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Wireless Meter Bus

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Smart Grid, Advanced Metering Infrastructure

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Wireless Meter Bus

  1. 1. Wireless M-Bus protocol for Advanced Metering Infrastructure SABER FERJANI
  2. 2. Who I am? • Education: – 2010-2013: ENSI (Computer Science Engineering) – 2008-2010: IPEIEM (Scientific Preparatory) • Experience: – 2013: Graduation project around Qemu translation cache policy – 2012: Hygrometer & Altimeter based on STM32, Line following robot, Stepper motor control through Smartphone via Bluetooth. – 2011: PCB Multilayer Design Layout using Altium – 2010: Led Display spinning wheel – 2009: Thermometer based on PIC with serial interface 2 http://about.me/ferjani
  3. 3. Framing • The European Conference for Renewable Energy in Berlin in 2004 announced that by 2020, the EU would seek to obtain 20% of its total energy consumption requirements with renewable energy sources. • Renewable energy with intermittent generation necessitates a change in grid operations every few minutes. With less centralized control, the need for communications and coordination has become crucial. 3
  4. 4. Outline 1) Introduction 1) Sub Ghz Radios 2) Difference between AMR & AMI 3) Smart Metering 2) Standardization 3) Implementation 4) Conclusion 4
  5. 5. 2.4GHz vs. sub-GHz application trends 5
  6. 6. Sub Ghz Radios • Sub-GHz radios can offer relatively simple wireless solutions. Notable advantages over 2.4GHz radios include: – Range: transmission ranges of a kilometer or more. – Low interference: Sub-GHz ISM bands are mostly used for proprietary low-duty-cycle links. – Low power: can operate uninterrupted on battery power alone for up to 20 years. 6
  7. 7. Difference between AMR & AMI • Automatic Meter Reading is an older technology that only collects electrical energy consumption and transfers that data from the electric meter on the home to the utility. • Advanced Metering Infrastructure, also known as Smart meters are updated, digital versions of the traditional electrical meter. They enables two-way communications with the meter. Consumers can use information provided by the system to change their normal consumption patterns to take advantage of lower prices. 7
  8. 8. Smart Grid • The smart grid represents the full suite of current and proposed responses to the challenges of electricity supply. – Reliability: fault detection, self-healing – Flexibility in network topology: bidirectional energy flows – Efficiency: Load adjustment – Sustainability: permits greater penetration of highly variable renewable energy sources such as solar power and wind power – Market-enabling: Only the critical loads will need to pay the peak energy prices 8
  9. 9. Outline 1) Introduction 2) Standardization 1) CENELEC 2) Wireless Meter Bus 3) Open Metering System 3) Implementation 4) Conclusion 9
  10. 10. CENELEC • Designated as a European Standards Organization by the European Commission, CENELEC is a non-profit technical organization responsible for standardization in the electro-technical engineering field. • The national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom. 10
  11. 11. Wireless Meter Bus • The Meter bus is specialized for transmitting metering data from gas, heat, water or other meters to a data collector. It is described by European Norm: – EN 13757-1: Data exchange – EN 13757-2: Physical and link layer – EN 13757-3: Dedicated application layer – EN 13757-4: Wireless meter readout – EN 13757-5: Routing layer – EN 13757-6: Local bus 11
  12. 12. Stack overview of M-Bus Manufacturer specific application OMS DSMR Application layer (EN-13757-3) Routing layer (EN-13757-5) (optional) Wireless (EN-13757-4) Data link layer Physical layer Wired (EN-13757-2) Data link layer Physical layer 12
  13. 13. Mode Direction Frequency Description Stationar y S1 Uni-dir 868,3 MHz The meter send data several times per day. S1-m Uni-dir S2 Bi-dir Bi-dir version of S1 Frequent Tx T1 Uni-dir 868,95 MHz Send intervals of several seconds or minutes T2 Bi-dir Bi-dir version of T1 Frequent Rx R2 Bi-dir 868.03 MHz + n×60 kHz Frequency multiplex allows several metering devices may be read simultaneously Q The network topology is hierarchical P Search procedure for discovering the path to nodes not directly reachable Compact C1 Uni-dir 868,95 MHz Similar to mode T but allows higher data rate with identical energy budget and duty cycle mode T and C frames can be supported from a single receiver.C2 Bi-dir 869,525 MHz Narrow- band N1,N2 Uni/Bi-dir 169 MHz Optimized for narrowband operation Frequent Rx & Tx F2, F2-m Bi-dir 433,82 MHz Wake up message from a stationary or mobile transceiver to the meter device to open a communication channel 13
  14. 14. Open Metering System • The application layer of Wireless M-bus can be enhanced by extensions, being defined from vendor alliances, like the Open Metering System (OMS) Group, or from national bodies. • The OMS group is the only system definition across Europe which integrates all media (electricity, gas, heat and water including sub-metering) into one system. It was developed by the industry in order to guarantee a future-proof communication standard and interoperability between all the meter products. 14
  15. 15. Open Metering System Electricity meter Gas meter Water meter Heat meter Actuator Display 15 MUC: Multi Utility Communication AMM: Automated Meter Management Primary Communication Tertiary Communication Collector Back Office System Wireless M-Bus IPv4 Meter
  16. 16. Outline 1) Introduction 2) Standardization 3) Implementation 1) TI CC112X Transceivers 2) Simplified State Diagram 3) Command Strobes 4) Packet Description 4) Conclusion 16
  17. 17. TI CC112X Transceivers • CC112X is a family of high performance low power RF transceivers designed for operation with a companion MCU. 17
  18. 18. TI CC112X Transceivers • CC112X can be configured to achieve optimum performance for many different applications using the SPI interface. • The following key parameters can be programmed: – Power-down/power-up mode (SLEEP/IDLE) – Crystal oscillator power-up/power-down (IDLE/XOFF) – Receive/transmit mode (RX/TX) – Carrier frequency, Symbol rate, Modulation format, RF output power, RX channel filter bandwidth – Data buffering with separate 128-byte RX/TX FIFOs – Enhanced Wake-On-Radio (eWOR) 18
  19. 19. Simplified State Diagram 19 TX mode RX mode IDLE FIFO Error Freq Calib Freq Synth ON Freq Startup Cristal OFF Sleep SXOFF SRX/STX/ SFSTX STX SRX SPWD SRX/ STX/ SFSTX/ WOR SFTX SFRX
  20. 20. Command Strobes Address Strobe Name Description 0x30 SRES Reset Chip 0x34 SRX Enable RX. Perform calibration if coming from IDLE 0x35 STX Enable RX. Perform calibration if coming from IDLE 0x36 SIDLE Exit RX/TX, turn off frequency synthesizer and exit eWOR mode if applicable 0x39 SPWD Enter SLEEP mode when CSn is de-asserted 0x3A SFRX Flush RX FIFO 0x3B SFTX Flush TX FIFO 0x3D SNOP No operation. Used to get access to the chip status. 20
  21. 21. Packet Description 21
  22. 22. Packet Description 22
  23. 23. Outline 1) Introduction 2) Standardization 3) Implementation 4) Conclusion 24
  24. 24. Conclusion 25
  25. 25. References • [1] http://www.renewgridmag.com/e107_plugins/content/content.php?content.8946 • [2] Portable and Flexible Communication Protocol Stacks for Smart Metering Projects, JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 11, NO. 1, MARCH 2013 (Axel Sikora) • [3] SWRU295D - Texas Instruments User’s Guide: CC112X/CC1175 Low-Power High Performance Sub-1 GHz RF Transceivers/Transmitter • [4] METERING INTERNATIONAL ISSUE 4 2009 - AMI & SMART METERING - OPEN METERING SYSTEM By Peder Martin Evjen • [5] 27