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What is DNA ?
• DNA is an abbreviation for Deoxyribonucleic
• DNA contains the genetic blueprint of living
• DNA contains the instructions for assembling
cells in the body.
• Every cell in the body has a complete set of
• DNA is unique for each individual.
Structure of DNA
• Sugar-Phosphate backbone
• Four complimentary base pairs
• Adenine and Thymine
• Guanine and Cytosine
• The base pairs contain weak hydrogen bonds
which hold the strands together.
Salient features of DNA
• DNA Replication
• Replication is the method by which any molecule
can form an exact replica of itself and the DNA gets
embedded in both these daughter molecules.
• DNA Extraction
• In this method, it is possible to separate and bring
together different strands of DNA that are of the
• DNA Annealing
• This is the method by which two DNA strands can be
brought together and then paired together or
melted to form one single entity.
Uniqueness of D.N.A.
• Extremely dense information storage.
• 1 gm DNA = 1 X 1014 bits
• 3 X 1014 molecules at a time
• Energy efficiency
• 1 Joule = 2 X 1019 operations
I believe things like DNA computing
will eventually lead the way to a
molecular revolution which ultimately
will have a very dramatic effect on
Hamiltonian Directed Path
• Problem Statement
• Consider a salesman who has to travel to a number
of cities on a daily basis. Now the problem is to find
for him the fastest route, without taking him
through the same city twice.
• The solution can be found out by using the
replication property of DNA.
• Several options can be checked at once as DNA
performs parallel processing.
• So far this method has been successful up to
• With advancements almost daily the no. of
cities are sure to rise up.
• Generate all possible routes.
• Select itineraries that start with proper city
and end with the final city.
• Gel Electrophoresis.
• Select itineraries which contain each city only
1.Generate all possible routes
• For this purpose, we encode all the cities:
1.Generating all possible routes
• Now we encode the itineraries by connecting the
city sequences for which routes exist.
• Let S1 be the path from Bangalore to Kochi.
• S1 = CGGATG
• Now we compute, S1 = GCCTAC
• Now the for Bangalore to Kochi = GCCTAC
• Similarly, we will find the codes for all the paths.
2.Select desired itineraries
• The next step is to select the itineraries that
start and end with the correct route. The
strategy is to selectively cope and amplify only
that DNA which starts with Delhi and end with
• Sort the DNA by length and select the DNA
whose length equals to 5 cities.
• Generally, the DNA is a negatively charged
molecule, having a constant charge density.
The GEL slows down the passing of DNA
depending on the lengths therefore, producing
bands. “The technique used is GEL
Electrophoresis. It is used to differentiate
between DNA molecules having different
Applications of DNA based
• Solving NP-complete and hard computational
• Storage and Associative memory
• DNA 2 DNA Problems
• DNA Sequencing
• DNA Fingerprinting
• DNA mutation detection
DNA based computers Vs.
DNA based computers Vs.
DNA based computers Conventional Computers
Can do billions of operations
Can do substantially fewer
Can provide huge memory in small
Setting up a problem may require
Setting up only requires keyboard
DNA is sensitive to chemical
Electronic data is vulnerable but
can be backed up easily.