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Near-Field
Communication
SANU G VARGHESE
S7 D 50
Outline
• Introduction to Near Field Communication (NFC)
• NFC Applications
• NFC working & operating Modes
• Conclusion
IMAGINE…...
Outline
•
•
•
•
Introduction to Near Field Communication (NFC)
NFC Applications
NFC Working & Operating Modes
Conclusion
NFC allows for data exchange
between two devices(e.g. a smart
phone and a payment device)
through physical contact (or in ...
Efficiency is the Key to the
Future
Near Field Communication
•
•
•
•
•
•
Developed by Sony and Philips in late 2002
Evolved from Radio Frequency Identificatio...
NFC - Data Rate
Comparison with Existing
Technology
Advantages of NFC Technology
•
•
NFC technology can benefit from mobile phones
The technology is compatible with existing ...
Outline
•
•
•
•
Introduction to Near Field Communication (NFC)
NFC Applications
NFC Working & Operating Modes
Conclusion
Applications of NFC
• NFC applications can be split into the
following three basic categories:
Touch and Go
Touch and Co...
Applications Of NFC
• Touch and Go
-Smart poster or Transport/event ticketing
-The user needs only to bring the device sto...
Information Gathering
NFC Voting
Applications Of NFC
• Touch and Confirm
-Applications such as mobile payment
-Confirm the interaction by entering a passwo...
NFC Ticketing
NFC Payment
Applications Of NFC
• Touch and Connect
-Peer to peer transfer of data
-Ex: Downloading music, exchanging images or
synchr...
Outline
•
•
•
•
Introduction to Near Field Communication (NFC)
NFC Applications
NFC Working & Operating Modes
Conclusion
WORKING OF NFC.
MICRO
ANTENNA.
CONNECTSTO THE
URL VIA A SERVER .NFC ENABLED
CELL.URL
NFC ENABLED TAG.
Working Principle
• NFC works on the principle of RFID (Radio
Frequency Identification).
• Types of Coupling in RFID:
 Ba...
Operation Of NFC
• Near field communication is based on inductive-
coupling.
• NFC works using magnetic induction between
...
Active vs. Passive Device
• Devices containing power sources are called
as active
– Mobile phone
– NFC reader
• Devices wi...
NFC Model
• In an NFC model two devices are involved in the
communication
Initiator:
– Initiator starts the communication
...
NFC Operating Modes
• NFC has three operating modes as defined by
NFC forum:
–
–
–
Reader/Writer mode
Card Emulation Mode
...
Reader Mode
NFC-enabled mobile phone creates magnetic field
and powers the NFC tag within 4cm
Target Initiator
2
Tag broad...
Writer Mode
NFC tag saves the data to its
internal memory
NFC-enabled mobile phone
sends a query which also
creates magnet...
Reader/Writer Mode
• NFC phones can read and write data from/to NFC tags
and
smart cards
Initiator: NFC-enabled mobile pho...
Reader/Writer Mode
• Our review on previous work on reader/writer mode highlighted
these benefits
–
–
–
–
It increases mob...
READER WRITER MODE
Card Emulation Mode
NFC-reader generates 13.56 MHz magnetic field
1
Target Initiator
2
When mobile phone is touched to NFC...
Card Emulation Mode
•
•
Most commercial application uses this mode
NFC phone acts as an RFID card and
data from it.
Initia...
Card Emulation Mode
• Our review on card emulation mode highlights these benefits
– Physical Object Elimination (Credit ca...
CARD EMULATION MODE
NFC ENABLED CELLPHONE ACTS AS CREDIT CARD FOR ANY KIND OF PAYMENT
Peer-to-Peer Mode
Initiator sends or requests data
device in 4 cm
1
from target
Target Initiator
2
Target responds request...
Peer to Peer Mode
•
•
•
•
Two NFC phones can exchange data at link-level.
Initiator: NFC-enabled mobile phone
Target: NFC-...
PEER TO PEER MODE
MULTIPLAYER GAMING
Limitations Of NFC
• The system has the limitation that it can be
operated only with devices under a short
range i.e <10 c...
SECURITY ASPECTS
• Eavesdropping: The RF signal for the wireless data
transfer can be picked up with antennas.
• Data modi...
Outline
•
•
•
•
Introduction to Near Field Communication (NFC)
NFC Applications
NFC Operating Modes
Conclusion
Conclusion of NFC
•
•
NFC is an integration of RFID technology with mobile phones.
Connectivity distance is 4-5 centimeter...
• José Bravo, Ramón Hervás , Gabriel Chavira From
Implicit to Touching Interaction: RFID and NFC
Approaches ,Sixth Interna...
Near field communication new
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  1. 1. Near-Field Communication SANU G VARGHESE S7 D 50
  2. 2. Outline • Introduction to Near Field Communication (NFC) • NFC Applications • NFC working & operating Modes • Conclusion
  3. 3. IMAGINE…...
  4. 4. Outline • • • • Introduction to Near Field Communication (NFC) NFC Applications NFC Working & Operating Modes Conclusion
  5. 5. NFC allows for data exchange between two devices(e.g. a smart phone and a payment device) through physical contact (or in very close proximity) The initiator device (the mobile) generates a radio frequency field that transmits the data within a range of about 4 centimeters. The target device (the payment device) picks up the RF field and recieves the data it contains. What is NFC???
  6. 6. Efficiency is the Key to the Future
  7. 7. Near Field Communication • • • • • • Developed by Sony and Philips in late 2002 Evolved from Radio Frequency Identification(RFID) Short Range Radio Communication Technology Frequency: 13.56 MHz. Max. Bandwidth: 424Kbits/sec technology Communication starts when two NFC-compatible devices brought together less than four centimeters NFC Forum is the leading organization that organizes the efforts •
  8. 8. NFC - Data Rate
  9. 9. Comparison with Existing Technology
  10. 10. Advantages of NFC Technology • • NFC technology can benefit from mobile phones The technology is compatible with existing RFID existing RFID tags and contactless smart cards Short range communication (4 centimeters) – Automatic coupling – Inherent security Ease of use (Very familiar to people, only touch) Mobile phones can be used both as an information storage devices or an NFC reader. structures, • • •
  11. 11. Outline • • • • Introduction to Near Field Communication (NFC) NFC Applications NFC Working & Operating Modes Conclusion
  12. 12. Applications of NFC • NFC applications can be split into the following three basic categories: Touch and Go Touch and Confirm Touch and Connect
  13. 13. Applications Of NFC • Touch and Go -Smart poster or Transport/event ticketing -The user needs only to bring the device storing the ticket or access code close to the reader. Touch and go Mode of application
  14. 14. Information Gathering
  15. 15. NFC Voting
  16. 16. Applications Of NFC • Touch and Confirm -Applications such as mobile payment -Confirm the interaction by entering a password or just accepting the transaction.
  17. 17. NFC Ticketing
  18. 18. NFC Payment
  19. 19. Applications Of NFC • Touch and Connect -Peer to peer transfer of data -Ex: Downloading music, exchanging images or synchronizing address books. Data transfer via NFC
  20. 20. Outline • • • • Introduction to Near Field Communication (NFC) NFC Applications NFC Working & Operating Modes Conclusion
  21. 21. WORKING OF NFC. MICRO ANTENNA. CONNECTSTO THE URL VIA A SERVER .NFC ENABLED CELL.URL NFC ENABLED TAG.
  22. 22. Working Principle • NFC works on the principle of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification). • Types of Coupling in RFID:  BackScatter Coupling  Capacitive Coupling  Inductive Coupling.
  23. 23. Operation Of NFC • Near field communication is based on inductive- coupling. • NFC works using magnetic induction between two antennas located within each other's 'near field’.
  24. 24. Active vs. Passive Device • Devices containing power sources are called as active – Mobile phone – NFC reader • Devices without any available power sources are called as passive – RFID tag
  25. 25. NFC Model • In an NFC model two devices are involved in the communication Initiator: – Initiator starts the communication – Can be either a mobile phone or an NFC reader which are active devices Target: – Responses the initiator’s requests – Can be either a RFID tag or a mobile phone • • • Single RF band is used; communication is half-duplex
  26. 26. NFC Operating Modes • NFC has three operating modes as defined by NFC forum: – – – Reader/Writer mode Card Emulation Mode Peer-to-Peer mode
  27. 27. Reader Mode NFC-enabled mobile phone creates magnetic field and powers the NFC tag within 4cm Target Initiator 2 Tag broadcasts the answer which is then read by mobile phone
  28. 28. Writer Mode NFC tag saves the data to its internal memory NFC-enabled mobile phone sends a query which also creates magnetic field and powers the NFC tag in 4 cm. InitiatorTarget
  29. 29. Reader/Writer Mode • NFC phones can read and write data from/to NFC tags and smart cards Initiator: NFC-enabled mobile phone Target: Passive tag Passive tag does not need any source of power. • • • • Active NFC device creates magnetic inductive coupling and transfers energy to smart card. After the smart card is powered, communication starts. Applications• – – Information gathering NFC Voting
  30. 30. Reader/Writer Mode • Our review on previous work on reader/writer mode highlighted these benefits – – – – It increases mobility (information gathering) Decreases physical effort (home shopping) Ability to be adapted by many scenarios Easy to implement • Future Scenarios – It is found that many real-life scenarios can be adapted to NFC in this mode.
  31. 31. READER WRITER MODE
  32. 32. Card Emulation Mode NFC-reader generates 13.56 MHz magnetic field 1 Target Initiator 2 When mobile phone is touched to NFC-reader, data(resides in mobile phone) is transferred to reader
  33. 33. Card Emulation Mode • • Most commercial application uses this mode NFC phone acts as an RFID card and data from it. Initiator: NFC reader (immobile) Target: NFC-enabled mobile phone Sample applications NFC readers can read • • • • • Payment Ticketing
  34. 34. Card Emulation Mode • Our review on card emulation mode highlights these benefits – Physical Object Elimination (Credit cards, debit cards, paper-based tickets, physical keys – Access Control (Authentication through mobile id) • Future Scenarios – Integration of id-cards, passports, finger-prints, driver- license into mobile phones – Storage area for critical information to provide user’s privacy and authorizing people to access those information (e.g. health information)
  35. 35. CARD EMULATION MODE NFC ENABLED CELLPHONE ACTS AS CREDIT CARD FOR ANY KIND OF PAYMENT
  36. 36. Peer-to-Peer Mode Initiator sends or requests data device in 4 cm 1 from target Target Initiator 2 Target responds requests of initiator
  37. 37. Peer to Peer Mode • • • • Two NFC phones can exchange data at link-level. Initiator: NFC-enabled mobile phone Target: NFC-enabled mobile phone Applications • Money transfer • Our review on previous work on this mode showed that there is not so much work done. Following benefits are highlighted – – Easy data exchange between devices Device pairing • Future Scenarios – Secure exchange of critical data – Gossiping
  38. 38. PEER TO PEER MODE MULTIPLAYER GAMING
  39. 39. Limitations Of NFC • The system has the limitation that it can be operated only with devices under a short range i.e <10 cm. • The data transfer rate is very less at about 106kbps, 212 kbps and 424kbps.
  40. 40. SECURITY ASPECTS • Eavesdropping: The RF signal for the wireless data transfer can be picked up with antennas. • Data modification: It is easy to destroy data by using a jammer. There is no way currently to prevent such an attack. • Lost property: Losing the NFC RFID card or the mobile phone will give open access.
  41. 41. Outline • • • • Introduction to Near Field Communication (NFC) NFC Applications NFC Operating Modes Conclusion
  42. 42. Conclusion of NFC • • NFC is an integration of RFID technology with mobile phones. Connectivity distance is 4-5 centimeters and it brings inherent security NFC has three operating modes; Reader/Writer, Card Emulation and Peer-to-Peer.All of the modes have different usage areas and provides different benefits. Integration of NFC technology with mobile phones which consists of mobility, relatively high processing power, Internet access ability etc. has a great potential to bring new opportunities to our lives. • •
  43. 43. • José Bravo, Ramón Hervás , Gabriel Chavira From Implicit to Touching Interaction: RFID and NFC Approaches ,Sixth International Conference on the Management of Mobile Business (ICMB 2008)0-7695- 2803-1/07 $25.00 © 2012 IEEE • Anokwa, Y., et al. A User Interaction Model for NFC Enabled Applications . in IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops 2011. • Near Field Communication and Bluetooth Bridge System for Mobile Commerce C.Y. Leong, K. C. Ong , K. K. Tan*, O.P. GAN 2011 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics • WIKIPEDIA • www.nfcforum.com • www.ecma-international.org REFERENCE

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