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The Two Nation theory means thecultural, political, religious, economic and socialdissimilarities between the two majorcommunities, Hindus and Muslims of the SubContinent. This theory means that there were two nations in thesubcontinent, the Hindus and the Muslims. Subcontinent consists of two different communitieshaving their own philosophy of life. This theory gave rise to two distinct politicalideologies that was responsible for the partition ofIndia into two independent states.
The Two nation Theory was the basis ofthe struggle for creation of Pakistan as anindependent state.In spite of living together for centuries thetwo communities not forgot their individualcultures and civilization.It raised a direction for the Muslims on thebasis of which Pakistan was achieved.
Al - Beruni recorded his ideas in 1001 A.Din his famous book "Kitab-ul-Hind" as"The Hindu society maintained thispeculiar character over the centuries.The two societies, Hindus and Muslims,like two streams have sometimestouched but never merged, eachfollowing its separate course."
There are a few factors which split the inhabitantsof the Sub Continent into two nations. Let usexamine each of them separately. Religious Differences Hindu Nationalism Cultural Differences Social differences Economic Differences Educational Differences Political Differences Language
MUSLIMS BELIEVES HINDUS BELIEVES Islam preaches Tawheed(oneness of Allah) andbelieves that Allah is thecreator of the universe. Muslims are the believers ofAllah , the Holy Prophet(P.B.U.H) the messenger ofAllah. Muslims firmly believe onthe Holy bookQuran(complete code of life)and the life hereafter. Hindu believes in manygods. They have thousandsof gods. Prophets(or rishi)are peoplewho see god. they teachabout god. And they havecharaceristics of god. Their writings are calledvedas.
A number of Hindu nationalist movementswere started in the subcontinent that addedfuel to the fire, and increased the conflictbetween the two communities. The Hindu nationalist leaders totally ignoredthe great contribution of Muslims in theIndian society and push the Muslims on oneside. There was also some movements that aimedto merge the Muslims with Hindu culture.
ISLAMIC CULTURE HINDU CULTURE Muslim followed the Islamicculture . Muslims burred their deadbodies. Muslims slaughtered the cow. Muslims abhorred the traditionof ‘Sati’. In Islam every human beingsare equal. Hindus inherited a self buildculture. The Hindus burnt their deadbodies. Hindus considered the ‘Mothercow’ as a sacred animal. They performed ‘Sati’ andworshipped. There exists a caste system inhindus.
The two communities of the Sub Continent differ in theirsocial life. The clothes, the foods, the household utensils, theconstruction of homes, the words of greeting, thegestures and every thing about them was different andimmediately represented to their distinctive origin. The moral values, ethics and norms of both thecommunities are totally different.
MUSLIMS HINDUS There is a proper check andbalance of economy inIslam. Zakat aushur is compulsoryfor Muslims. Interest(suut) is strictlyforbade in Islam. Muslims were thrown outside the governmentsector, they were financiallyweek. No check and balance. No concept of Zakat inHindus religion. No concept of interest. the Hindus were provided withample opportunities to progresseconomically.
MUSLIMS HINDUS Muslims did not receivemodern education whichheavily affected theireconomic conditions. They could not cope with thesociety because they ignorethe modern education. The Hindus were advancedin the educational fieldbecause they quickly andreadily took to the Englisheducation. They occupied the bestsocial status because of themodern education.
Political DifferencesThe political differences between the Hindus and Muslims have played animportant role in the evolution of Two Nation Theory.(i) Hindi Urdu ControversyIn 1867, Hindus demanded that Urdu should be written in Hindi Script insteadUrdu Script. This created another gap between Hindus and Muslims.(ii) Congress AttitudeThe Indian national Congress was founded in 1885. It claimed to represent allcommunities of India but oppressed all Muslim ideas and supported the Hindu(iii) Partition of BengalIn 1905, the partition of Bengal ensured a number of political benefits for theMuslims, but the Hindus launched an agitation against the partition and partitiowas annulled in 1911.
MUSLIMS HINDUS The language of the Muslimswas Urdu and it was written inArabic Script. Urdu language had thedifference in writing, thoughtsof poetry, arts, painting andwords of music. Even this small difference leadto a stirring conflict betweenthe two nations. Hindi language was spokenby Hindus and it was writtenin Sanskrit. Hindi language had its ownway of writing in every artwhich is quite different fromurdu.
Sir Syed ahmad khan the poiner of two nation theory,said:“I am convinced now that Hindus and Muslims could never becomeone nation as their religion and way of life was quite distinct from each other.”o Quaid-e-Azam’s Statement on Two Nation Theory“Muslims are not a minority, they are one nation by every definition of theword nation. By all canons of international law we are a nation.”Two Nation Theory in the View of Allama Iqbal“India is a continent of human beings belonging to differentlanguages and professing different religions… I, therefore,demand the formation of a consolidated Muslim state in the bestinterests of the Muslims of India and Islam.”
ConclusionThe Muslims realized thatthey would lose their religious andcultural identity if they remained a partof British India. They also able tounderstand the above mentioneddifferences between them and hencedemanded a separate homeland onthe ground where they freely practicedtheir religion in accordance with Quranand Sunnah and Islamic teachings.They demanded a piece of land wheretheir property and life would be safeguarded and secure.