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Biocharculture ibi Webinar_4

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Biocharculture ibi Webinar_4

  1. 1. BIOCHAR SUSTAINABILITY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IBI WEBINAR SERIES Dr. N. SAI BHASKAR REDDY, GEO saibhaskarnakka@gmail.com | 14th April 2015
  2. 2. BIOCHAR Biochar is another name for charcoal used for purposes other than combustion. Like all charcoal, biochar is created by the pyrolysis of biomass.
  3. 3. BIOCHARS There are various types of biochars, based on feedstock's and production technologies.
  4. 4. Biochar as Growth promoter Soil conditioner Soil amendment
  5. 5. Traditional use of biochar
  6. 6. BIOCHARCULTURE Biocharculture is a holistic approach that has been historically tested, traditionally practiced, is culturally integral, economically viable, socially responsible, environmentally sustainable, and agreeable as a policy. The uses of biochar—as part of biocharculture—include its application in the areas of soil management, livestock, biomass energy, water purification, green habitats, sanitation, food, health, etc.
  7. 7. BIOCHARCULTURE ADAPTATION BENEFITS Securing the crop from drought and climate variabiiity Reclaim the degraded soils water conservation Lessen the impact of hazardous pesticides and complex chemicals reducing emissions and increasing the carbon sequestration Conversion of biomass into biochar Increase in crop yield increases in C, N, pH, and available P to the plants Impacts of biochar last more than 1000 years.
  8. 8. Book published by MetaMeta, Netherlands, August 2014
  9. 9. SUSTAINABILITY OF BIOCHAR Biocharculture integration into traditional and local practices should be encouraged. Encouraging local communities to produce and use biochar with locally available raw material is considered sustainable. Biochar blends are mostly organic / natural
  10. 10. ENVIRONMENTAL CARBON SEQUESTRATI ON REDUCED GREEN HOUSE GAS EMISSIONS SECURING FROM CLIMATE VARIABILITY ONE OF THE GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION SOLUTIONS LIVELIHOODS INCREASED CROP YIELD INCREASED INCOME RECLAMATION OF DEGRADED SOILS BIOLOGICAL - INCREASED SOIL MOCROBES AND FUNGI. REPULSION OF ANTS AND TERMITES, PHYSICAL - SOIL MOISTURE RETENTION, SOIL TEXTURE, AND TEMPERATURE, SURFACE AREA CHEMICAL RETENTION AND ACCESS OF NITROGEN, PHOSPHOROUS, ADSORBTION OF HAZARDOUS PESTICIDES CHARCOAL PLUS AMENDMENTS TO SOIL BIOCHAR FRAMEWORK Other Environmental Applications
  11. 11. Climate Change Climate change will affect food and water security. The coming decades global warming will cause droughts, floods, changes in rainfall patterns, severe freshwater shortages, and shifts in crop growing seasons— especially in developing countries (FAO 2008). Adaptive measures are needed to mitigate expected adverse outcomes; otherwise, areas such as Southern Africa will suffer severe drops in agricultural yields by 2030 (World Bank 2009).
  12. 12. Major challenges Climate change - variability - extremes Soil fertility Water management Impact of hazardous pesticides and nitrogen fertilizers Burning of crop residue Alkalinity of soils
  13. 13. AGRICULTURE SHARE – GDP vs. EMPLOYMENT http://data.worldbank.org/sites/default/files/wdi-final.pdf
  14. 14. Climate Smart Sustainable agriculture Sustainable agriculture can help developing countries adapt to climate change Sustainable agriculture is essential for development—and for achieving the MDG to eradicate poverty and hunger (World Bank and IFPRI 2006). Today’s challenges for sustainable agricultural development are to respond to increasing demand for food, adjust to rapid climate changes caused by global warming, and reduce agricultural greenhouse gas emissions (FAO 2008a). Climate change mitigation in agriculture will require more efficient use of fertilizer, soil conservation, and better production management. Under current fertilization practices, crop plant uptake of nitrogen as a nutrient is about 50 percent, with losses and emissions to the atmosphere through runoff and leaching from soil erosion (Takle and Hofstrand 2008; FAO 2001).
  15. 15. http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/w2612e/w2612emap12-e.pdf Damage has occurred on 15 percent of the world’s total land area (13 percent light and moderate, 2 percent severe and very severe), mainly resulting from erosion, nutrient decline, salinization and physical compaction.
  16. 16. Developing Countries Climate • Arid and semi-arid areas account for one third of the earth’s surface land area. • In many parts of the subhumid and semiarid tropics, crop yields are declining on response to inputs such as fertilizers, and droughts and shortages of irrigation water are increasingly evident. • Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia pose two different challenges in raising food production to meet their food needs. • ICRISAT (1998) estimates that semi-arid areas, especially within the tropics, cover most parts of the developing nations in the world including Latin America, most parts of sub-Saharan Africa, a large portion of Eastern and Southern Africa and parts of India and South East Asia.
  17. 17. http://www.eoearth.org/edit/article/51cbeda07896bb431f692df8/
  18. 18. Source: http://blogs-images.forbes.com/evapereira/files/2011/01/Developed_and_developing_countries3.png An important accumulation of low economic and social development can be detected from both sides of the equator, roughly between 20S and 30N. Both in the north and in the south of that band the income levels grow steeply.
  19. 19. RECENT STUDIES / REPORTS
  20. 20. • BIOCHAR PROJECTS - COUNTRY WISE http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-9525-7
  21. 21. BIOCHAR PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-9525-7
  22. 22. BIOCHAR FEEDSTOCKS Biomass from agriculture, forestry, livestock rearing, food production and processing.. Woody biomass— softwoods, hardwoods, or a combination Agricultural residues including bagasse from sugar cane, corn stover, rice husks, cereal straw, and coconut shells, etc.. http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-9525-7
  23. 23. SOURCES OF BIOMASS FOR BIOCHAR CROP RESIDUE (800 million tons of biomass burnt) COTTON STALKS (22.3 million tons generated) PROSOPIS JULIFLORA RICE HUSK OTHER BIOMASS (in India)
  24. 24. Plants Stoves Biochar Soil Fertility Carbon Sequestration Emission reduction Water conservation Energy Emissions reduction Biomass conservation Biochar as byproduct Carbon as biochar Water and fertilizers conservation Carbon sequestration Note: Presenter has designed low cost highly efficient 50 good stoves that produce biochar as a byproduct. http://goodstove.com Also see the book Understanding Stoves http://metameta.nl/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/Understanding-Stoves-okt-10-webversion.pdf
  25. 25. BIOCHAR PRODUCING STOVES
  26. 26. CHARCOAL PRODUCTION
  27. 27. A B C CHIMNEY PRIMARY AIR SECONDARY AIR GEO metal retort Magh biochar retort 2 Magh biochar retort 1 BIOCHAR PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES
  28. 28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-9525-7 BIOCHAR PRODUCTION SYSTEMS
  29. 29. JAGGERYCOMPOST BIOCHAR SOIL MICROBES GREEN MULCH
  30. 30. BIOCHAR COMPOST
  31. 31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-9525-7 BIOCHAR APPLICATION METHODS
  32. 32. CROP YIELD INCREASE SOIL IMPROVEMENT
  33. 33. WAGES FROM PRODUCTION INCOME FROM SALE
  34. 34. INCREASE IN YIELD AND PRODUCTION
  35. 35. TEST PLOTS CONTROL BIOCHAR COMPOST 4 KGS 8 KGS 12 KGS
  36. 36. 1.5 FEET 6 FEET CONTROL BIOCHAR
  37. 37. LIVELIHOODS • Agriculture productivity increases • Low input agricultureNatural • Local jobs and equity • Local enterprisesSocial • Least skills required • BiocharcultureHuman • Local technologies • Low energyPhysical • Low carbon economy • Low costFinancial • Carbon sequestration and energy security • Mitigation and adaptation to climate changeEnvironment
  38. 38. CARBON OFFSET PAYMENTS Initially, subsidies / carbon offset payments are needed in the developing countries for sustainability of biochar facilitation
  39. 39. BIOCHAR BUSINESSES In the present market less than 25% biochar businesses and production technologies are from developing countries
  40. 40. MARKET Low price of biochar in the developing countries might trigger exports Subsidies a hindrance Lack of awareness Gardening Agriculture (Large Farms) Household Others
  41. 41. PRICE OF BIOCHAR Unblended biochar and biochar products blended with other materials are being sold in many countries at a wide range of retail prices ranging from $0.08 to $13.48 per kilogram. The average price reported was $2.48 per kilogram. http://www.biochar-international.org/State_of_industry_2013
  42. 42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-9525-7 UTILIZATION OF BIOCHAR PRODUCT
  43. 43. CULTURAL SPIRITUAL BELIEFS RITUALS FESTIVALS ALTARS CREMATION SOURCES (BIOMASS) GOOD STOVES •TLUDs •Other stoves CROP RESIDUE POULTRY LITTER WASTE MANAGEM ENT •Sludge PRACTICES FOOD PRESERV ING FOOD CLEANING MEDICINE MATTRESS TOOTH POWDER AIR QUALITY • CO2 / CH4 WATER TREATM ENT AQUARI UM / TERRARI UMS BIOCHAR BRICKS BIOCHAR URINALS SOAK PITS FILTERIN G MEDIA INSECT REPELLE NT SOIL AMENDMENT INCREASED PRODUCTI ON SOIL TEMPERAT URE REGULATE D MOISTURE RETENTION WATER CONSERVA TION NITROGEN / PHOSPHOR OUS RETENTION NURSERIES PESTICIDES ADBSORBTI ON SOIL MICROBES DENSITY INCREASE BIOCHAR COMPOST EARTHWO RMS INCREASE TERMITES / ANTS REPULSION CARBON SEQUESTR ATION ANIMALS POULTRY - CH4 REDUCTION LIVESTOCK - URINE AND DUNG FYM / COMPOST BIOMASS BIOCHAR ENERGY
  44. 44. SOIL BIOCHAR BIOCHAR COMPOST AGRICUTURE PADDY METHANE EMISSIONS REDUCTION PESTICIDE & COMPLEX CHEMICALS AFFECTS MITIGATION EMMISIONS REDUCTION FROM FARM YARD MANURES AND COMPOSTS CROP RESIDUE MANAGEMENT ANIMALS APPLICATION IN ANIMAL PLACES TO TAP URINE, SANITATION AND EMISSIONS REDUCTION RUMINANT ANIMALS METHANE EMISSIONS REDUCTION AS FEED ADDITIVE SOAKING IN WITH ANIMALS URINE AND EXCRETA - VALUE ADDITION ENERGY SOURCE FROM EFFICIENT TLUD COOK STOVES AS BY PRODUCT FROM GASIFIER STOVES, BOILERS ETC CHARCOAL PRODUCTION FROM BIOMASS / WASTE MANAGEMENT HABITAT BIOCHAR BRICKS BIOCHAR IN AQUARIUMS BIOCHAR IN POULTRY FARMS BIOCHAR IN FRIDGES, MATTRESSES, ETC. SANITATION BIOCHAR URINALS BIOCHAR TOILETS BIOCHAR IN CATTLE SHEDS CLEANING PLATES / UTENSILS BATHING HEALTH CLEANING TEETH BIOCHAR TABLETS BIOCHAR IN FOOD AS PART OF FOOD PREPARATIONS WATER WATER PURIFICATION – COLOR, ODOR, REMOVAL OF HARMFUL ELEMENTS, ETC. RITUAL / SPIRITUAL / RELIGIOUS / PRACTICES FIRE / ALTAR / YAGNAS / AGNIHOTRA FIRE DURING FESTIVALS CREMATIONS NATURAL / ARTIFICIAL FIRES IN FORESTS / FIELDS, ETC.
  45. 45. METHANE EMISSIONS REDUCTION
  46. 46. LIVESTOCK URINE
  47. 47. BIOCHAR URINALS
  48. 48. POTTERY SHARDS
  49. 49. BIOCHAR IN LIVING PLACES
  50. 50. BIOCHAR BRICKS
  51. 51. BIOCHAR URBAN GARDENS
  52. 52. ADVANTAGES OF BIOCHAR URBAN GARDENS Less weight and insulation to the rooftops Economic savings through access to self grown food Utilization of urban organic waste for biochar compost. Aesthetics and green spaces on rooftops
  53. 53. REJUVENATING WATER BODIES
  54. 54. BIOCHAR DYKE
  55. 55. Perforated pipe Sand Biochar Gravel SEWAGIGATION
  56. 56. Road Sewerage Clean water for irrigation Drip Irrigation
  57. 57. SEWAGIGATION
  58. 58. FLOATIGATION water Plastic container Float (Styrofoam)
  59. 59. USED PET WATER BOTTLES FOR FLOATS
  60. 60. EMERGENT PLANTS IN DEEP WATERS
  61. 61. FLOATIGATION
  62. 62. FLOATIGATION
  63. 63. FLOATIGATION
  64. 64. BIOCHAR ALGAE TRAPS
  65. 65. REED ISLANDS WITH BIOCHAR
  66. 66. Ref: http//

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