2. Key component influencing the “QUALITY OF LIFE”.
Categorizing Issues (economic, educational, environmental,
health, housing, political/governmental, public safety,
recreational, resource use, social/cultural, or transportation
Types of organization (health, business, planning, education,
environment, local authority, private citizen...)
3. COMPONENT OF QUALITY OF LIFE
• Energy & Mobility /Activities of daily living / Work
• Feelings, fear, depression / Self-esteem / Thinking,
learning, memory and concentration.
• Religion/ Personal internal power
• Personal relationships / Social support / Role in the
family, profession and social groups of friends &
• Physical, chemical & biological (pollution, noise,
traffic, and climate) / Transport/ home environment
a group of people who have come together to work and live.
a group of people united by the common objects of their life.
a group of people working together actively to achieve a
a unique living entity and it continuously changes physically
a social group of any size whose members reside in a specific
locality, share government, and often have a common cultural
and historical heritage.
Community can be defined as;
a group of people who live close to one another, who
are interested in the same things, who have similar
problems, who depend on each other, and who realize
that they are an important part of the community.
At least three elements exist in every community;
a social unit of which space is an integral part.
community indicates a configuration as to way of
life, both as to how people do things and what they
want--their institutions and collective goals.
a collective action
9. Characteristics of a Community
Live in the same area.
They know each other.
Do things together.
Have similar problems, needs and concerns.
Depend on each other.
Have common customs, culture, habits, ceremonies, beliefs and
They speak the same language.
Within a group there may be subgroups by age, sex, religion,
occupation and education.
The members of the community realize that they are an important
art of the group.
10. Examples of Different Types of Community
What people do: rice grower, vegetable grower, taxi driver,
factory worker, student, doctors
Where they are: city, countryside, homeless who live in the
How they feel: orphans, amputees, abused women
How they share tasks together: co-workers, family members,
help one another
11. The Poor versus Ideal
Lacks recognition by larger society and authority
Bound by tradition
Poor standard of living
Very much dependent on outside help
12. Ideal Community:
Good human relations
Rich in self-esteem
Social and physical basic infrastructure
Participation at all levels
Able to identify needs
Uses available resources
Feeling of togetherness
in the context of community development, the term
development implies improvement in the condition of a
Social development is about improving the well-being of
every individual in society so they can reach their full
Development means investing in people. It requires the
removal of barriers so that all citizens can journey toward
their dreams with confidence and dignity.
Taylor defined CD as that development means as
human progress, raising the quality of life of people and
involving them in political, social and economic
activities that affect their daily life.
15. Community Development
A collaborative, collective action taken by local
people to enhance the long term social, economic,
and environmental conditions of their community.
Community development is a process where
community members come together to take
collective action and generate solutions to common
16. It is process whereby people get together;
communicate; identify priority needs; plan and take
action to resolve problems and achieve outcomes
which are desired by the community
The primary goal of community development is to
create a better overall quality of life for everyone in the
17. UN definition of CD
Community Development is a process of social action in which the
people of a community organized themselves for planning and
actions; define their common and individual needs and solve their
problems; execute the plans with a maximum of reliance upon
community resources; and supplement these resources when
necessary with services and materials from government and non-
government agencies outside the community and to help people to
develop economically and socially viable communities which can
assist, strengthen and adequately support individual and family
growth and enhance the quality of life.
18. Community wellbeing (economic, social, environmental
and cultural) often evolves from this type of collective
action being taken at a grassroots level.
Community development (CD) is a broad term applied
to the practices of civic activists, involved citizens and
professionals to build stronger and more resilient
19. Community development seeks to empower individuals and
groups of people by providing them with the skills they need
to effect change in their own communities.
These skills are often created through the formation of
large social groups working for a common agenda.
Community developers must understand both how to work
with individuals and how to affect communities‘ positions
within the context of larger social institution
20. Principles of Community
There is no “ recipe” for a process of community
Rather, a set of key principles guide a flexible process of
engagement and action as follows;
Democratic: The will of the majority must be carried out, but
only after all voices are heard and considered and minority
rights are protected.
There are many barriers to participation in society; poverty,
disability, age, race and ethnicity are some other
characteristics that often marginalize people. A healthy
community embraces diversity and recognizes that all
community members have a right
to be heard and participate in processes that affect their lives
22. Non-authoritarian: Organizational structures are as flat as
possible, with all participants being seen as equally important and
having equal input.
Community self determination: Community members come
together to discuss their concerns, assess options and arrive at
their own conclusions. They may seek advice from "experts", but
consider it along with other sources of information and their own
experience and make their own decisions that are right for them.
23. Community Ownership: Communities thrive when they
develop their own assets, but also when they "own" their
problems and issues. When communities accept that it is
"their" problem, then they are more likely to work together to
develop a solution, and the solution will be better than one
provided solely by an external "expert".
Social justice and equity: This is fundamental to community
development and is at least implicit in all CD work, if not an
explicit goal of a CD program.
24. Universality: Services are available to everyone, without
requiring means or needs
Service Integration: Often services provided to persons in
need are fragmented, so that one service provider doesn't
know what other services are available or being used,
resulting in gaps, duplications and sometimes conflicting
advice or treatments.
25. Values of Community
Community development workers support individuals, groups and
organizations in this process on the basis of certain values and practice
The values at the core of community development are;
working and learning together
26. Social justice
respecting and valuing diversity and difference
challenging oppressive and discriminatory actions and
addressing power imbalances between individuals, within
groups and society
committing to pursue civil and human rights for all
seeking and promoting policy and practices that are just
and enhance equality whilst challenging those that are not
valuing the concerns or issues that communities
identify as their starting points
raising people’s awareness of the range of choices
open to them, providing opportunities for discussion of
implications of options
promoting the view that communities do not have the
right to oppress other communities
working with conflict within communities
28. Working and learning
demonstrating that collective working is effective
supporting and developing individuals to contribute
effectively to communities
developing a culture of informed and accountable decision
ensuring all perspectives within the community are
sharing good practice in order to learn from each other
29. Sustainable communities
promoting the empowerment of individuals and communities
supporting communities to develop their skills to take action
promoting the development of autonomous and accountable
learning from experiences as a basis for change
promoting effective collective and collaborative working
using resources with respect for the environment
promoting the participation of individuals and communities,
particularly those traditionally marginalized / excluded
recognizing and challenging barriers to full and effective
supporting communities to gain skills to engage in participation
developing structures that enable communities to participate
sharing good practice in order to learn from each other
31. Approaches of Community
The term “bottom-up” implies decision making that
comes from community members without official status
When the decision making process is seen to be more
democratic, starting from the common people and
working its way up to centralized agencies and officials,
it is deemed to be bottom-up
32. this approach is become very effective in low-income
communities whether in urban or rural areas needs
certain basic facilities that are difficult or impossible to
acquire, either due to poverty or other constraints.
Community Driven Development Approach
This is an approach that gives control of development
decisions and resources to community groups.
33. Poor communities receive funds, decide on their use, plan and
execute the chosen local projects, and monitor the provision of
services that result; it improves not just incomes but also the
peoples empowerment, the lack of which is a form of poverty
Through its support for CDD, the International Development
Association (IDA), the World Bank funds for the world
poorest countries, has been harnessing the energy and
capacity of communities for poverty reduction since the start
of the decade, IDA
34. Places-based Approach
Place-based approaches are designed to meet the unique
requirements of the local community.
Place-based approaches are collaborative, long-term
approaches to build thriving communities delivered in a
defined geographic location.
Place-based approaches are often used to respond to complex,
interrelated or challenging issues—such as to address social
issues impacting those experiencing, or at risk of,
disadvantage, or for natural disasters.
35. Community development Critical Approach
It is fundamentally committed to bring about social
change which contributes to the end.
Critical approaches to community development locate
grassroots practice interim that drawing vision of a just
and sustainable future.