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The Hundred Days Reforms                                    IB HL HistoryLearning Objective: To investigate the causes and...
The Background Causes•    Calls for institutional reform•    Failure of the Self-Strengthening Movement•    The introducti...
Reasons for Reform•    Institutional reform and other changes would    strengthen Chinas defence against Western    imperi...
Other Reasons•    The reform movement was also part of the    struggle for power within the Qing court.•    The young scho...
The Reforms Begin•    Last from June to September 1898,•    Some 200 or so reform decrees were    issued in quick successi...
Education Reforms•    Abolition of the Eight-legged essay in the    Civil Service Examinations. Introduction of a    new s...
Government administration•    Appointment of reform-minded officials.    Introduction of stricter discipline for civil    ...
Q1 How would you best summarize thereasons for the Hundred Days reforms?
Begins to Unravel•    Too radical for the Empress Dowager•    Sees it as an attempt to take power from her•    Yuan Shikai...
Q2 Why did it fail?
Reasons for Failure 1: Inexperience•    Age of reformers•    No knowledge of the West•    No knowledge of power politics• ...
Reasons for Failure 2: Power of              Tz’u-Hsi•    Had been the boss for 37 years•    Experienced and embedded in p...
Reasons for Failure 3: Conservative            Opposition•    Saw Kang’s interpretation of Confucius    as blasphemy•    E...
Reasons for Failure 4: Speed of               Reforms•    Reforms are rushed through and a flurry    of edicts comes from ...
Q3: Develop a hypothesis-What willbe the consequences of reform failure?
Consequence 1•    Progressive reform from the top down    now impossible (for a while)
Consequence 2•    Reactionary court incapable of    leadership
Consequence 3•    Reactionary court leads to anti    foreignism and the Boxer rebellion
Consequence 4•    Relations between Han and Manchu    damaged as court pursue anti Chinese    policy to punish reformers• ...
Consequence 5•    Relations between Han and Manchu    damaged as court pursue anti Chinese    policy to punish reformers
Consequence 6•    An increasing amount of Chinese begin    to see that the only path forward is    revolution from below• ...
The hundred days reforms
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The hundred days reforms

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The hundred days reforms

  1. 1. The Hundred Days Reforms IB HL HistoryLearning Objective: To investigate the causes and effects of the hundred days reforms
  2. 2. The Background Causes• Calls for institutional reform• Failure of the Self-Strengthening Movement• The introduction of Western ideas of reform• Progressive-minded young intellectuals• The effects of the Sino-Japanese War• The effects of the Scramble for Concessions• Political struggle within the Qing court
  3. 3. Reasons for Reform• Institutional reform and other changes would strengthen Chinas defence against Western imperialism.• A new educational structure would replace the old, traditional one,• The political system would be re-organized to achieve a greater degree of efficiency.
  4. 4. Other Reasons• The reform movement was also part of the struggle for power within the Qing court.• The young scholar-reformers advocated reform out of patriotic reasons, and to advance to positions of power in the government.
  5. 5. The Reforms Begin• Last from June to September 1898,• Some 200 or so reform decrees were issued in quick succession.• A wide-reaching program for reform of institutions was attempted.• Too much, too late?
  6. 6. Education Reforms• Abolition of the Eight-legged essay in the Civil Service Examinations. Introduction of a new syllabus based on current political and economic problems.• Introduction of an exam on political economy. Establishment of an Imperial University in Peking. Founding of a medical school.• Establishment of primary and secondary schools in the provinces
  7. 7. Government administration• Appointment of reform-minded officials. Introduction of stricter discipline for civil servants. Measures to check corruption and sinecures.• Improvement in administrative efficiency, simplified procedures. Creation of 12 new Ministries to replace the old 6 Boards• Encouragement of reform suggestions from private citizens.
  8. 8. Q1 How would you best summarize thereasons for the Hundred Days reforms?
  9. 9. Begins to Unravel• Too radical for the Empress Dowager• Sees it as an attempt to take power from her• Yuan Shikai involved• Emperor imprisoned and probably poisoned• Orders issued to arrest Kang and the reformers• Kang’s writing banned• 6 martyrs (including Kang’s brother)
  10. 10. Q2 Why did it fail?
  11. 11. Reasons for Failure 1: Inexperience• Age of reformers• No knowledge of the West• No knowledge of power politics• Didn’t consider consequences e.g.: abolition of 8-Legged essay made students unhappy
  12. 12. Reasons for Failure 2: Power of Tz’u-Hsi• Had been the boss for 37 years• Experienced and embedded in power• Still controlled grand council• Had control of Jung-Le’s troops
  13. 13. Reasons for Failure 3: Conservative Opposition• Saw Kang’s interpretation of Confucius as blasphemy• Even moderates couldn’t accept it
  14. 14. Reasons for Failure 4: Speed of Reforms• Reforms are rushed through and a flurry of edicts comes from the court• Implementation was almost impossible due to the speed• No attempt to build capacity lower down the imperial administration or clarify exactly what was wanted
  15. 15. Q3: Develop a hypothesis-What willbe the consequences of reform failure?
  16. 16. Consequence 1• Progressive reform from the top down now impossible (for a while)
  17. 17. Consequence 2• Reactionary court incapable of leadership
  18. 18. Consequence 3• Reactionary court leads to anti foreignism and the Boxer rebellion
  19. 19. Consequence 4• Relations between Han and Manchu damaged as court pursue anti Chinese policy to punish reformers• Kang-I “ Reform benefits the Chinese but hurts the Manchus. If I have properties, I would rather give them to my friends than let the slaves share the benefit”
  20. 20. Consequence 5• Relations between Han and Manchu damaged as court pursue anti Chinese policy to punish reformers
  21. 21. Consequence 6• An increasing amount of Chinese begin to see that the only path forward is revolution from below• Enter Dr Sun Yat Sen

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