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Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)...... An Alternative Clean Fuel for Green World


  2. 2. Prepared By: Engr. Mohammad Imam Hossain (Rubel) E-Mail: rubelduet04@gmail.com , Skype: mdimam, Cell Phone: +8801818261989
  3. 3. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is simply natural gas which has been converted to a liquid state by cooling it to minus 161°C. The volume of natural gas in its liquid state is about 600 times smaller than its volume in its gaseous state. (if the gas is initially around 15°C). This process, which was developed in the 19th century, makes it possible to transport natural gas to places pipelines do not reach. Maximum transport pressure is set at around 25kPa. Approximate lower and upper flammable limit is between 5% and 15% by volume in the air. LNG is Natural Gas Predominantly methane (90%) with some mixture of ethane, propane, butane, some heavier alkaline and nitrogen. It is odorless, colorless, non-toxic and non-corrosive. Energy density of LNG is %60 that of diesel fuel. Hazards include flammability after vaporization into a gaseous state, freezing and asphyxia. What is LNG ? CH4 + 2 O2 → CO2 + 2 H2O + heat
  4. 4. Although the LNG industry is perceived to have developed rapidly, it is based on quite old foundations. Some key development milestones include:  Michael Faraday liquefied methane in 1820  Karl von Linde developed compressor refrigeration machine in 1873  First LNG plant built in 1912 in West Virginia, began operation in 1917  Patent filed for LNG in 1914  First commercial liquefaction plant built in 1941 in Cleveland, Ohio  First LNG disaster in 1944 in Cleveland, Ohio  First LNG tanker, the Methane Pioneer, carried first cargo of 7,000 bbl. LNG in 1959 from Louisiana to UK  First export / import trade in 1964 between Algeria and UK  One of the longest continuously operated LNG plants at Kenai, Alaska, started in 1969 and shut down in 2013  LNG is a demand driven industry and demand is determined by competing energy sources, mainly oil and coal  From the start of the international trade in the 1960s, LNG demand reached 50 MTPA in 1990, then 100 MTPA in 2000, and 240 MTPA in 2012  Production is expected to approximately double between 2012 and 2030 History of LNG ? CH4 + 2 O2 → CO2 + 2 H2O + heat
  5. 5.  It can be re-gasified and distributed via pipelines as natural gas.  It can be used in natural gas vehicles.  Density is roughly 0.4kg/l or 0.5kg/l depending on temperature, pressure and composition compared to water 1kg/l  The heat value depends on the source of gas and the process that is used for liquefaction.  The higher heating value for LNG is estimated as 24MJ/l, the lower heating value for LNG is 21 MJ/l or 635 BTU/ft3  Energy density is 2.4 times grater than that of CNG which makes LNG more economical to transport  The energy density of LNG is comparable to propane (C3H8) or ethanol (C2H6O)but is %60 of diesel and %70 of gasoline. Basic Fact of LNG CH4 + 2 O2 → CO2 + 2 H2O + heat
  6. 6.  LNG density is 600 times greater than gaseous NG  Energy density on volume basis is 2.4 times CNG and 60% of diesel fuel  Natural Gas (& LNG) is clean, low carbon intensity, relatively secure and diverse supply, and not nuclear  Future Natural Gas supply (& LNG) is supported by advances in upstream production technology allowing access to vast unconventional resources  LNG allows technically and economically feasible NG transport over very long distances (longer than pipelines and where pipelines are infeasible)  LNG developed over extended timeframe. Upstream natural gas production was already feeding pipeline systems before the LNG industry. Early LNG liquefaction and regasification development was for storage rather than export. Therefore LNG industry did not need to develop all parts of the value chain at the same time.  Early LNG developments were driven by government development intervention and NOCs.  Learning curve benefits have been demonstrated due to improved process technology performance (led by technology provider competition), increased maximum train production capacity (facilitated by key equipment providers for compressors, motors, heat exchangers) and improved project execution (led by EPC contractors) Why LNG ? CH4 + 2 O2 → CO2 + 2 H2O + heat
  7. 7.  LNG adds value to Natural Gas by allowing efficient transport over very long distance.  LNG is a complex, multi-unit value chain but with similar configuration common to most developments  Stringent pre-treatment of feed gas is critical for LNG process performance  There are multiple technology providers for the core liquefaction process, in a competitive market, with two of them dominating  Storage, shipping and re-gasification are significant components of overall value chain  LNG has been applied to conventional and unconventional gas sources and to on-shore and off- shore reservoirs Value Chain of LNG ? CH4 + 2 O2 → CO2 + 2 H2O + heat
  8. 8. Uses of LNG ? CH4 + 2 O2 → CO2 + 2 H2O + heat Internationally, LPG is being consumed as a fuel in the following sectors:  Household sector as cooking, heating and as lighting fuel.  Commercially as cooking fuel in hotels and restaurants.  Automotive sector as fuel for taxis, vans and private cars.  Industrial sector as cutting and heating fuel.  Agriculture sector for crop drying, etc.  Other industrial uses such as manufacture of petrochemicals.  Electricity generation.  Chemical feed stocks.
  9. 9. Properties of LNG CH4 + 2 O2 → CO2 + 2 H2O + heat Chemical Formula CH4 (Methane) Boiling Point -161°C or -257.8°F Liquid Density 426kg/m³ or 26.5943lb/ft³ Gas Density at 25°C or 77ºF 0.656 kg/m³ or 0.04095lb/ft³ Specific Gravity (Air=1) 0.554 Limits of Flammability 5.3% to 14% Auto Ignition Temperature 595°C or 1103°F LNG, which is predominantly Methane, is an odorless, non-toxic and non-corrosive.
  10. 10. Energy Content of LNGCH4 + 2 O2 → CO2 + 2 H2O + heat  The exact energy value depends on the gas source and the process used to liquefy the gas.  The energy value of LNG ranges from 24 MJ/L to 21 MJ/L.  The energy density of LNG is 2.4 times greater than CNG.  This makes it economical to transport.  The energy content of LNG is comparable to propane.  The density of LNG is roughly 0.41 kg/L to 0.5 kg/L, depending mostly on temperature and pressure.
  11. 11. Specifications of LNG ? CH4 + 2 O2 → CO2 + 2 H2O + heat
  12. 12. Is LNG flammable? CH4 + 2 O2 → CO2 + 2 H2O + heat It depends. When cold LNG comes in contact with warmer air, it becomes a visible vapor cloud. As it continues to get warmer, the vapor cloud becomes lighter than air and rises. When LNG vapor mixes with air it is only flammable if within 5%-15% natural gas in air. Less than this is not enough to burn. More than this, there is too much gas in the air and not enough oxygen for it to burn.
  13. 13. Comparative with other fuels Comparison of Properties of Liquid Fuels LNG Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Gasoline Fuel Oil Toxic No No Yes Yes Carcinogenic No No Yes Yes Flammable Vapor Yes Yes Yes Yes Form Vapor Clouds Yes Yes Yes No Asphyxiant Yes, but in a vapor cloud Yes, same As LNG No No Extreme Cold Temperature Yes Yes, if refrigerated No No Other health hazards None None Eye irritant, narcosis, nausea, others. Same as gasoline Flash point o F -306 -156 -50 140 Boiling point o F -256 -44 90 400 Flammability Range in air % 5-15 2.1-9.5 1.3-6 N/A Stored Pressure Atmospheric Pressurized (atmospheric if refrigerated) Atmospheric Atmospheric Behavior if spilled Evaporates, forming visible “clouds”. Portions of cloud could be flammable or explosive under certain conditions. Evaporates, forming vapor clouds which could be flammable or explosive under certain conditions. Evaporates, forms flammable pool; environmental clean up required. Same as gasoline Source: Lewis, William W., Lewis, James P, Outtrim, Patricia A., PTL: LNG Facilities - The Real Risk, AiChE Meeting, New Orleans, April 2003 as modified by industry sources.
  14. 14. Comparative with other fuels
  15. 15. Comparative with other fuels (Emissions)
  16. 16. Comparative with other fuels ( Emissions)
  17. 17. Comparative with other fuels ( Emissions)
  18. 18. Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions
  19. 19. Regional Variations – Gas specificationCH4 + 2 O2 → CO2 + 2 H2O + heat
  20. 20. CH4 + 2 O2 → CO2 + 2 H2O + heat The Global Status of LNG  LNG is > 30% of global natural gas movement; Gas is > 20% of global primary energy  Both LNG and natural gas are forecast to continue recent growth  LNG development projects implemented in "waves" with different characteristics  National oil companies and governments led early development, major international oil companies dominate current projects, smaller companies are entering  One-to-one trade and long-term contracts have transitioned to more diversified supply and off- take and greater short-term and spot contracts
  21. 21. CH4 + 2 O2 → CO2 + 2 H2O + heat LNG Supply and Demand The LNG industry expects a sustained increase in LNG demand over the coming decade and has committed to many new projects in recent years. A consensus view of LNG supply and demand has been compiled from a range of sources including LNG operating companies and government bodies
  22. 22. Global LNG Demand
  23. 23. Global LNG Demand
  24. 24. Global LNG Market
  25. 25. CH4 + 2 O2 → CO2 + 2 H2O + heat LNG Supply 01
  26. 26. CH4 + 2 O2 → CO2 + 2 H2O + heat LNG Supply 02
  27. 27. CH4 + 2 O2 → CO2 + 2 H2O + heat LNG Supply 03
  28. 28. CH4 + 2 O2 → CO2 + 2 H2O + heat New LNG Supply Projects
  29. 29. LNG for Bangladesh Now a days, to meet immediate requirement of natural gas, importing LNG is the main source of supply. The government also took the initiative in 2010 and a delegation headed by the Secretary, Energy visited Qatar in June 2010 and agreed a Memorandum of Understanding which was signed in January 2011. In short term solution various countries adopting the methodology of Floating Storage & Re-gasification Unit (FSRU) instead of land based permanent type. However, considering the cost effectiveness, with the short term solutions one should not forget about the land-based LNG facilities. In Bangladesh, as the port facilities is very limited and specially for LNG vessel because of the higher requirement of draught, it has been planned to use FSRU near Moheshkhali where required draught is available at about 5-6 km offshore of Moheshkhali coast. The mother vessel carrying LNG would be transferred to the FSRU which would be moored at about 5-6 km off-coast of Moheshkhali. An offshore pipeline would be installed from the FSRU and a delivery point will be stationed on-shore at Moheshkhali Island. From the delivery point, a gas transmission pipeline of about 85- 90 km would be installed to bring the gas at the port city of Chittagong. In Chittagong, it would be hooked up with Karnaphully gas system and the gas would be supplied to the customers. As per plan, initially about 500 mmcfd of gas would be supplied for which in total about 4 million ton of LNG would be required annually. Current Sector-wise Use of Gas in Bangladesh (Energy and Mineral Division)
  30. 30. Production of LNG  Treated to remove water (H2O), hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide (CO2) and other components that will freeze under the low temperature such as benzene (C6H6).  LNG typically contains > 90% methane (CH4) and small amount of ethane (C2H6), propane (C3H8), butane (C4H10) and some heavier alkanes  Purification process can be designed to give about 100% methane  Rare risk for LNG is RPT (rapid phase transition) which occurs when cold LNG comes into contact with water  Important infrastructure is LNG plant consisting of one or more terrains each of which is independent for gas liquefaction  Regasification terminals reheats the LNG and turns into gas  Regasification terminals are usually connected to storage and pipeline distribution network to LDC (Local distribution companies)or IPP (independent power plants)
  31. 31. LNG Supply Chain 01
  32. 32. LNG Supply Chain 02
  33. 33. LNG Supply Chain 03
  34. 34. LNG Plant
  35. 35. LNG Liquefaction Process Liquefaction process involves removal of certain components, such as dust, acid gases, helium, water and heavy hydrocarbons which would cause difficulty in downstream.
  36. 36. LNG Regasification 01
  37. 37. LNG Regasification 02
  38. 38. LNG Transportation Once loaded aboard specially designed tankers, LNG is maintained in a liquid state by highly efficient insulation which surrounds the cargo compartment. However, since no insulation system is perfect, a small amount of LNG vaporizes or "boils off", during transit. This boil-off helps to auto-refrigerate the remaining LNG, thus keeping it in its liquid state. Boil-off is also used to supplement bunker oil as fuel for the tankers. Upon arrival at the receiving facility, LNG is transferred into specially designed storage tanks where it is stored as a liquid at near atmospheric pressure and minus 160°C temperature. The LNG remains in storage until it is demanded for redelivery. At that time it is pumped from the tanks and subjected to both heat and pressure to return it to a gaseous state for transportation by pipeline. The small amount of boil-off that occurs during storage is used as fuel or combined with the facility’s daily send out. Condensed into a liquid at atmospheric pressure (max. Transport pressure set around 25kPa/3.6psi) by cooling it to approximately -162 oC (-260 oF). • It can be transported by spherically designed cryogenic sea vessels (LNG carriers) or cryogenic road tankers. • Reduction in volume makes it much more cost efficient to transport over long distances where pipelines dont exist.
  39. 39. Auto LNG
  40. 40. Auto LNG & LCNG Station
  41. 41. Auto LNG Station LNG stations are structurally similar to gasoline and diesel stations because they all deliver a liquid fuel. LNG dispensers deliver fuel to vehicles at pressures of 30 to 120 psi. Because LNG is stored and dispensed as a super-cooled, liquefied gas, protective clothing, face shield, and gloves are required when fueling a vehicle, and personnel must also be trained on fueling procedures. There are three options for LNG fueling: mobile, containerized, and permanent large stations. In mobile fueling, LNG is delivered by a tanker truck that has on-board metering and dispensing equipment. A starter station, or containerized station, includes a storage tank, dispensing equipment, metering and required containment. A permanent station has greater storage capacity and is tailored to meet fleets' needs. Storage vessel – tanker truck delivers LNG to storage vessel Cryogenic pump – moves LNG from storage to dispenser Dispenser – 1 or more hoses to dispense fuel to vehicles
  42. 42. Auto LNG Station
  43. 43. Auto LCNG Station A liquefied-compressed natural gas (LCNG) station combines LNG and CNG in one station. A typical LCNG station is supplied with LNG and has dispensers for both LNG and CNG vehicles. Like an LNG refueling station, an LCNG station relies on a local LNG supply that can be delivered by tanker truck, similar to diesel and gasoline. The advantage of an LCNG station is that it can offer both LNG and CNG. This type of station can also be set up in areas where there is no local natural gas distribution. At an LCNG station, LNG vehicles are fueled in the same way as at an LNG station with a cryogenic pump moving the LNG from an insulated storage vessel through a dispenser into the vehicle. To produce CNG, the LNG is pumped into a vaporizer that converts it from liquid to gas in a controlled way so that it can be dispensed at the right pressure as CNG. Storage vessel – tanker truck delivers LNG to storage vessel Cryogenic pump – moves LNG from storage to dispenser and vaporizer Vaporizer – converts LNG to gas and controls pressure to dispense it as CNG Dispenser – both LNG and CNG dispensers
  44. 44. Auto LCNG Station
  45. 45. Auto LNG Conversion System
  46. 46. Auto LCNG Conversion System
  47. 47. Emissions Well-to-wheels (WTW) diagram of the use of natural gas as a transportation fuel (CNG and LNG pathways only). The bounds of the WVU Pump-to-Wheels (PTW) study are shown by the dashed boundary line, which includes the stations and the vehicles. The study included emissions from the point that tankers or pipelines crossed station property lines through to the end use in the vehicle. The gray boxes indicate the sources of methane emissions that are possible. Credit: ACS, Clark et al. Click to enlarge. Methane emissions from heavy-duty (HD) natural-gas-fueled vehicles and the compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) fueling stations that serve them.
  48. 48. LNG Power Generation
  49. 49. LNG Power Station
  50. 50. LNG Power Generation
  51. 51. Safety and Accidents Natural gas is a fuel and a combustible substance. To ensure safe and reliable operation, particular measures are taken in the design, construction and operation of LNG facilities. In its liquid state, LNG is not explosive and can not burn. For LNG to burn, it must first vaporize, then mix with air in the proper proportions (the flammable range is 5 percent to 15 percent), and then be ignited. In the case of a leak, LNG vaporizes rapidly, turning into a gas (methane plus trace gases), and mixing with air. If this mixture is within the flammable range, there is risk of ignition which would create fire and thermal radiation hazards. Gas venting from vehicles powered by LNG may create a flammability hazard if parked indoors for longer than a week. Additionally, due to its low temperature, refueling a LNG-powered vehicle requires training to avoid the risk of frostbite. LNG tankers have sailed over 100 million miles without a shipboard death or even a major accident
  52. 52. LNG….Eco Friendly Fuel Natural gas could be considered the most environmentally friendly fossil fuel, because it has the lowest CO2 emissions per unit of energy and because it is suitable for use in high efficiency combined cycle power stations. For an equivalent amount of heat, burning natural gas produces about 30 percent less carbon dioxide than burning petroleum and about 45 per cent less than burning coal. On a per kilometer transported basis, emissions from LNG are lower than piped natural gas, which is a particular issue in Europe, where significant amounts of gas are piped several thousand kilometers from Russia. However, emissions from natural gas transported as LNG are higher than for natural gas produced locally to the point of combustion as emissions associated with transport are lower for the latter. However, on the West Coast of the United States, where up to three new LNG importation terminals were proposed prior to the U.S. fracking boom, environmental groups, such as Pacific Environment, Ratepayers for Affordable Clean Energy (RACE), and Rising Tide had moved to oppose them. They claimed that, while natural gas power plants emit approximately half the carbon dioxide of an equivalent coal power plant, the natural gas combustion required to produce and transport LNG to the plants adds 20 to 40 percent more carbon dioxide than burning natural gas alone. A 2015 peer reviewed study evaluated the full end to end life cycle of LNG produced in the U.S. and consumed in Europe or Asia. It concluded that global CO2 production would be reduced due to the resulting reduction in other fossil fuels burned.
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Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)...... An Alternative Clean Fuel for Green World


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