1 What is bioluminescence? 2 History 3 Evolution 4 How does it work? 5-6 List of Bioluminescent Organisms 7-8 Uses in nature 9-11 Commercial benefit 12 Modern day application 13-15 Difference 16 Recent paper works on bioluminescence 17-18 References 19
  3. 3. Acknowledgement I sincerely thank our honourable principle sir Dr. Amit Chakravarty, and vice-principle mam Dr. Sudipa Chakravarty for their endeavours that helped me. I also want to acknowledge Dr. Paramita Bhattacharya and Jayasmita mam for their valuable guidance and some of my friends who assisted me. 1
  4. 4. WHAT IS BIOLUMISCENCE? Bioluminescence is production of light without heat through chemical reaction by living organism. The light emitted by a bioluminescent organism is produced by energy released from chemical reactions occurring inside the organism. 2
  5. 5. HISTORY • In 1854 Johann Florian Heller (1813-1871) identified strands (hyphae) of fungi as the source of light in dead wood at first time. • In 1920, the American zoologist E. Newton Harvey published a monograph, The Nature of Animal Light, summarizing early work on bioluminescence. • Darwin also observed a luminous "jelly-fish of the genus Dianaea 3 3
  6. 6. EVOLUTION Bioluminescence in fish began at least by the Cretaceous period. About 1,500 fish species are known to be bioluminescent, and this feature evolved independently at a minimum of 27 time Of these 27 occasions, 17 involved the taking up of bio luminous bacteria from the surrounding water while in the others, the intrinsic light evolved through chemical synthesis. 4
  7. 7. How Does Bioluminescence Work?  Bioluminescence is a product of chemical reaction in an organism.  It involves a class of chemical called luciferins (light bringers).  The luciferins oxidizes in the presence of a catalytic enzyme(luciferase) to create light and an inactive compound(oxyluciferins).  As a result, energy is released in a from light due to energy from excitation of the electron in the ions. The photon visible light produced is about 50kcal. 5
  8. 8. HOW DOES IT WORK? in bioluminescence, a luciferin produce lights & a luciferase the light producing chemical reaction to take place In this reaction luciferin act as a catalyst. Luciferase allows oxygen to combine with luciferin The reaction produces photons of light And oxidized luciferin becomes inactive oxyluciferin 6
  9. 9. List of Bioluminescent Organisms Terrestrial animal: Certain anthropoid Fire flies Click beetle Glow worms Marine animals: Anglerfish Flashlight fish Black dragon fish Sparkling enope squid 7
  10. 10. List of Bioluminescent Organisms Fungi: Armillaria calvescens Armillaria gallica Bacteria: Photobacterium phosphoreum Photorhabdus luminescens Protists: Pyrodinium bahamense Lingulodinium polyedrum 8
  11. 11. Uses in Nature Bioluminescence has several functions in different criteria. Like that- o Camouflage: • bacterial bioluminescence is used for camouflage by counter illumination. • In these animals, photoreceptors control the illumination to match the brightness of the background. These light organs are usually separate from the tissue containing the bioluminescent bacteria. • in firefly squid, Watasenia scintillans are responsible for this. 9
  12. 12. Uses in Nature • Attraction: Fireflies use light to attract mates. Two systems are involved according to species; in one, females emit light from their abdomens to attract males; in the other, flying males emit signals to which the sometimes sedentary females respond. • Defence: Dinoflagellates may use bioluminescence for defence against predators. They shine when they detect a predator, possibly making the predator itself more vulnerable by attracting the attention of predators from higher trophic levels. 10
  13. 13. Uses in Nature • Warning: Bioluminescence is widely used for warning that the creature concerned is unpalatable. Millipedes glow for the same purpose. Some marine organisms are believed to emit light for a similar reason. These include scale worms, jellyfish and brittle stars. • Communication: Communication in the form of quorum sensing plays a role in the regulation of luminescence in many species of bacteria. Quantula striata the only known bioluminescent terrestrial mollusc. Pulses of light are emitted from a gland near the front of the foot and may have a communicative function 11
  14. 14. How Can We Make Use of Bioluminescent Chemical for Our Own Benefit? 12
  15. 15. Bioluminescence Modern Day Application Biology and medicine: 1. Luciferase systems are widely used in genetic engineering as reporter genes. 2. Bioluminescent activdate destruction is an experimental cancer treatment 3. Vibrio bacteria symbiosis with marine invertebrates such as the Hawaiian bobtail squid are key experimental models for bioluminescence. 4. Its used for bio monitoring. 13
  16. 16. Bioluminescence Modern Day Application In Environment: 1. Detection of drugs in surface water and waste water samples preliminary testing of toxicity. 2. Assessment of heavy metal by bacterial bioluminescence in waste water. 3. Dinoflagelet bioluminescence for environment risk detection. 4. Detection of specific pollutants in environment.  In Industrial field: 1. structures of photophores, the light producing organs in bioluminescent organisms, are being investigated by industrial designers. 14
  17. 17. Bioluminescence Modern Day Application Others field: 1. Engineered bioluminescence could perhaps one day be used to reduce the need for street lighting. 2. It also used in energy consumption. 15
  18. 18. What is the Difference Between Bio- fluorescence and Bioluminescence? Bioluminescence Biofluroscence Bioluminescence is a chemical process in which an enzyme breaks a substrate down and one of the products of this reaction is light. Bioluorescence is a physical process by which light excites electrons in the fluorophor to a higher energy state, and when that electron falls back down to its ground state it emits a photon. The most popular usage of luciferase (an enzyme that causes bioluminescence in fireflies and sea pansies) is to test that activity of gene regulatory elements The likelihood of measuring autofluorescence or excitation photons is extremely low 16
  19. 19. Recent paper works on Bioluminescence Published: July 2003 17
  20. 20. Recent paper works on Bioluminescence Published: December 2014 18
  21. 21. References • Douglas, R.H.; Mullineaux, C.W.; Partridge, J.C. (29 September 2000). "Long-wave sensitivity in deep-sea stomiid dragonfish with far-red bioluminescence: evidence for a dietary origin of the chlorophyll-derived retinal photosensitizer of Malacosteus niger“ • Stanger-Hall, K.F.; Lloyd, J.E.; Hillis, D.M. (2007). "Phylogeny of North American fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae): implications for the evolution of light signals". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 45 (1): 33–49. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2007.05.013 PMID 17644427 • Di Rocco, Giuliana; Gentile, Antonietta; Antonini, Annalisa; Truffa, Silvia; Piaggio, Giulia; Capogrossi, Maurizio C.; Toietta, Gabriele (1 September 2012). "Analysis of biodistribution and engraftment into the liver of genetically modified mesenchymal stromal cells derived from adipose tissue". Cell Transplantation. 21 (9): 1997–2008. doi:10.3727/096368911X637452 PMID 22469297 • Sparks, John S.; Schelly, Robert C.; Smith, W. Leo; Davis, Matthew P.; Tchernov, Dan; Pieribone, Vincent A.; Gruber, David F. (January 8, 2014). "The Covert World of Fish Biofluorescence: A Phylogenetically Widespread and Phenotypically Variable 19