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STRUCTURE OF THE SILICATES1.Approx. 90% of the mineral content of the earth’s crust is of silicates where Si-O bonding, co...
STRUCTURE OF THE SILICATES3. The Si-O bond is partly ionic   (generated due to attraction of opp.   charged ions) and part...
STRUCTURE OF THE                 SILICATESThe bond length between Si atoms and the bridgingThe bond length between Si atom...
When tetrahedra are corner-linked, the Si-O bond angledefines the orientation of the tetrahedra relative to oneanother. Th...
SiO44- complex ion• A group of ions that is so tightly bound together  that they act like a single unit.• Building block o...
Silicate tetrahedronSiO44-
Tetrahedron Viewing                                                Top point                                              ...
Nesosilicates (island silicates)SiO44- tetrahedron forms ionic bonds with cations such as Mg2+, Fe2+  Example: Olivine  Mg...
Olivine: nesosilicate structure (island silicate)                               View from the side (“wall” of structure)Wh...
Corner Sharing Base to Base                 side view    O2-   Si4+3-D Side View                             © S. Brachfel...
Inosilicicates: Single Chains (Pyroxene)SiO3 Chain forms ionic bonds with cations above the tipand below the base         ...
Corner Sharing Tip to Tip            O2-           Si4+tesy of Donna Whitney, University of Minnesota Dept. Geology       ...
Assembling a Single Chain Silicate (Pyroxene)Build xl in this direction                                           © S. Bra...
Pyroxene- Where’s the cleavage?breaking at the molecular scale What human eyes see at the macro scale                   90...
Double Chain Silicates (Amphibole)PAIR of SiO4 chains that link by corner sharing in 2 directions
Amphibole formula is long: lots of space for small   and medium cations              Cations include Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mn2+, ...
60˚-120˚ Cleavage in Double Chain Silicates (Amphibole)- (actually 56˚ - 124˚)         breaking at the molecular scale    ...
Nesosilicates: independent SiO4 tetrahedra                           b                                                 c  ...
Inosilicates: single chains- pyroxenes   b                                a sinβDiopside (001) view blue = Si purple = M1 ...
Inosilicates: double chains- amphiboles                                                             Hornblende:           ...
StishoviteTectosilicates                                                       CoesiteLow Quartz                          ...
Silicate structure
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Silicate structure

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Silicate structure

  1. 1. STRUCTURE OF THE SILICATES1.Approx. 90% of the mineral content of the earth’s crust is of silicates where Si-O bonding, coupled with different cations and anions, formed different minerals.2.The fundamental unit on which the structures of all silicates are based consists of four O2- apices of a regular tetrahedron surrounding and coordinated by one Si4+ at its centre.
  2. 2. STRUCTURE OF THE SILICATES3. The Si-O bond is partly ionic (generated due to attraction of opp. charged ions) and partly covalent. This tetrahedral groups can be linked with adjacent tetrahedral groupings through sharing of one or all four oxygen atoms (Polymerization).4. The mean Si-O bond length is 1.62Å. Other cations near the oxygen atom of a Si-O bond also attract the oxygen and tend to lengthen the Si-0 bond( greater co-ord no; longer bond length). The strength of the Si-O bond limits the range of the bond lengths from 1.60Å to 1.64Å
  3. 3. STRUCTURE OF THE SILICATESThe bond length between Si atoms and the bridgingThe bond length between Si atoms and the bridgingoxygen atoms (OBR) are on average longer by about0.025Å compared with the Si-O bond length to the O nb.[especially when SiO4 are linked in structures.The OBR-Si-OBR bond angle is also shows slightlysmaller value when bridging oxygens are not involved.This suggests that that the Si atoms are displacedfrom the centres of the tetrahedra (awayfrom O BR) cozof repulsive force between two Si atoms.The aforesaid sharing of oxygens gave rise to diversestructural configurations for silicates with various Si-Oratios.
  4. 4. When tetrahedra are corner-linked, the Si-O bond angledefines the orientation of the tetrahedra relative to oneanother. This bond angle can vary between 1200 and 1800depending on the local structural environment as well astemp. and pressure. The bond angle of a strain-free Si-O-Si bond is near 1400.When Al substitutes Si in a tetrahedron, the [AlO4]tetrahedra is slightly larger than a [SiO4] tetrahedra coz.Al-O bond (1.75Å) is larger than the Si-O bond. WhenSiO4and AlO4 are linked in a structure, this sizedifference is accommodated by a change in the T-O-Tbond angle (T= tetrahedral cation)
  5. 5. SiO44- complex ion• A group of ions that is so tightly bound together that they act like a single unit.• Building block of silicate minerals• 1 silicon ion + 4 oxygen ions arranged in a triangular pyramid • Electrical charge of -4
  6. 6. Silicate tetrahedronSiO44-
  7. 7. Tetrahedron Viewing Top point baseView from the top, Flat base of tetrahedron Side viewlooking down. facing you. Top pointTop point of of tetrahedron pointingtetrahedron away from you.facing you
  8. 8. Nesosilicates (island silicates)SiO44- tetrahedron forms ionic bonds with cations such as Mg2+, Fe2+ Example: Olivine Mg2SiO4 - Fosterite Fe2SiO4 - Fayalite (Mg, Fe)SiO4 Solid solution Mg2+ or Fe2+
  9. 9. Olivine: nesosilicate structure (island silicate) View from the side (“wall” of structure)Why Mg OR Fe?• Same size• Same electricalchargePeridot
  10. 10. Corner Sharing Base to Base side view O2- Si4+3-D Side View © S. Brachfeld 2003
  11. 11. Inosilicicates: Single Chains (Pyroxene)SiO3 Chain forms ionic bonds with cations above the tipand below the base Boxed region when view from How many Si How many O 2 Si 6O Yellow tetrahedron in front Gray behind and to the side Cation, forming ionic Stand here bond with tetrahedron look up the chain chain
  12. 12. Corner Sharing Tip to Tip O2- Si4+tesy of Donna Whitney, University of Minnesota Dept. Geology Face sharing
  13. 13. Assembling a Single Chain Silicate (Pyroxene)Build xl in this direction © S. Brachfeld 2003
  14. 14. Pyroxene- Where’s the cleavage?breaking at the molecular scale What human eyes see at the macro scale 90˚ cleavage © S. Brachfeld 2003
  15. 15. Double Chain Silicates (Amphibole)PAIR of SiO4 chains that link by corner sharing in 2 directions
  16. 16. Amphibole formula is long: lots of space for small and medium cations Cations include Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mn2+, Fe2+, Mg2+, Fe3+, Al3+, Ti4+Stand herelook up the chain
  17. 17. 60˚-120˚ Cleavage in Double Chain Silicates (Amphibole)- (actually 56˚ - 124˚) breaking at the molecular scale What human eyes see at the macro scale 120 ˚ © S. Brachfeld 2003
  18. 18. Nesosilicates: independent SiO4 tetrahedra b c projection Olivine (100) view blue = M1 yellow = M2
  19. 19. Inosilicates: single chains- pyroxenes b a sinβDiopside (001) view blue = Si purple = M1 (Mg) yellow = M2 (Ca)
  20. 20. Inosilicates: double chains- amphiboles Hornblende: (Ca, Na)2-3 (Mg, Fe, Al)5 [(Si,Al)8O22] (OH)2 M1-M3 are small sites M4 is larger (Ca) A-site is really big Variety of sites → great chemical range Hornblende (001) view dark blue = Si, Al purple = M1 rose = M2light blue = M3 (all Mg, Fe) yellow ball = M4 (Ca) purple ball = A (Na) little turquoise ball = H
  21. 21. StishoviteTectosilicates CoesiteLow Quartz β- quartz α- quartz Liquid Cristobalite Tridymite 001 Projection Crystal Class 32

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