Debash Rahma.pptx

Acquisition vs learning
 The Acquisition-Learning distinction is the most
fundamental of all the hypotheses in Krashen's
theory and the most widely known among
linguists and language practitioners
 Stephen Krashen (University of Southern
California) is an expert in the field of linguistics,
specializing in theories of language acquisition
and development. Much of his recent research
has involved the study of non-English and
bilingual language acquisition. During the past 20
years, he has published well over 100 books and
articles and has been invited to deliver over 300
lectures at universities throughout the United
States and Canada
 There is an important distinction made by
linguists between ‘language acquisition’ and
‘language learning’.
 According to Krashen there are two
independent systems of second language
performance
The acquired
system
The learned
system
 'acquired system' or 'acquisition' is the
product of a subconscious process very
similar to the process children undergo when
they acquire their first language. It requires
meaningful interaction in the target language
- natural communication - in which speakers
are concentrated not in the form of their
utterances, but in the communicative act.
 The "learned system" or "learning" is the
product of formal instruction and it
comprises a conscious process which results
in conscious knowledge 'about' the language,
for example knowledge of grammar rules.
According to Krashen 'learning' is less
important than 'acquisition'
 Language acquisition does not require extensive use of conscious
grammatical rules, and does not require tedious drill.
 Acquisition requires meaningful interaction in the target
language - natural communication - in which speakers are
concerned not with the form of their utterances but with the
messages they are conveying and understanding.
 ... 'comprehensible input' is the crucial and necessary ingredient
for the acquisition of language.
 The best methods are therefore those that supply
'comprehensible input' in low anxiety situations, containing
messages that students really want to hear. These methods do
not force early production in the second language, but allow
students to produce when they are 'ready', recognizing that
improvement comes from supplying communicative and
comprehensible input, and not from forcing and correcting
production.
 In the real world, conversations with sympathetic native
speakers who are willing to help the acquirer understand are
very helpful.
 There is an innate capacity for every human being to
acquire language and the term ‘language acquisition’
refers to the ways that people acquire language
 outside of formal instruction in things like grammar
or vocabulary.
 A child’s need to communicate paves the way for the
acquisition of their mother tongue through natural
communication and meaningful interaction both with
parents and their surrounding environment.
 This is a subconscious process during which they are
unaware of grammatical rules and where the
emphasis is on the content of the communication and
not the form.
 Error correction and explicit teaching of rules are not
relevant to language acquisition.
Debash Rahma.pptx
Debash Rahma.pptx
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Debash Rahma.pptx

  • 2.  The Acquisition-Learning distinction is the most fundamental of all the hypotheses in Krashen's theory and the most widely known among linguists and language practitioners  Stephen Krashen (University of Southern California) is an expert in the field of linguistics, specializing in theories of language acquisition and development. Much of his recent research has involved the study of non-English and bilingual language acquisition. During the past 20 years, he has published well over 100 books and articles and has been invited to deliver over 300 lectures at universities throughout the United States and Canada
  • 3.  There is an important distinction made by linguists between ‘language acquisition’ and ‘language learning’.  According to Krashen there are two independent systems of second language performance The acquired system The learned system
  • 4.  'acquired system' or 'acquisition' is the product of a subconscious process very similar to the process children undergo when they acquire their first language. It requires meaningful interaction in the target language - natural communication - in which speakers are concentrated not in the form of their utterances, but in the communicative act.
  • 5.  The "learned system" or "learning" is the product of formal instruction and it comprises a conscious process which results in conscious knowledge 'about' the language, for example knowledge of grammar rules. According to Krashen 'learning' is less important than 'acquisition'
  • 6.  Language acquisition does not require extensive use of conscious grammatical rules, and does not require tedious drill.  Acquisition requires meaningful interaction in the target language - natural communication - in which speakers are concerned not with the form of their utterances but with the messages they are conveying and understanding.  ... 'comprehensible input' is the crucial and necessary ingredient for the acquisition of language.  The best methods are therefore those that supply 'comprehensible input' in low anxiety situations, containing messages that students really want to hear. These methods do not force early production in the second language, but allow students to produce when they are 'ready', recognizing that improvement comes from supplying communicative and comprehensible input, and not from forcing and correcting production.  In the real world, conversations with sympathetic native speakers who are willing to help the acquirer understand are very helpful.
  • 7.  There is an innate capacity for every human being to acquire language and the term ‘language acquisition’ refers to the ways that people acquire language  outside of formal instruction in things like grammar or vocabulary.  A child’s need to communicate paves the way for the acquisition of their mother tongue through natural communication and meaningful interaction both with parents and their surrounding environment.  This is a subconscious process during which they are unaware of grammatical rules and where the emphasis is on the content of the communication and not the form.  Error correction and explicit teaching of rules are not relevant to language acquisition.