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Sai Anjaneya
History of Automation
Applications of Automation
 Home Automation –
 Air Conditioner, Geyser, Washing Machine,
Cleaning Robot
 Building Autom...
Industrial Automation
Automation Video
Year Casting Deformation Joining Machining Ceramics Plastics
4000 B.C. Stone, clay
molds
Bending, forging
(Au, Ag, Cu)
Riv...
Year Casting Deformation Joining Machining Ceramics Plastics
1875 Rail rolling,
continuous
rolling
Turret lathe,
universal...
Selected Events in the History of Automation
• Organized automation, mechanization: Industrial revolution, 1770-
, England...
Functions of Industry
Types of Automation
9
Programmable
automation
Flexible
automation
Fixed
automationManual
Low Medium High Parts per year
Lo...
Examples of Automation
Automatic rice cooker
Put the rice and water in it in the morning, set it to start cooking at 6pm.
...
Examples of Automation
Park and Shop
The sales clerk ‘swipes’ item across a glass sheet on top of the counter.
The price (...
Open Loop, Closed Loop Systems
Actuator DeviceSignal
Actuator DeviceSignal -
Sensor
feedback
Basic Structure of Automatic Control System
Computers
Communication network
A/D
converterAnalog
Signals
Digital Signals
Se...
Technologies
14
CNC Milling Machine
4-Feb-1715
3D Printing
18
What are levels of automation
Video
Levels of Automation
Levels Description Attributes
Level 0 Labor Mechanization
Level 1 Scripts Automation
Level 2 Orchestr...
REASONS FOR AUTOMATING
21
 Increased productivity.
 High cost of labor.
 Labor shortages.
 Trend of labor towards serv...
ARGUMENTS AGAINST AUTOMATION
22
Automation will result in the subjugation of the human
being via machine.
There will be a ...
ARGUMENTS IN FAVOUR OF AUTOMATION
23
 Automation is the key to the shorter work week.
 Automation brings safer working c...
the Near Future
Industry 4.0
Internet of Things
Source: IAC
Wearable technologies
Autonomous Car
industrial automation history
industrial automation history
industrial automation history
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industrial automation history

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industrial automation

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industrial automation history

  1. 1. Sai Anjaneya History of Automation
  2. 2. Applications of Automation  Home Automation –  Air Conditioner, Geyser, Washing Machine, Cleaning Robot  Building Automation –  Elevators, Automatic door opening, fire alarms, automatic parking  Office Automation –  Fax, Printer, MS Word, Smart Phones, PC  Mobility Automation –  Aircraft, Boats, ships, bikes, cars, rails  Industrial Automation –  Robots, Design and Manufacturing Software, Whole plant
  3. 3. Industrial Automation
  4. 4. Automation Video
  5. 5. Year Casting Deformation Joining Machining Ceramics Plastics 4000 B.C. Stone, clay molds Bending, forging (Au, Ag, Cu) Riveting Stone, emery, corundum, garnet, flint Earthenware Wood, natural fiber 2500 BC Lost wax (bronze) Shearing, sheet forming Soldering, brazing Drilling, sawing Glass beads, potter's wheel 1000 BC Hot forging (iron), wire- drawing (?) Forge welding, gluing Iron saws Glass pressing, glazing 0. A.D. Coining (brass), forging (steel) Turning (wood), filing Glass blowing 1000 Wire drawing Stoneware, porcelain (China) 1400 Sand casting, cast iron Water hammer Sandpaper Majolica, crystal glass 1600 Permanent mold Tinplate can, rolling (Pb) Wheel lathe (wood) 1800 Flasks Deep drawing, rolling, (steel), extrusion (Pb) Boring, turning, screw cutting Plate glass; porcelain (Germany) 1850 Centrifugal, molding machine Steam hammer, tinplate rolling Shaping, milling, copying lathe Window glass from slit cylinder Vulcanization History of material processing technologies
  6. 6. Year Casting Deformation Joining Machining Ceramics Plastics 1875 Rail rolling, continuous rolling Turret lathe, universal mill, vitrified wheel Celluloid, rubber extrusion, molding 1900 Tube rolling, extrusion (Cu) Oxyacetylene, arc welding, electrical resistance welding Geared lathe, automatic screw machine, hobbing, high- speed steel, synthetic SiC, Al2O3 Automatic bottle making 1920 Die casting W wire (from powder) Coated electrode Bakelite, PVC casting, cold molding, injection molding 1940 Lost wax for engineering parts, resin- bonded sand Extrusion (steel) Submerged arc Acrylics, PMMA, P.E., nylon, synthetic rubber, transfer molding, foaming 1950 Ceramic mold, modular iron, semi-conductors Cold extrusion (steel) TIG welding, MIG welding, electroslag EDM ABS, silicones, fluorocarbons, polyurethane 1960 Plasma arc Manufactured diamond Float-glass Acetals, polycarbonate, polypropylene History of material processing technologies
  7. 7. Selected Events in the History of Automation • Organized automation, mechanization: Industrial revolution, 1770- , England, Europe, US • Hard automation and transfer lines: Henry Ford, 1900-, USA • Numerically Controlled (NC) machine tools, 1952 (US Air Force, MIT) • Microchip computers: late 1960-, USA • CNC (computer numerical controlled) machine tools, 1970-, USA • Industrial Robots, USA, Japan, 1970- • Computer networks, DARPA USA, 1970- • Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS), Japan, 1980-.
  8. 8. Functions of Industry
  9. 9. Types of Automation 9 Programmable automation Flexible automation Fixed automationManual Low Medium High Parts per year Low Medium High Number of different parts Production Volume Production Variety
  10. 10. Examples of Automation Automatic rice cooker Put the rice and water in it in the morning, set it to start cooking at 6pm. It turns on automatically. When the rice is cooked, it switches to “keep warm” mode. Q1. How does it control when to turn on? Q2. What type of sensor(s) and actuators are inside this machine? Q5. The cooker can be set to cook different food types (rice, congee, fish… How is the logic for so many functions controlled? Q4. How can the rice be kept warm for up to 12 hours? Q3. How would you sense when the rice is cooked?
  11. 11. Examples of Automation Park and Shop The sales clerk ‘swipes’ item across a glass sheet on top of the counter. The price (and name) of the item are automatically printed on the receipt. The receipt also calculates the total price of all items you have bought. Q1. Identify the sensors and actuators in this example. Q5. How can the information of “which item is purchased” be used to improve customer service? Q4. How does the system know the price and name of the item? Q3. How does the system know what item was swiped? Q2. Is this an example of digital or analog control?
  12. 12. Open Loop, Closed Loop Systems Actuator DeviceSignal Actuator DeviceSignal - Sensor feedback
  13. 13. Basic Structure of Automatic Control System Computers Communication network A/D converterAnalog Signals Digital Signals Sensors and Actuators Network Interface Physical Process Analog controls D/A converter MicroprocessorPLC
  14. 14. Technologies 14
  15. 15. CNC Milling Machine 4-Feb-1715
  16. 16. 3D Printing 18
  17. 17. What are levels of automation Video
  18. 18. Levels of Automation Levels Description Attributes Level 0 Labor Mechanization Level 1 Scripts Automation Level 2 Orchestration Level 1 + Adaptability Level 3 Autonomics Level 2 + Awareness Level 4 Pre-cognitive Level 3 + Analytics Level 5 Cognitive Level 4 + Alive
  19. 19. REASONS FOR AUTOMATING 21  Increased productivity.  High cost of labor.  Labor shortages.  Trend of labor towards service sector.  Safety.  High cost of raw materials.  Improved product quality.  Reduced manufacturing lead-time.  Reduction of in process inventory.  High cost of not automating.
  20. 20. ARGUMENTS AGAINST AUTOMATION 22 Automation will result in the subjugation of the human being via machine. There will be a reduction in the labor force with resulting unemployment. Automation will reduce purchasing power.
  21. 21. ARGUMENTS IN FAVOUR OF AUTOMATION 23  Automation is the key to the shorter work week.  Automation brings safer working conditions for the workers.  Automated production results in lower prices and better products.  The growth of automation industries will itself provide employment opportunities.  Automation is the only means of increasing our standard of living.
  22. 22. the Near Future
  23. 23. Industry 4.0
  24. 24. Internet of Things Source: IAC
  25. 25. Wearable technologies
  26. 26. Autonomous Car

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