2. • “An organization which facilitates the learning of all its
members and continually transforms itself”- Pedler,
Boydell and Burgoyne
• Organizational learning is a organization wide continuous
process that enhances its collective ability to accept,
make sense of, and respond to internal and external
• Organizational learning requires systematic integration
and collective interpretation of new knowledge that leads
to collective action and involves risk taking as
• A business using organizational learning recognizes the
value added by including all its members in the decision
• A learning organization recognises that a business
consists of people and it takes a commitment from all in
the organization to best obtain the organization’s goal.
3. Conventional Organization Vs Learning
Conventional Organization Learning Organization
Locked into management’s views
of methods and goals
Flexible and open to knew ideas
Makes decision based on what
currently best fits the
Willing to disregard to the status
quo in favour of innovation.
Management encourages all
members to continuously rethink
what they do, how they do it and
how they might do it better.
Adapts and reacts to change Anticipates the future and strives
to create services and products
before others are able to perceive
4. • Learning organizations are skilled in:
Systematic problem solving
Learning from past experience
Learning from others
Transferring knowledge promptly and effectively
throughout the organization
5. The Five Disciplines for building
Learning Organization –Peter Senge
1. Personal Mastery: Involves formulating a coherent picture
of the results people most desire to gain as individuals (their
personal vision), alongside a realistic assessment of the
current state of their lives today. Learning to cultivate the
tension between vision and reality can expand people's
capacity to make better choices, and to achieve more of the
results that they have chosen.
2. Mental Models: This discipline of reflection and inquiry
skills is focused around developing awareness of the
attitudes and perceptions that influence thought and
interaction. By continually reflecting upon, talking about,
and reconsidering these internal pictures of the world,
people can gain more capability in governing their actions
6. 3. Shared Vision: This collective discipline establishes a focus
on mutual purpose. People learn to nourish a sense of
commitment in a group or organization by developing shared
images of the future they seek to create, and the principles
and guiding practices by which they hope to get there.
4. Team Learning: This is a discipline of group interaction.
Through techniques like dialogue and skillful discussion,
teams transform their collective thinking, learning to mobilize
their energies and ability greater than the sum of individual
5. Systems Thinking: In this discipline, people learn to better
understand interdependency and change, and thereby to deal
more effectively with the forces that shape the consequences
of one’s actions.
• Conflict is defined as a clash between individuals arising out of a
difference in thought process, attitudes, understanding, interests,
requirements and even sometimes perceptions.
Phases of conflict
A conflict has five phases.
Prelude to conflict - It involves all the factors which possibly arise a conflict among
individuals. Lack of coordination, differences in interests, dissimilarity in cultural,
religion, educational background all are instrumental in arising a conflict.
Triggering Event - No conflict can arise on its own. There has to be an event which
triggers the conflict.
Initiation Phase - Initiation phase is actually the phase when the conflict has already
begun. Heated arguments, abuses, verbal disagreements are all warning alarms
which indicate that the fight is already on.
Differentiation Phase - It is the phase when the individuals voice out their
differences against each other. The reasons for the conflict are raised in the
Resolution Phase - A Conflict leads to nowhere. Individuals must try to compromise
to some extent and resolve the conflict soon. The resolution phase explores the
various options to resolve the conflict.
9. Why conflicts should be avoided
• Nobody wins a conflict and nothing
productive comes out of it.
• Conflicts also lead to disrespect and
unnecessary tensions in organizations
11. 1. Avoiding - This is when one simply avoids the issue.
One does not help the other party to reach their goals
neither does one assertively pursues one’s own This
works when the issue is trivial or when there is no
chance of winning. It can also be effective when the
issue would be very costly. Sometimes issues resolve
themselves, but “hope is not a strategy”, and, in
general, avoiding is not a good long term strategy.
2. Accommodating – This is when one cooperates to a
high-degree, and it may be at one’s own expense, and
actually work against one’s own goals, objectives, and
desired outcomes. This approach is effective when
the other party is the expert or has a better solution. It
can also be effective for preserving future relations
with the other party.
12. 3. Competing – This is the “win-lose” approach. One
acts in a very assertive way to achieve one’s goals,
without seeking to cooperate with the other party, and it
may be at the expense of the other party. This
approach may be appropriate for emergencies when
time is of the essence, or when there is a need for
quick, decisive action, and people are aware of and
support the approach.
4. Collaborating – This is where one party partner or pair
up with the other party to achieve both the parties’. It
requires a high-degree of trust and reaching a
consensus can require a lot of time and effort to get
everybody on board and to synthesize all the ideas.
5. Compromising –This requires a moderate level of
assertiveness and cooperation. It may be appropriate
for scenarios where a temporary solution is needed, or
where both sides have equally important goals.
13. • Negotiation is a technique of discussing issues among
one selves and reaching to a conclusion benefiting all
involved in the discussion. It is one of the most effective
ways to avoid conflicts and tensions. When individuals
do not agree with each other, they sit together, discuss
issues on an open forum, negotiate with each other and
come to an alternative which satisfies all. In a layman’s
language it is also termed as bargaining.
14. Models of Negotiation
• Win-Win Model : In this model, each and every
individual involved in negotiation wins. No body is at loss
in this model and every one is benefited out of the
negotiation. This is the most accepted model of
• Win Lose Model : In this model one party wins and the
other party loses. In such a model, after several rounds
of discussions and negotiations, one party benefits while
the party remains dissatisfied.
• Lose-Lose Model :As the name suggests, in this model,
the outcome of negotiation is zero. No party is benefited
out of this model.
15. • RADPAC Model of Negotiation: Every alphabet in this
model signifies something.
R-Rapport: It signifies the relation between parties
involved in negotiation. The parties involved in
negotiation ideally should be comfortable with each
other and share a good rapport with each other.
A-Analysis: People must listen to each other
attentively. One party must understand the second
party well. It is important that the individual
understand each other’s needs and interest.
D-Debate: This round includes discussing issues
among the parties involved in negotiation. The pros
and cons of an idea are evaluated in this round.
People debate with each other and each one tries to
convince the other. One must not lose his temper in
this round but remain calm and composed.
16. P- Propose: Each individual proposes his best idea
in this round. Each one tries his level best to come up
with the best possible idea and reach to a conclusion
acceptable by all.
A- Agreement: Individuals come to a conclusion at
this stage and agree to the best possible alternative.
C-Close: The negotiation is complete and individuals
return back satisfied.
17. Organizational Learning Creativity &
– The ability of the decision maker to
discover novel ideas leading to a feasible
course of action.
• A creative management staff and employees
are the key to the learning organization.
– The implementation of creative ideas in an
18. Promoting Individual Creativity
• Organizations can build an environment
supportive of creativity.
– Managers must provide employees with
the opportunities and abilities to take risks.
• If people take risks, they will occasionally fail.
– To build creativity, periodic failures must be
• This idea is hard to accept for some managers.
19. Building Group Creativity
Managers meet face-to-face to generate
and debate many alternatives.
• Group members are not allowed to evaluate
alternatives until all alternatives are listed.
• When all are listed, then the pros and cons of
each are discussed and a short list created.
• Members cannot absorb all information being
presented during the session and can forget
even their own alternatives.
20. • Nominal Group Technique
– Provides a more structured way to
generate alternatives in writing.
• Avoids the production blocking problem.
• Similar to brainstorming except that each
member is given time to first write down all
alternatives he or she would suggest.
• Alternatives are then read aloud without
discussion until all have been listed.
• Then discussion occurs and alternatives are
21. How to Kill Creativity and Innovation
• See it coming and change the subject
• Ignore it. Dead silence intimidates all but the
• Feign interest but do nothing about it. It prevents
the originator from taking it elsewhere
• Scorn it.
• Laugh it off.