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  1. 1. demokrasya<br />
  2. 2. ATHENS<br />demokrasya<br />Demos- mgatao<br />Kratia-pamamahala<br />
  3. 3. SOLON<br />
  4. 4. CLEISTHENES<br />
  5. 5. SPARTA<br />Ito ay lungsodestadosatimognabahagingpeninsulanggresya.<br />Ito ay kilalasatawagnaPeloponnesus napinaninirahanngmga Dorian naninunongmga Spartan.<br />Nabubuhaysapamamagitanngpagsasaka.<br />Anglumalakingpopulasyonang nag-udyoksakanilaupangmakakuhangmaraminglupain<br />Sinimulannilaangpananakopnoong 500 BK nangmahulogang halos buongpulong Peloponnesus<br />Kinalimutanng Sparta angkomersyo at industriya, sining, panitikan at pilosopiya<br />
  6. 6. PAGSASANAY NG SPARTAN<br />Angbagongsilangnasanggol ay sinusuringisangkomite.<br />Pinapatayangsanggolkapagmahina. Inihuhulogsabangin.<br />Pinapasoksaisangespesyalnapagsasanaysagulangnapito.<br />Nananatilingkasapi hanggang18.<br />Angmgababae ay nananatilisabahayngunitangmgalalaki ay nakatirasamga barracks.<br />Sinasanayangmgalalakiupangmagingmahusaynamgamandirigma.<br />Sinasanaysapalakasan at pakikidigma, sinanaysilangmagtiissahirap at huwagmagreklamo.<br />
  7. 7. pagsasanay<br />Nagsisimulaangpormalnapagsasanaysaedadna 18<br />2 taonupangmakumpletoangpagsasanay<br />Sa gulangna 20 silaytumitirasa barracks o dormitoryosakampo.<br />Angmgalalakingito ay nagingmiyembrongAsembleyasagulangna 30<br />Hindi pinahihintulutanmag-asawa so loobng 10 taon.<br />Naglilingkodsamilitarhanggangsagulangna 60<br />
  8. 8. AngLipunang Spartan<br />Angmgamamamayan at sundalo<br />Mgamangangalakal at malalayangtao<br />Alipingtagabungkalnglupa<br />
  9. 9. HELOTS<br />Angmgalalaking Spartan ay pinagkakaloobanngmgalupainupangmasuportahanangsarili<br />Angpagsasaka ay isinasagawangmga helots<br />Angmga helots ay..<br />Mgaalipingpag-aaringpamahalaanng Sparta<br />Lahatnggawain ay nakaatangsamga helots<br />
  10. 10. Mgabatang Spartan<br />
  11. 11. Ginawangmgahelots angmganasakopmulasa Peloponnesus<br />Hindi malayaangmga helots<br />Maaaringmagkapamilya, ngunithindimaaaringiwananangmgalupangsakahan.<br />Noong 6th Century B.C. higitnamasmaramiangpopulasyonng helots kumparasamgamamamayang Spartan. 10=1<br />
  12. 12. Lahatngmga Spartans ay pantay-pantay<br />Hinikayatangsimplengpamumuhayngmga Spartan upanghindimagkaroonngpagitanangmayayaman at mahihirap.<br />Ipinagbawalangmgaalahas, magagarbongkasuotan, luho at pagmamay-aringmgayaman.<br />
  13. 13. Angmgababae ay nag-aasawasagulangna 18 o 20 ngunitnamumuhayngmalayosaasawa.<br />Angmgalalaki ay nakatirasamga barracks hanggangsagulangna 30 kung saanmaaarinasilangmagtayongpamilya.<br />Angmgababae ay kailangangmagingmalusogupangmanganalkngmalusognasanggol.<br />
  14. 14. Pamahalaanng Sparta<br />May 2 hari<br />Pinamumunuanang Spartan Army at angkabuuanng Sparta<br />Angpagiginghari ay namamana<br />Gerousia<br />Binubuongkonsehong 28 tao<br />Lahatng 60 taonpataas ay kasapi<br />Nagpapanukalangmgabatas<br />Asembleyangmga Spartans<br />Lahatnglalakingnasahustonggulang ay kasapi<br />Maaaringbumotosamgabatas<br />Pinamumunuanng 5 kasapingephors<br />King Leonidas<br />
  15. 15. Nagpupulongupangpagusapanangmgamahahalagangisyunglungsod-estado.<br />LumawakangkapangyarihandahilsapagkontrolsaPeloponnesian League<br />Angmgadesisyon ay isinasagawasapamamagitanngbotongnakararami. <br />SPARTA CONTROLLED THE PELOPONNESIAN LEAGUE<br />
  16. 16. pamahalaan<br />athens<br />sparta<br />Demokratikonglungsod- estado<br />Asembleya-pinakamakapangyarihansalahat. Binubuongkalalakihang 18 patanda. <br />Konsehong 500-namamahala saestado<br />10 heneral-mgamambabatas at administrador<br />Militarismonglungsod-estado<br />Asembleya- may kauntingkapangyarihan<br />Konsehongmatatanda-namamahalasaestado, may kakayahanggumawangmgabatas<br />
  17. 17. Pamahalaan<br />athens<br />Delian League liga o samahanngmgalungsodestado<br />sparta<br />Peloponnesian League itinatagng Sparta<br />
  18. 18. REFORMS OF SOLON<br />Abolished practice of enslaving a person for unpaid debts and freed all persons enslaved for that reason<br />Abolished all feudal obligations that commoners owed the aristocracy<br />Widened political participation<br />Broke monopoly aristocrats had over Council of Athens, elected positions, and Assembly of Athens<br />Allowed all citizens regardless of wealth to serve in Assembly<br />Opened up position of archon and seat in Council of Athens to wealthy hoplites<br />Created new 400 member body which acted as Supreme Court<br />Established right of any citizen to bring a case to court<br />
  19. 19. REFORMS BACKFIRE A LITTLE<br />Solon’s reforms went long way towards opening up Athenian society and government to a greater number of people<br />But they did not immediately end the turmoil that plagued the city<br />Athens did prosper<br />Rapid population growth, geographic expansion, various public works projects<br />But Solon’s reforms increased infighting by multiplying the number of factions struggling for control<br />Even resulted in several dictatorships (tyrannies)<br />
  20. 20. REFORMS OF CLEISTHENES<br />Cleisthenes kept promise to demos<br />Population of city and region divided into ten tribes<br />Each included people from all walks of life<br />Each elected representatives to the Council, elected generals and public officials, and jurors to Supreme Court<br />Cleisthenes permanently broke power of old aristocracy and established the foundation for democracy<br />
  21. 21. ARCHAIC GREECE<br />At beginning of period, most of the Aegean world was divided into independent principalities<br />Had simple social structures with nobility on top and everyone else below<br />By 500 BC, principalities had been transformed into city-states<br />Aristocracy reduced to just one faction of many<br />Aristocratic value system subsided in favor of a new one based on service to the community and the law<br />
  22. 22. POETS<br />Old value system of aristocracy was based on fighting and an obsession with honor<br />But the new city-state, with its commercial and business activities, had little use for a bunch of jealous, warring aristocrats with their inflated sense of honor<br />Required instead justice, established by law according to rational and regular procedures<br />Poets at the forefront of attack on old aristocratic value system<br />Example: Archilocus<br />Argued old aristocratic and heroic values were out of touch with the times<br />Silly and counter to the need for law and order<br />
  23. 23. CHANGES IN RELIGION<br />Gods reflected aristocratic values in Homer’s poems<br />Obsessed with fighting, killing, and performing heroic feats<br />During the Archaic Ages, gods became more interested in justice<br />Urged men to be content with their lot in life<br />To go against this was now considered hubris<br />Insolence against the gods<br />Religion modified during Archaic Age to reinforce new value system and discourage the old<br />
  24. 24. SUMMARY<br />Mutually-reinforcing cycle<br />Growth of business and trade undermined the aristocratic monopoly over society<br />Decline of aristocracy was accompanied by a parallel decline in their value system<br />Helped by propaganda attacks by poets and a gradual shift in religious emphasis<br />Decline of aristocratic value system was paralleled by the rise of a new value system based on law, order, and stability<br />Encouraged further business growth and prosperity<br />Sped up the decline of the aristocracy<br />Provided good environment for development of literature and beginning of philosophic and scientific speculation<br />
  25. 25. GREEK POLITICAL CULTURE<br />In Greek polis, the state was society<br />Two were completely integrated with each other<br />Power was not delegated to a permanent group of legislators, judges and bureaucrats<br />Citizens were expected to play an immediate and direct role in legislation, the judiciary, and executive policy-making<br />Fundamental principle of most Greek city-sates that officials should be constantly changed<br />Giving almost everyone a chance to actively running the polis<br />
  26. 26. PRIVATE SPHERE/PUBLIC SPHERE<br />No “diffusion of loyalty”<br />No chance for citizen to develop non-state loyalties<br />Only one state religion<br />No non-state cultural associations<br />All art was public and all cultural events were state affairs<br />Nothing in the Greek polis existed to distract the citizen from his loyalty to the state<br />Private sphere linked tightly to the state, focusing everyone’s absolute loyalty to that institution<br />
  27. 27. POLITICAL ASSUMPTIONS<br />Taken for granted that all important questions regarding policy-making, legislation, and judiciary was the concern of all citizens<br />Professionals did not dominate government<br />Power was not dissipated among a multitude of specialized departments and institutions<br />Rested fully in the hands of the people<br />
  28. 28. CITIZENSHIP<br />All city-states restricted who could become a citizen<br />General tendency in Archaic Age was towards less restrictivness<br />Citizens only made up part of total population<br />Rest were foreigners, slaves, and freedmen<br />
  29. 29. SLAVES AND FREEDMEN<br />Slaves played crucial role in economy of all city-states of ancient Greece<br />And in Sparta, they were the economy<br />Freedmen worked as craftsmen, small farmers, small retail merchants<br />But they worked for themselves, not for others<br />To work for someone else on a regular basis was the mark of a slave<br />Essential characteristic of a freedman was economic independence<br />No matter how low-level or demeaning the work they did<br />
  30. 30. FREEDMEN<br />Freedmen often very poor<br />Did not view themselves as oppressed working class<br />Complaints directed against the rich<br />Especially wealthy creditors<br />Slogans concerned lack of political participation or the elimination of debts<br />Saw themselves as independent businessmen<br />Wanted recognition of their status and relief from the costs of doing business<br />Never formed any kind of alliance with slaves to overcome their mutual exploitation<br />Because they say themselves as inherently better than slaves<br />
  31. 31. GREEK FAMILY<br />Archaic Greeks viewed family as immortal<br />Founded in mythical days and would continue forever<br />Male head of family therefore had to work to ensure this immortality<br />By expanding its economic base, performing religious rituals, worshipping ancestors, having children<br />Family without children was not considered a family at all<br />Family heads under great pressure to keep their families going by having children<br />
  32. 32. MARRIAGE<br />Marriage was a carefully considered, regulated step<br />Were prearranged<br />Couple became engaged as children after long negotiations between parents<br />It was understood that love would develop after marriage<br />Not before<br />
  33. 33. GREEK WOMEN<br />Greeks attached immense importance to chastity of citizen women<br />It was of utmost importance that legitimacy of offspring not be questions on the grounds of a pre-marital or extra-marital affair<br />Took every precaution to segregate women from men<br />Even set aside a part of the house for exclusive use of women<br />Adultery considered a serious crime that threatened foundation of the state<br />Not just a private matter<br />
  34. 34. CITIZEN AND SLAVE WOMEN<br />Women had no political role<br />Charged with running households and nothing else<br />Slave women and freedman women had more freedom<br />Since they were not considered important enough to worry about<br />No one cared if their families remained intact or not<br />Could pretty well do what they wanted in their private lives<br />
  35. 35. FINAL POINT<br />Neither male nor female citizens enjoyed a high degree of freedom (in the modern sense of the term)<br />Greek ideas of freedom implied conformity to community standards of behavior<br />Community needs defined the roles of men and women and restricted the freedom of both<br />Male family heads had little choice over who and when he should marry, whether to have children, etc.<br />Law and custom demanded that he subordinate his own needs and desires to those of his family and the community at large<br />In exchange, men and women enjoyed a strong and stimulating community life<br />A trade off between liberty and security, with security receiving the most emphasis<br />

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