3. WHY ACTION IS REQUIRED ON WAR
Municipal Solid Waste (Management and
Handling) Rules 2000.
Municipal authorities in the country to
implement proper Solid Waste Management
System by December 2003
Spread of epidemics in various parts of the
Opposition from the communities encircle
the existing dump sites.
Litigations against various ULB s.
4. OBJECTIVE OF THE REPORT
Various methods available for treatment of solid
Operational aspects of solid waste treatment
Requirements for an effective solid waste
management (SWM) system.
Importance of Awareness and community level
5. SOLID WASTE GENERATION IN
Kerala generates approximately 3,000
tones of solid waste daily.
Only less than a half of this is removed
from the streets
Only a tiny portion is processed or
Rest is simply dumped in water bodies or
at land-filling sites.
6. EFFECTS OF INDISCRIMINATE
DUMPING OF WASTE
Blockage of drainage channels contributing to flooding.
Spreading of diseases by different vectors like insects,
rodents and birds.
Emissions of green house gas that contributes global
warming effect. (Methane is 20 times more harmful than
CO2 in this regard)
Contamination of surface and ground water through
Soil contamination through direct waste contact or
Air pollution by burning of wastes
7. EFFECTED PARTIES
All people in general
Urban poor and slum dwellers are the
Wealthy residents avoid direct exposure of
garbage piles close to home and the
problems are shifted away from their
neighborhood to elsewhere.
8. The Ministry of Environment and Forest -Municipal Solid
Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 2000
Prohibit littering on the streets
Ensuring storage of waste at source in two bins; one
for biodegradable waste and another for recyclable
Primary collection of biodegradable and non-
biodegradable waste from the door step on a day- to-
Abolition of open waste storage bins.
Transportation of waste in covered vehicles
Treatment of biodegradable waste using composting
or waste to energy technologies.
Minimize the waste going to the land fill.
9. Immediate steps to be taken
Stop unscientific dumping of waste at
landfill sites. For this;
Construct treatment facilities with capacities to
handle the present quantity collected.
Segregate waste into biodegradable, recyclable
and inert fractions and only inert (non
biodegradable) shall be land filled
Public awareness campaign to reduce waste
Promote recycling culture.
10. LONG TERM GOALS
Meet the guidelines of Municipal Solid Waste
(Management and Handling) Rules 2000
Improve the collection system to achieve 100 %
collection and add treatment capacity to handle
the entire waste quantity
Encourage community participation is essential
for smooth and efficient operation of SWM
11. Requirements of an effective Solid waste
Knowledge on Quantity and Characteristics of Waste
Efficient Collection network with complete coverage
Proper transportation of Waste
Fully equipped and well maintained Treatment/Recycling
Proper Disposal of Waste at land fill sites
Effective network for recycling and marketing of products
from solid waste treatment
Public awareness and Community Participation
12. Solid waste treatment – Available
technologies in use now
Anaerobic digestion / Biomethanation
Gasification and pyrolysis
Production of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) also
known as pelletization and
Sanitary land filling/landfill gas recovery.
Conversion to bio-diesel
13. TREATMENT PROCESSES AN OVERVIEW
Engineered Natural Process
Simple process and less capital
Minimum fuel (energy)
Complex process with high level
High initial investment and
High energy input required
Gasification and pyrolysis
14. BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES
Decomposition of Organic material by Microorganisms.
Two Types of process
1.Aerobic Process - By organism which requires oxygen
Example - Composting
Organic Matter + O2 CO2 + H20 + New Cells (growth)
Complete Oxidation of Organic matters takes place
2.Anaerobic process – By organism which does not require
oxygen for respiration
Example – Anaerobic Digestion (Biogas plant)
Organic Matter CO2 + CH4 + H2S+ NH3 New Cells (growth)
Incomplete Oxidation of Organic matters resulting in formation
of methane which on further oxidation acts as a fuel.
Composting is the most simple and a cost
effective technology for treating the organic
fraction of MSW
It is a well known process used by farmers since
Compost made out of urban heterogeneous
waste is of higher nutrient value compared to the
compost made out of cow dung and agro-waste.
It is a process in which organic material undergo
biological degradation to a stable end product.
Microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi
account for most of the decomposition.
16. Composting Process
Two Types of Composting Process
Allow passage of air and action of microorganisms for 6-7
Garbage decomposes into stable end products
Heap the garbage in the
form of windrows
Fill garbage in the boxes
with holes for air entry
17. Comparison of Windrow & Box
Particulars Windrow Composting Box Composting
More space required Less space
Capital cost Less initial cost due to
Initial capital cost is
Manpower required for
turning of Windrows
18. Operation of Composting Facility
Piling as windrows or filling in the box
Turning of Windrows (Not applicable for box
Storage and bagging
Worm composting is the process of culturing
worms to decompose organic waste.
This can be done indoors and outdoors, thus
allowing year round composting
Suitable for apartment dwellers also
Compost is made in a container filled with
moistened bedding and redworms.
vermi-composting is the preferred method at
house hold level and for small communities
20. Anaerobic Digestion or
Biomethnation or Anaerobic Digestion (AD) is a the most commonly
used method of ‘Waste to Energy’ conversion
Solid waste with large proportion of organic matter is subjected to
decomposition in anaerobic condition, it produces a gaseous
mixture of CH4 (50- 60 %) and CO2.
This gas, known as bio-gas can be used for burning or for
generation of electricity.
The industrialization of AD began in 1859 with the first plant in
China and India are the front runner in popularizing this technology
for agro base small scale biogas plants
Now US & European Nations have acknowledged the importance of
Biogas as a source of Renewable energy.
22. General Process Description
Generally the overall AD process can be divided into four stages
Sorting of waste and breaking into small pieces and
adding required water
Four step Process as explained in previous slide by Micro
Gas generated collected and used as fuel
The residue of Digestion (Digestate ) after dewatering
can be used as Soil Conditioner like Compost
Anaerobic Digestion Process produce a much
valuable end product biogas compared to
Initial investment and operating cost required for
anaerobic digestion plant for MSW is much higher
than that of Composting Plant.
Hence effective utilization of Biogas is very
important to make AD process financially atractive.
Biogas yield is up to 350 m3/ Ton of waste with a
calorific value of about 4000 kcal/m3
25. Electricity Generation from Biogas
About 100-150 kWh of Electricity can be generated per
tone of waste input.
IC engines designed to burn propane or natural gas are
easily converted to burn biogas by adjusting carburation
and ignition systems
Two types of generators are used
Induction generators derive their phase, frequency and
voltage from the utility
Synchronous generators operate as an isolated system
or in parallel to the utility
26. Comparison of of Anaerobic Digestion
Anaerobic Digestion Composting
Emissions & Odours Low High (odours, Ammonia,
methane, nitrous oxide,
Energy balance Energy surplus Energy demand
Biogas production 100 – 150 m3/Mg Nil
Process time required
to produce mature
3 weeks digestion, plus
5 weeks composting
Skilled Manpower Skilled manpower
Process upsets and
Very strict monitoring
Very rugged process
28. Conclusions and Recommended
Vermicomposting is preferred at individual house and small
Composting is the simplest and cheapest method for medium level
It is the preferred process for panchayaths as it is less capital
intensive and has less O&M requirements
Anaerobic digestion plants are suitable for large plants
(Municipalities) as it requires less space.
A hybrid System comprising of Anaerobic Digestion Plant with
Composting facility (for organic waste not easily digestible) will be a
A effective network for marketing of Compost and recyclable items is
In case of Power generation from biogas, the possibility of grid
connection need to be studied.