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Pollution Pollution is the introduction of a contaminant into the environment. It is created mostly by human actions, but can also be a result of natural disasters. Pollution has a detrimental effect on any living organism in an environment, making it virtually impossible to sustain life.
Types of PollutionThere are three main types of pollution: Water pollution Air pollution Land pollution Noise pollution
Water pollutionWater pollution is the contamination of water bodies(e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and groundwater).Water pollution occurs when pollutants are dischargeddirectly or indirectly into water bodies withoutadequate treatment to remove harmful compounds
Affects of Water pollution The effects of water pollution are varied and depend on what chemicals are dumped and in what locations. Boston Harbor is a strong example of how badly pollution can damage bodies of water. The water is filled with toxic waste and sewage, and routinely receives more waste when rainfall pushes it into the harbor. Pollution disrupts the natural food chain as well. Pollutants such as lead and cadmium are eaten by tiny animals. Later, these animals are consumed by fish and shellfish, and the food chain continues to be disrupted at all higher levels. Eventually, humans are affected by this process as well. People can get diseases such as hepatitis by eating seafood that has been poisoned.
Air Pollution Air is the ocean we breathe. Air supplies us with oxygen which is essential for our bodies to live. Air is 99.9% nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor and inert gases. Human activities can release substances into the air, some of which can cause problems for humans, plants, and animals. There are several main types of pollution and well-known effects of pollution which are commonly discussed. These include smog, acid rain, the greenhouse effect, and "holes" in the ozone layer. Each of these problems has serious implications for our health and well-being as well as for the whole environment. One type of air pollution is the release of particles into the air from burning fuel for energy. Diesel smoke is a good example of this particulate matter . The particles are very small pieces of matter measuring about 2.5 microns or about .0001 inches. This type of pollution is sometimes referred to as "black carbon" pollution. The exhaust from burning fuels in automobiles, homes, and industries is a major source of pollution in the air. Some authorities believe that even the burning of wood and charcoal in fireplaces and barbeques can release significant quanitites of soot into the air. Another type of pollution is the release of noxious gases, such as sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and chemical vapors. These can take part in further chemical reactions once they are in the atmosphere, forming smogand acid rain.
Af fects of Air pollution Many different chemicals in the air affect the human body in negative ways. Just how sick people will get depends on what chemicals they are exposed to, in what concentrations, and for how long. Older people are highly vulnerable to diseases induced by air pollution. Those with heart or lung disorders are under additional risk. Children and infants are also at serious risk. Many diseases could be caused by air pollution without their becoming apparent for a long time. Diseases such as bronchitis, lung cancer, and heart disease may all eventually appear in people exposed to air pollution.
Land Pollution• Land pollution is the demolition of Earths land surfaces often caused by human activities and their misuse of land resources. It occurs when waste is not disposed properly. Health hazard disposal of urban and industrial wastes, exploitation of minerals, and improper use of soil by inadequate agricultural practices are a few factors.Urbanization and industrialization are major causes of land pollution. The Industrial Revolution set a series of events into motion which destroyed natural habitats and polluted the environment, causing diseases in both humans and many other species of animals.
Type of Land pollution• Mining• Modern mining projects leave behind disrupted communities, damaged landscapes, and polluted water.• Mining also affects ground and surface waters, the aquatic life, vegetation, soils, animals, and the human health.• Soil pollution Soil is polluted by many ways:• When pollutants get mixed with air, this causes acid rain. Acid rain degrades the top soil and leads to soil erosion.• Garbage dumping, specially plastics, degrade the soil fertility as they are non biodegradable therefore making the soil infertile and uncapable to be irrigated.• Chemical fertilizers and pesticides,when over used pollute the soil and also penetrate into ground water and make it non potable.
Noise pollution• Noise pollution is excessive, displeasing human, animal, or machine-created environmental noise that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life. The word noise may be from the Latin word nauseas, which means disgust or discomfort. The source of most outdoor noise worldwide is mainly construction andtransportation systems, including motor vehicle noise, aircraft noise, and rail noise. Poor urban planning may give rise to noise pollution, since side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the residential area.• High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects in humans, a rise in blood pressure, and an increase in stress and vasoconstriction, and an increased incidence of coronary artery disease. In animals, noise can increase the risk of death by altering predator or prey detection and avoidance, interfere with reproduction and navigation, and contribute to permanent hearing loss.
Affects of noisepollution• Noise pollution disturbs our health and behavior in a number of ways including deafness causing lack of sleep, irritability, indigestion, heartburn, high blood pressure, ulcers, and heart disease. Just one noise explosion from a passing truck drastically alters our endocrinal, neurological, and cardiovascular functions in many individuals. If this is prolonged or frequent, the physiological disturbances become chronic and contribute to mental illness.• Increased noise levels gives rise to a lack of concentration and accuracy at work, and reduce ones productivity and performance. Difficult tasks can be impaired, and instructions or warnings difficult to be heard and interpreted,causing accidents.
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