Need of ip address
Structure of ip address
Types of ip address
Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) is an
address which is used to communicate with
other devices over the network.
IP address is a unique 32-bit logical address
assigned to each device which is connected to a
4. IP Address
A unique address mostly used by computers to
communicate over a network that uses IP as its
basic protocol is known as IP address.
an IP address is used to identify the devices in a
5. Need of IP address
IP address is the important key to find the
physical location of the particular computer
It works similar to the home address by the
identification of that anything reaches to
6. Ip structure
IP address is a unique 32-bit logical address.
each part divided into four octet.
Each section can range from 0 to 255.
Written for example 184.108.40.206 .
First Octet Second Octet Third Octet Fourth Octet
128 35 0 72
9. Class A
Class a reserved for governments.
Class A addresses are assigned to networks with a
very large number of hosts.
The high-order bit in a class A address is always
set to “zero (0)”.
Class A consists of 8-bit network ID and 24-bit host
Class A will have 2^24-2=1,67,77,214 number of
host(IP) addresses and 128 network blocks.
Class A has IP address range from 0.0.0.0 to
11. Class B
Class B addresses are assigned to medium-sized
The two high-order bits in a class B address are
always set to binary “1 0”.
Class B addresses consists of 16-bit network ID and
16-bit Host ID .
Class B will have 216-2=65,634 number of host (IP)
addresses and 16,384 network blocks.
Class B has IP address range from 220.127.116.11 to
13. Class C
Class C addresses are used for small networks.
The three high-order bits in a class C address are
always set to binary “1 1 0”.
Class C addresses consists of 24-bit network ID
and 8-bit Host ID.
Class C will have 28 -2=254 number of host
addresses and 20,97,152 network blocks.
Class C has IP address range from 192.0.0.0 to
15. Class D
Class D addresses are reserved for IP multicast
The four high-order bits in a class D address are
always set to binary “1 1 1 0”.
Class D has IP address range from 18.104.22.168to
16. Class E
Class E is an experimental address that is
reserved for future use.
Class D has IP address range from 240.0.0.0
The high-order bits in a class E address are
set to “1111”.
17. The selection of class is mostly based on the numbers of hosts
required by the organization as given in the Table:
18. Subnet Mask:
A subnet mask specifies which part of an IP address is
reserved for the network, and which part is available
for host use.
Subnet masks are frequently expressed in dotted
19. Types of IP Address
20. Unicast IP Address
Unicast means one to one communication.
When a data packet is sent from a single host,
unicast communication takes place.
Ex- you dialed some one's phone number and
only one person answered.
21. Multicast IP Address
Multicast means one-to-many communication.
When a data packet is sent from a group of hosts, a
multicast communication takes place.
Multicast IP address is used from Class D IP
Ex- A conference call.
22. Broadcast Address
Broadcast addressing means one to all
A Broadcast address is an IP address that allows a
data packet to be sent to all machines on a given
network, it is used in class B ip address.
Ex-Radio programs ,weather report .
24. Benefits of IPV4….
Shorter & Sweeter (header).
Support of all Operating Systems.
25. Limitations of IPV4….
○ ipv4 specification did not identify any security mechanism.
○ Quality of service concern.
Exhaustion of ipv4 address space
○ Increase of ip enabled device.
Ipv4 will still be available for long time .
Now a days internet users are not only limited
with browsing and searching data so Ipv4
address space is getting scarce.