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ARCH352
Dr. Mohamed Adel Dessouki
Environmental
Cognition
‫البيئي‬ ‫اإلدراك‬
ARCH352
On the white board, draw a map of your route from your
home to Dammam University’s campus, from memory.
Include as...
ARCH352
Last week: Environmental
Perception
• Gestalt Theory
Today: Environmental Cognition
• Cognitive Maps
ARCH352
ENVIRONMENTAL COGNITION
Environmental cognition is the process of
thought that leads to:
• Acquiring, storing, org...
ARCH352
COGNITIVE MAPPING
‫اإلدراك‬ ‫خرائط‬
Cognitive mapping is a process
by which an individual acquires,
codes, stores,...
ARCH352
COGNITIVE MAPS
• A cognitive map is the image
people have of the
surrounding environment
(real-world settings,
nei...
ARCH352
COGNITIVE MAPS
ARCH352
COGNITIVE MAPS
• The way we construct cognitive
maps change individually.
• The more experience a person
has with ...
ARCH352
COGNITIVE MAPS
Factors influencing the formation of
Cognitive maps:
• Age
• Individual differences
– Personality
–...
ARCH352
COGNITIVE MAPS
ARCH352
COGNITIVE MAPS
Human spatial behavior is dependent on the individual's
cognitive map of the spatial environment.
-...
ARCH352
WAY-FINDING
• Wayfinding is the process by which we navigate in our
environment. It is an internal psychological p...
ARCH352
WAY-FINDING
• Wayfinding depends on a system of text, graphics and
tactile information at the right time and the r...
ARCH352
WAY-FINDING
Key Factors in better wayfinding
 Spatial Organization
 Landmarks
 Signage
 Directories
 Maps
 C...
ARCH352
“We are not simply observers of
the city but are ourselves part of
what we see. Our perception is
usually partial,...
ARCH352
IMAGE OFTHE CITY
Lynch’s goal was to oppose
Modernism’s unified, placeless,
depersonalized city through
reassertin...
ARCH352
• People experience of their built environment and the
way they access it is psychological, not just physical.
• T...
ARCH352
Lynch suggested five elements of legibility contribute to
our ability to create, maintain, images of a place in ou...
ARCH352
Lynch suggested five elements of legibility contribute to
our ability to create, maintain, images of a place in ou...
ARCH352
IMAGE OFTHE CITY
Paths
Routes or channels
along which the
observer
customarily moves
(roads, walkways,
and public ...
ARCH352
IMAGE OFTHE CITY
Paths
Routes or channels
along which the
observer
customarily moves
(roads, walkways,
and public ...
ARCH352
IMAGE OFTHE CITY
Paths
Routes or channels
along which the
observer
customarily moves
(roads, walkways,
and public ...
ARCH352
“Paths are the channels along
which the observer customarily,
occasionally, or potentially moves.
They may be stre...
ARCH352
IMAGE OFTHE CITY
Edges
Linear boundaries or
barriers between two
areas, for example,
cliffs, shores of rivers,
lak...
ARCH352
IMAGE OFTHE CITY
Edges
Linear boundaries or
barriers between two
areas, for example,
cliffs, shores of rivers,
lak...
ARCH352
IMAGE OFTHE CITY
Edges
ARCH352
“Edges are the linear elements not used
or considered as paths by the observer.
They are the boundaries between tw...
ARCH352
IMAGE OFTHE CITY
Districts
• Have a common character/theme,
made up of texture, form, space, detail,
symbol, inhab...
ARCH352
IMAGE OFTHE CITY
Districts
ARCH352
IMAGE OFTHE CITY
Districts
“Districts are the medium-to-large sections
of the city conceived as having two-
dimens...
ARCH352
IMAGE OFTHE CITY
Nodes
Well-known points that people travel to
and from, junctures of important paths,
key interse...
ARCH352
IMAGE OFTHE CITY
Nodes
Well-known points that people travel to
and from, junctures of important paths,
key interse...
ARCH352
IMAGE OFTHE CITY
Nodes
Well-known points that people travel to
and from, junctures of important paths,
key interse...
ARCH352
IMAGE OFTHE CITY
Nodes
“Nodes are points, the strategic spots in
a city into which an observer can enter,
and whic...
ARCH352
IMAGE OFTHE CITY
Landmarks
• Singularity, uniqueness
• Contrast (small/big, new/old)
• Symbolic
Easily viewed elem...
ARCH352
“Landmarks are another type of point
reference, but in this case the observer
does not enter within them, they are...
ARCH352
Mental
maps
Spatial
behavior
Urban
form
IMAGE OFTHE CITY
Why does your image of the city matter?
ARCH352
Choose at least one example to illustrate each of Kevin
Lynch's Elements of Legibility. You can choose examples
fr...
ARCH352
Any Questions?
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Humanities i cognitive mapping [2016]

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Humanities i cognitive mapping [2016]

  1. 1. ARCH352 Dr. Mohamed Adel Dessouki Environmental Cognition ‫البيئي‬ ‫اإلدراك‬
  2. 2. ARCH352 On the white board, draw a map of your route from your home to Dammam University’s campus, from memory. Include as much detail as you possibly can: street names, landmarks, UD campus, parks, buildings and anything else you believe is important enough to be on your map. Focus Activity
  3. 3. ARCH352 Last week: Environmental Perception • Gestalt Theory Today: Environmental Cognition • Cognitive Maps
  4. 4. ARCH352 ENVIRONMENTAL COGNITION Environmental cognition is the process of thought that leads to: • Acquiring, storing, organizing, recalling information about locations, distances, and arrangements in spaces.
  5. 5. ARCH352 COGNITIVE MAPPING ‫اإلدراك‬ ‫خرائط‬ Cognitive mapping is a process by which an individual acquires, codes, stores, and recalls information about the relative locations and attributes of phenomena in his everyday spatial environment.
  6. 6. ARCH352 COGNITIVE MAPS • A cognitive map is the image people have of the surrounding environment (real-world settings, neighborhoods, cities, countries, etc.) • A cognitive map is the mental construct of the environment seen from multiple viewpoints. It integrates parts into a whole.
  7. 7. ARCH352 COGNITIVE MAPS
  8. 8. ARCH352 COGNITIVE MAPS • The way we construct cognitive maps change individually. • The more experience a person has with an environment, the better their cognitive map
  9. 9. ARCH352 COGNITIVE MAPS Factors influencing the formation of Cognitive maps: • Age • Individual differences – Personality – Social and cultural background – Education • Gender differences • Visual impairment • Familiarity and experience • Effort effects (e.g. travel time)
  10. 10. ARCH352 COGNITIVE MAPS
  11. 11. ARCH352 COGNITIVE MAPS Human spatial behavior is dependent on the individual's cognitive map of the spatial environment. - cognitive map is a requisite both for human survival and for everyday environmental behavior. It is a coping mechanism through which the individual answers two basic questions quickly and efficiently: (1) Where certain valued things are (2) How to get to where they are from where he is.
  12. 12. ARCH352 WAY-FINDING • Wayfinding is the process by which we navigate in our environment. It is an internal psychological process, and a sequence of problem-solving activities. • Newcomers to an environment experience the stressful feeling of being lost.
  13. 13. ARCH352 WAY-FINDING • Wayfinding depends on a system of text, graphics and tactile information at the right time and the right place to guide people to their destinations. It is a process that people use to navigate unfamiliar surroundings.
  14. 14. ARCH352 WAY-FINDING Key Factors in better wayfinding  Spatial Organization  Landmarks  Signage  Directories  Maps  Color and Lighting
  15. 15. ARCH352 “We are not simply observers of the city but are ourselves part of what we see. Our perception is usually partial, fragmentary, mixed with other concerns [..] The environmental image is the product both of immediate sensation and of the memory of past experience.” Kevin Lynch, “The Structure of Urban Perception”, The Image of the City (1960) IMAGE OFTHE CITY
  16. 16. ARCH352 IMAGE OFTHE CITY Lynch’s goal was to oppose Modernism’s unified, placeless, depersonalized city through reasserting the human role in the interpretation of the city.
  17. 17. ARCH352 • People experience of their built environment and the way they access it is psychological, not just physical. • The sense of a place links elements via coherent representations of non-spatial concepts and values. • Anyone can ‘read’ a place, but they see different things: comfort, identity, meaning, stimulus, attachment ... IMAGE OFTHE CITY
  18. 18. ARCH352 Lynch suggested five elements of legibility contribute to our ability to create, maintain, images of a place in our head: • Paths • Edges • Districts • Nodes • Landmarks IMAGE OFTHE CITY
  19. 19. ARCH352 Lynch suggested five elements of legibility contribute to our ability to create, maintain, images of a place in our head: • Paths • Edges • Districts • Nodes • Landmarks IMAGE OFTHE CITY
  20. 20. ARCH352 IMAGE OFTHE CITY Paths Routes or channels along which the observer customarily moves (roads, walkways, and public transit routes)
  21. 21. ARCH352 IMAGE OFTHE CITY Paths Routes or channels along which the observer customarily moves (roads, walkways, and public transit routes)
  22. 22. ARCH352 IMAGE OFTHE CITY Paths Routes or channels along which the observer customarily moves (roads, walkways, and public transit routes)
  23. 23. ARCH352 “Paths are the channels along which the observer customarily, occasionally, or potentially moves. They may be streets, walkways, transit lines, canals, railroads. For many people, these are the predominant elements in their image. People observe the city while moving through it, and along these paths the other environmental elements are arranged and related. “ IMAGE OFTHE CITY Paths
  24. 24. ARCH352 IMAGE OFTHE CITY Edges Linear boundaries or barriers between two areas, for example, cliffs, shores of rivers, lakes, or oceans, etc.
  25. 25. ARCH352 IMAGE OFTHE CITY Edges Linear boundaries or barriers between two areas, for example, cliffs, shores of rivers, lakes, or oceans, etc.
  26. 26. ARCH352 IMAGE OFTHE CITY Edges
  27. 27. ARCH352 “Edges are the linear elements not used or considered as paths by the observer. They are the boundaries between two phases, linear breaks in continuity: shores, railroad cuts, edges of development walls. They are lateral references rather than coordinate axes. IMAGE OFTHE CITY Edges
  28. 28. ARCH352 IMAGE OFTHE CITY Districts • Have a common character/theme, made up of texture, form, space, detail, symbol, inhabitant, topography… • Clearly defined districts lead to ‘good’ orientation Moderate-sized areas that city residents identify as having a particular character
  29. 29. ARCH352 IMAGE OFTHE CITY Districts
  30. 30. ARCH352 IMAGE OFTHE CITY Districts “Districts are the medium-to-large sections of the city conceived as having two- dimensional extents, which the observer mentally enters “inside of” and which are recognizable as having some common identifying character.
  31. 31. ARCH352 IMAGE OFTHE CITY Nodes Well-known points that people travel to and from, junctures of important paths, key intersections, popular plazas or squares, or other points of intense activity
  32. 32. ARCH352 IMAGE OFTHE CITY Nodes Well-known points that people travel to and from, junctures of important paths, key intersections, popular plazas or squares, or other points of intense activity
  33. 33. ARCH352 IMAGE OFTHE CITY Nodes Well-known points that people travel to and from, junctures of important paths, key intersections, popular plazas or squares, or other points of intense activity
  34. 34. ARCH352 IMAGE OFTHE CITY Nodes “Nodes are points, the strategic spots in a city into which an observer can enter, and which are the intensive foci to and from which he is traveling. They may be primary junctions, places of a break in transportation, moments of shift from one structure to another.
  35. 35. ARCH352 IMAGE OFTHE CITY Landmarks • Singularity, uniqueness • Contrast (small/big, new/old) • Symbolic Easily viewed elements that act as physical reference points, either on a grand scale or on a smaller scale
  36. 36. ARCH352 “Landmarks are another type of point reference, but in this case the observer does not enter within them, they are external. They are usually a rather simple defined physical object: building, sign, store, or mountain. Their use involves the singling out of one element from a host of possibilities. Some landmarks are distant ones, typically seen from many angles and distances, over the tops of smaller elements, and used as radial references. They may be within the city or at such a distance that for all practical purposes they symbolize a constant direction. Such are isolated towers, golden domes, great hills.“ IMAGE OFTHE CITY Landmarks
  37. 37. ARCH352 Mental maps Spatial behavior Urban form IMAGE OFTHE CITY Why does your image of the city matter?
  38. 38. ARCH352 Choose at least one example to illustrate each of Kevin Lynch's Elements of Legibility. You can choose examples from your surrounding environment or from other sources. Describe in your own words why did you choose each example and how do you think it does exemplify each of the five elements. Use your sketches and diagrams to illustrate your answer. You have to submit your answer on A4 sheets. Don't forget to indicate the exact name and location of each case.
  39. 39. ARCH352 Any Questions?

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