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In the Name of Allah
The Study Of Language
Word Formation
Saeed Jafari
Researcher on Linguistics
B.A Teaching English as a...
Etymology
Etymology is the history of words, their origins, and how their form
and meaning have changed over time. By an e...
Greek andLatin have had
the biggest influenceonEnglish
This influence startedthousands ofyearsago…
Where do the words we use come from?
• Englishis a blend of words from many other languages
• These words made theirway in...
countryname,late 14c., from Medieval Latin Turchia,from Turcus(see Turk)+ -ia
guineafowl
Latin
• The Roman Empire expanded into Britain, bringing Latin
Latin
•Latin words found their way into the Anglo-Saxon lan...
Coinage is the word formation process in which a new word is created either
deliberately or accidentally without using the...
Selfie
a photograph that one has taken of oneself, typically one taken with a
smartphone or webcam and uploaded to a socia...
Space Tourism
the practice of travelling into space for recreational purposes
Hackerspace
a place in which people with an interest in computing or
technology can gather to work on projects while shari...
FOMO
FIL
LDR
A / W
anxiety that an exciting or
interesting event may currently be
happening elsewhere, often
aroused by po...
Borrowing
Borrowing is the process whereby new words are formed by adopting words
from other languages together with the c...
Latin words borrowed before the settlement in England
Latin words adopted during the Anglo-Saxon period
14th and 15th century 14th and 15th century
ENGLISHWORDS BORROWEDFROMITALIAN
Examples by word class
Modifier Head Compound
noun noun football
adjective noun blackboard
verb noun breakwater
prepositio...
Compounding is the word formation process in which two or more lexemes
combine into a single new word. Compound words may ...
Examples by word class
Modifier Head Compound
noun noun football
adjective noun blackboard
verb noun breakwater
prepositio...
Similar to compounds, but parts of the words are deleted.
Blends are the compression of two words into one
Examples:
Motor...
Some blending patterns become so common that they
seem to create new morphemes
1. Watergate
2. Nannygate
3. Monicagate
4. ...
television marathon telethon
breakfast lunch brunch
motor hotel motel
frozen cappacino frappacino
situation comedy sitcom
...
Cliping
Clipping means cutting Off the beginning or the end of a
word or both Leaving a part to stand for The whole ;lab ,...
Abbreviations (Clipping)
• Definition: A word which is clipped
• Examples:
– Facsimile  fax
– Hamburger  burger
 Gasoli...
Clipping
professor prof
disrespect diss
gymnasium gym
mathematics math
memorandum memo
attitude tude
Backformation
A new word is created by removing what is mistakenly
considered to be an affix
edit from editor;
peddle from...
Backformation
burglar burgle
beggar beg
enthusiasm enthuse
hamburger burger
Derivation is the forming of new words by combining derivational affixes or
bound bases with existing Words , as in misadv...
Examples of English derivational patterns and their suffixes:
adjective-to-noun: -ness (slow → slowness)
adjective-to-verb...
Definition: Assigning an already existing word to a new syntactic category.
Examples:
butter (N)  to butter the bread
per...
Acronomy is the process whereby a word is formed from the
initials or be-ginning segments of a succession of words.
Exampl...
Acronyms
constable on patrol cop
radar detection
and ranging
radar
aquired immune
deficiency
syndrome
AIDS
Acronyms
Prefixes and suffixes are sets of letters that are added to the beginning or
end of another word. They are not words in th...
word prefix or suffix new word
security bio- biosecurity
clutter de- declutter
media multi- multimedia
email -er emailer
w...
An infix is an affix inserted inside a word stem (an existing word). It contrasts
with adfix, a rare term for an affix att...
Portuguese
There is an infix construction for the future and conditional tenses:
Eu fá-lo-ei amanhã. Literally: I will ma-...
Here you will find one or more explanations in English for the word kamhmu. Also in
the bottom left of the page several pa...
The Study of Language (Etymology)
The Study of Language (Etymology)
The Study of Language (Etymology)
The Study of Language (Etymology)
The Study of Language (Etymology)
The Study of Language (Etymology)
The Study of Language (Etymology)
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The Study of Language (Etymology)

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Etymology is the study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time. By extension, the term "the etymology of [a word]" means the origin of the particular word.

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The Study of Language (Etymology)

  1. 1. In the Name of Allah The Study Of Language Word Formation Saeed Jafari Researcher on Linguistics B.A Teaching English as a Foreign Language
  2. 2. Etymology Etymology is the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time. By an extension, the term "the etymology of [a word]" means the origin of the particular word.
  3. 3. Greek andLatin have had the biggest influenceonEnglish This influence startedthousands ofyearsago…
  4. 4. Where do the words we use come from? • Englishis a blend of words from many other languages • These words made theirway into theEnglishlanguagein many ways o Occupation by other countries/cultures o Englishoccupation of other countries/cultures o Brought by immigrants o Culturaltrends and fashions The English language is always changing!
  5. 5. countryname,late 14c., from Medieval Latin Turchia,from Turcus(see Turk)+ -ia guineafowl
  6. 6. Latin • The Roman Empire expanded into Britain, bringing Latin Latin •Latin words found their way into the Anglo-Saxon language of the people in Ancient Britain their way into the Anglo-Saxon language of the people in people in Ancient Britain Latin word “stratum” means “layered road” “Stratum” became “straets” in Anglo-Saxon Now called “streets” in modern English Miles Miles of streets and roads were created Mile is from the Latin word mille, which means 1,000 The Roman mile was measured as 1,000 paces
  7. 7. Coinage is the word formation process in which a new word is created either deliberately or accidentally without using the other word formation processes and often from seemingly nothing. Sources of coined words: 1. Trade names of commercial products that become general terms. e.g. Google, ebay 2. New words based on the name of a person or a place. e.g. Volt, Watt, jeans, sandwich, hoover etc. Coinage
  8. 8. Selfie a photograph that one has taken of oneself, typically one taken with a smartphone or webcam and uploaded to a social media website.
  9. 9. Space Tourism the practice of travelling into space for recreational purposes
  10. 10. Hackerspace a place in which people with an interest in computing or technology can gather to work on projects while sharing ideas, equipment, and knowledge StreetFood prepared or cooked food sold by vendors in a street or other public location for immediate consumption Unlike withdraw one’s liking or approval of (a web page or posting on a social media website that one has previously liked)
  11. 11. FOMO FIL LDR A / W anxiety that an exciting or interesting event may currently be happening elsewhere, often aroused by posts seen on a social media website a person’s father-in-law (see also MIL, BIL, SIL). me time, n. (informal): time spent relaxing on one’s own as opposed to working or doing things for others, seen as an opportunity to reduce stress or restore energy. (denoting or relating to fashion designed for the autumn and winter seasons of a particular year). (See also S/S)
  12. 12. Borrowing Borrowing is the process whereby new words are formed by adopting words from other languages together with the concepts or ideas they stand for (cf. Brun, 1983; Pei 1966). E.g., tango, mango, taco, burrito from Spanish; fiancé, very (adapted from Old French verai), garage from French; pizza, mafia from Italian so on. Usually, the pro-nunciation and morphology of the borrowings ( borrowed terms or loanwords ) are adapted to the phonology and morphology of the host language (i.e., the language which adopts the terms); e.g., guerrilla g´"rIl´ (English), ge" r@ija (Spanish); banana b´"nœn´ (English), ba"nana (Spanish); mango (sing), mangoes (pl.) (English), mangos (Spanish).
  13. 13. Latin words borrowed before the settlement in England
  14. 14. Latin words adopted during the Anglo-Saxon period
  15. 15. 14th and 15th century 14th and 15th century
  16. 16. ENGLISHWORDS BORROWEDFROMITALIAN
  17. 17. Examples by word class Modifier Head Compound noun noun football adjective noun blackboard verb noun breakwater preposition noun underworld noun adjective snowwhite adjective adjective blue-green verb adjective tumbledown preposition adjective over-ripe noun verb browbeat adjective verb highlight verb verb freeze-dry preposition verb undercut noun preposition love-in adverb preposition forthwith verb preposition takeout preposition preposition without Many of our words come from our close neighbours the French Cheque Chef Artist Bureau Café Gallop Nature Restaurant Cabinet Justice and so on
  18. 18. Compounding is the word formation process in which two or more lexemes combine into a single new word. Compound words may be written as one word or as two words joined with a hyphen. For example: noun-noun compound: note + book → notebook adjective-noun compound: blue + berry → blueberry verb-noun compound: work + room → workroom noun-verb compound: breast + feed → breastfeed verb-verb compound: stir + fry → stir-fry adjective-verb compound: high + light → highlight Compounding
  19. 19. Examples by word class Modifier Head Compound noun noun football adjective noun blackboard verb noun breakwater preposition noun underworld noun adjective snowwhite adjective adjective blue-green verb adjective tumbledown preposition adjective over-ripe Examples by word class Modifier Head Compound noun noun football adjective noun blackboard verb noun breakwater preposition noun underworld noun adjective snowwhite adjective adjective blue-green verb adjective tumbledown preposition adjective over-ripe noun verb browbeat adjective verb highlight verb verb freeze-dry preposition verb undercut noun preposition love-in adverb preposition forthwith verb preposition takeout preposition preposition without English compounds may beclassified in several ways, such as the word classes orthe semantic relationship of their components
  20. 20. Similar to compounds, but parts of the words are deleted. Blends are the compression of two words into one Examples: Motor + hotel  Motel Breakfast + lunch  Brunch Wireless + Fidelity  Wi-Fi * They will obey the phonological rules of the language smoke + fog ≠ sfog Blending
  21. 21. Some blending patterns become so common that they seem to create new morphemes 1. Watergate 2. Nannygate 3. Monicagate 4. -gate looks like a suffix meaning ‘scandal’ Blends
  22. 22. television marathon telethon breakfast lunch brunch motor hotel motel frozen cappacino frappacino situation comedy sitcom cranberry martini crantini Blends
  23. 23. Cliping Clipping means cutting Off the beginning or the end of a word or both Leaving a part to stand for The whole ;lab , Dorm , Prof , exam The back-clipped words are those words that lose their forepart , like plane and phone. *The converse of backformation *Clipping does not assume a rule but deletes material while obeying the phonological rules of the language
  24. 24. Abbreviations (Clipping) • Definition: A word which is clipped • Examples: – Facsimile  fax – Hamburger  burger  Gasoline   Advertisement   Omnibus  Gas Ad Bus
  25. 25. Clipping professor prof disrespect diss gymnasium gym mathematics math memorandum memo attitude tude
  26. 26. Backformation A new word is created by removing what is mistakenly considered to be an affix edit from editor; peddle from peddler; enthuse from enthusiasm orientate from orientation
  27. 27. Backformation burglar burgle beggar beg enthusiasm enthuse hamburger burger
  28. 28. Derivation is the forming of new words by combining derivational affixes or bound bases with existing Words , as in misadvise Re-ask They are immediately Understandable because You know the meaning of the parts. Derivation stands in contrast to the process of inflection, which means the formation of grammatical variants of the same word, as with determine/determines/determining/determined. Derivation
  29. 29. Examples of English derivational patterns and their suffixes: adjective-to-noun: -ness (slow → slowness) adjective-to-verb: -ise (modern → modernise) in British English or - ize (archaic → archaicize) in American English and Oxford spelling adjective-to-adjective: -ish (red → reddish) adjective-to-adverb: -ly (personal → personally) noun-to-adjective: -al (recreation → recreational) noun-to-verb: -fy (glory → glorify) verb-to-adjective: -able (drink → drinkable) verb-to-noun (abstract): -ance (deliver → deliverance) verb-to-noun (agent): -er (write → writer)
  30. 30. Definition: Assigning an already existing word to a new syntactic category. Examples: butter (N)  to butter the bread permit (V)  an entry permit empty (A)  to empty the litter-bin Conversion
  31. 31. Acronomy is the process whereby a word is formed from the initials or be-ginning segments of a succession of words. Examples: severe acute respiratory syndrome  SARS Self-contained underwater breathing apparatus  SCUBA Acronyms
  32. 32. Acronyms constable on patrol cop radar detection and ranging radar aquired immune deficiency syndrome AIDS Acronyms
  33. 33. Prefixes and suffixes are sets of letters that are added to the beginning or end of another word. They are not words in their own right and cannot stand on their own in a sentence: if they are printed on their own they have a hyphen before or after them. Prefixes and suffixes Word creation with prefixes and suffixes Some prefixes and suffixes are part of our living language, in that people regularly use them to create new words for modern products, concepts, or situations. For example: word prefix or suffix new word security bio- biosecurity clutter de- declutter media multi- multimedia email -er emailer
  34. 34. word prefix or suffix new word security bio- biosecurity clutter de- declutter media multi- multimedia email -er emailer word suffix new word child -ish childish work -er worker taste -less tasteless idol -ize/-ise idolize/idolise like -able likeable Suffixes Suffixes are added to the end of an existing word. For example: word prefix new word happy un- unhappy cultural multi- multicultural work over- overwork space cyber- cyberspace market super- supermarket Prefixes Prefixes are added to the beginning of an existing word in order to create a new word with a different meaning. For example:
  35. 35. An infix is an affix inserted inside a word stem (an existing word). It contrasts with adfix, a rare term for an affix attached to the end of a stem, such as a prefix or suffix. Infix
  36. 36. Portuguese There is an infix construction for the future and conditional tenses: Eu fá-lo-ei amanhã. Literally: I will ma-it-ke tomorrow. Meaning: I will make it tomorrow. Eu fá-lo-ia ontem. Literally: I would ma-it-ke yesterday. Meaning: I would make it yesterday. Spanish In Nicaragua and neighboring countries, the Spanish diminutive affix becomes an infix ⟨it⟩ in names: Óscar [ˈoskar] → Osquítar [osˈkitar] (cf. standard Oscarito); Edgar → Edguítar; Victor → Victítor. Arabic Arabic uses a common infix, ⟨t⟩ ‫ت‬for Form VIII verbs, usually a reflexive of Form I. It is placed after the first consonant of the root; an epenthetic i- prefix is also added since words cannot begin with a consonant cluster. An example is ‫اجتهد‬ijtahada "he worked hard", from ‫جهد‬jahada "he strove". (The words "ijtihad" and "jihad" are nouns derived from these two verbs.)
  37. 37. Here you will find one or more explanations in English for the word kamhmu. Also in the bottom left of the page several parts of wikipedia pages related to the word kamhmu and, of course, kamhmu synonyms and on the right images related to the word kamhmu. Khmu [kʰmuʔ] is the language of the Khmu people of the northern Laos region. It is also spoken in adjacent areas of Vietnam, Thailand and China. Khmu lends its name to the Khmuic branch of the Austroasiatic language family, the latter of which also includes Khmer and Vietnamese. kamhmu

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