Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Nous utilisons votre profil LinkedIn et vos données d’activité pour vous proposer des publicités personnalisées et pertinentes. Vous pouvez changer vos préférences de publicités à tout moment.
Sara James & Rachel Sondag<br />Successful Content Management through Taxonomy and Metadata Design<br />
Agenda<br /><ul><li>Taxonomy and Metadata Overview:
Definitions
Justification
Categorization Schemes
Development Approaches
Risks and Challenges
Design Best Practices
Workshop Concept</li></li></ul><li>Taxonomy and Metadata<br /><ul><li>Primary tools to provide structure to unstructured i...
Depending on system design and use, may be front-end or back-end functionality
Taxonomy (categorization) is often actualized by applying metadata to documents
Enable Findability</li></li></ul><li>Definitions<br />
Definitions<br />Metadata<br />Title<br />Author<br />Department<br />Audience<br />Topic<br />
How business taxonomy translates into front-end interface<br />
How business taxonomy translates into front-end interface…for YOUR BUSINESS<br />?<br />
Traditional Taxonomies<br />Animalia<br />Chordata<br />Reptilia<br />Squamata<br />Colubridae<br />Pituophis<br />Catenif...
Defined by “is a” relationships - each child category is aninstance of the parent category
“Pure” taxonomic approach
Biological/Medical/Library Sciences Taxonomies
An overall organizational system with many branches or sub-branches that organizes their world of information
Extremely rigid approach
Purely subject-oriented
Consistent and methodical
Every item has one and only one correct categorization</li></li></ul><li>Business Taxonomies<br /><ul><li>Tend to be less ...
Influenced by usability concerns
Minimize number of “clicks”
Often content-driven
Ensure balanced content distribution
Allow flexibility, redundancy
Items may be organized into multiple categories
May support multiple taxonomies for disparate audiences
May use one or more categorization approaches</li></li></ul><li>Back-end v. Front-end<br /><ul><li>Traditionally, taxonomi...
Back-end visibility
Used for integration and classification
Business Taxonomies are typically front end “folder” structures
Front-end accessibility
Used for navigation as well as integration and classification</li></li></ul><li>Traditional v. Business Taxonomy<br /><ul>...
An overall organizational system with many branches or sub-branches that attempt to organize their world of information
Each book or plant falls into one specific category
Taxonomy on the web or with a portal
Document-driven, some redundancy
Minimize empty folders
Flatter, simpler, more navigable
More common, intuitive language</li></li></ul><li>The Difference<br /><ul><li>What you lose with a Business Taxonomy
Absolute granularity
Ultimate classification
What you gain
Usability
Findability
Prochain SlideShare
Chargement dans…5
×

Successful Content Management Through Taxonomy And Metadata Design

14 838 vues

Publié le

Presentation at the 2009 CIDM conference on Successful Content Management Through Taxonomy And Metadata Design.

Publié dans : Formation, Technologie

Successful Content Management Through Taxonomy And Metadata Design

  1. 1. Sara James & Rachel Sondag<br />Successful Content Management through Taxonomy and Metadata Design<br />
  2. 2. Agenda<br /><ul><li>Taxonomy and Metadata Overview:
  3. 3. Definitions
  4. 4. Justification
  5. 5. Categorization Schemes
  6. 6. Development Approaches
  7. 7. Risks and Challenges
  8. 8. Design Best Practices
  9. 9. Workshop Concept</li></li></ul><li>Taxonomy and Metadata<br /><ul><li>Primary tools to provide structure to unstructured information
  10. 10. Depending on system design and use, may be front-end or back-end functionality
  11. 11. Taxonomy (categorization) is often actualized by applying metadata to documents
  12. 12. Enable Findability</li></li></ul><li>Definitions<br />
  13. 13. Definitions<br />Metadata<br />Title<br />Author<br />Department<br />Audience<br />Topic<br />
  14. 14. How business taxonomy translates into front-end interface<br />
  15. 15. How business taxonomy translates into front-end interface…for YOUR BUSINESS<br />?<br />
  16. 16. Traditional Taxonomies<br />Animalia<br />Chordata<br />Reptilia<br />Squamata<br />Colubridae<br />Pituophis<br />Catenifer<br />Kingdom<br /> Phylum<br /> Class<br /> Order<br /> Family<br /> Genus<br /> Species<br /><ul><li>“Instantive” Categorization Approach
  17. 17. Defined by “is a” relationships - each child category is aninstance of the parent category
  18. 18. “Pure” taxonomic approach
  19. 19. Biological/Medical/Library Sciences Taxonomies
  20. 20. An overall organizational system with many branches or sub-branches that organizes their world of information
  21. 21. Extremely rigid approach
  22. 22. Purely subject-oriented
  23. 23. Consistent and methodical
  24. 24. Every item has one and only one correct categorization</li></li></ul><li>Business Taxonomies<br /><ul><li>Tend to be less rigid and constrained
  25. 25. Influenced by usability concerns
  26. 26. Minimize number of “clicks”
  27. 27. Often content-driven
  28. 28. Ensure balanced content distribution
  29. 29. Allow flexibility, redundancy
  30. 30. Items may be organized into multiple categories
  31. 31. May support multiple taxonomies for disparate audiences
  32. 32. May use one or more categorization approaches</li></li></ul><li>Back-end v. Front-end<br /><ul><li>Traditionally, taxonomies are used as values to populate one or many metadata fields
  33. 33. Back-end visibility
  34. 34. Used for integration and classification
  35. 35. Business Taxonomies are typically front end “folder” structures
  36. 36. Front-end accessibility
  37. 37. Used for navigation as well as integration and classification</li></li></ul><li>Traditional v. Business Taxonomy<br /><ul><li>Taxonomy for Scientists and Librarians
  38. 38. An overall organizational system with many branches or sub-branches that attempt to organize their world of information
  39. 39. Each book or plant falls into one specific category
  40. 40. Taxonomy on the web or with a portal
  41. 41. Document-driven, some redundancy
  42. 42. Minimize empty folders
  43. 43. Flatter, simpler, more navigable
  44. 44. More common, intuitive language</li></li></ul><li>The Difference<br /><ul><li>What you lose with a Business Taxonomy
  45. 45. Absolute granularity
  46. 46. Ultimate classification
  47. 47. What you gain
  48. 48. Usability
  49. 49. Findability
  50. 50. Simplicity</li></li></ul><li>Why?<br /><ul><li>Provide structure to unstructured information
  51. 51. Pull together disparately located content
  52. 52. Allows users to discover and learn
  53. 53. Search tools alone are inadequate
  54. 54. Allow users to find the information they need in a way that makes sense to them</li></li></ul><li>Categorization Schemes<br />Hardest<br />Easiest<br />
  55. 55. Taxonomy Building<br />Automated/Bottom-up<br /><ul><li>Identify overall ontology and major content collections
  56. 56. Analyze content collections using automated textual analysis tools
  57. 57. Reveal major and minor topics of information; build taxonomy based on the relationship of these topics
  58. 58. Content-driven; may reveal new associations of information</li></ul>Manual/Top-down <br /><ul><li>Work with librarians and functionally- or subject-based individuals or Focus Groups
  59. 59. Identify overall ontology and major categories of information
  60. 60. Subdivide categories as necessary to build taxonomy
  61. 61. Individual-driven; may entrench obsolete or arbitrary categories</li></ul>Health<br />Education<br />Finance<br />HR<br />News<br />Finance<br />
  62. 62. Risks and Challenges<br />
  63. 63. Lack of Understanding<br /><ul><li>The primary concepts and value of taxonomy and metadata are often misunderstood:
  64. 64. Managers, Designers, Architects
  65. 65. Content Publishers
  66. 66. End Users</li></li></ul><li>Complexity<br /><ul><li>Organizations design overly complex taxonomies and metadata strategies:
  67. 67. Too deep and too wide
  68. 68. Too much jargon
  69. 69. Too many fields
  70. 70. Too many pick options
  71. 71. Too much variation
  72. 72. Entry forms are often overly complex or lengthy</li></li></ul><li>Compliance<br /><ul><li>Regardless of training, education, threats, or enticements, many users will not provide effective Metadata
  73. 73. Even the “best” content contributors typically won’t exceed a certain effort threshold
  74. 74. Dilution Factor: The poor work of some devalues the good work of others</li></li></ul><li>Resistance to Change<br /><ul><li>Users will be averse to moving away from their existing ways of storing and finding information
  75. 75. Organizational to Topical
  76. 76. Secure access to more Open access
  77. 77. Content owners will fear losing control of their content
  78. 78. Content Managers will fear losing their “role”</li></li></ul><li>Design Best Practices<br />
  79. 79. Define Your Use Case<br /><ul><li>Understand how/why you will be using taxonomy and metadata
  80. 80. Define who your content managers are in order to understand their capabilities:
  81. 81. Willingness to manually enter fields
  82. 82. Ability to properly tag content
  83. 83. Define your audience to understand their needs:
  84. 84. Sorting needs
  85. 85. Communicate benefits to all users</li></li></ul><li>Keep Your Audience in Mind<br /><ul><li>Recognize that users may think about and look for information in different ways
  86. 86. Understand your business practices and use the most appropriate categorization method(s)
  87. 87. Consider multiple taxonomies for disparate audiences
  88. 88. Use familiar vocabulary and organizational schemas to ensure a logical browsing experience. </li></li></ul><li>Keep Your Audience in Mind<br /><ul><li>How will your users think about your content and products?</li></li></ul><li>Understand your audience<br /><ul><li>End users drive the language and complexity of the structure.
  89. 89. Who are they?
  90. 90. Who is the lowest common denominator?
  91. 91. Define the “spectrum of experience”:</li></ul>New Employee Tenured Employee<br />Technophobe Technophile<br />Older Younger<br />Foreign Language Native Language<br />
  92. 92. Understand your publishers<br /><ul><li>Publishers determine the reasonable complexity of a taxonomy/metadata strategy:
  93. 93. Acceptable amount of time per document
  94. 94. Number of metadata fields
  95. 95. Complexity of taxonomy</li></ul>Business Users Information Professional<br />Part-time (Volunteer) Dedicated Position<br />Many Publishers Few Publishers<br />Diverse Publisher Homogenous Publishers<br />
  96. 96. Understand your platform: CM, DM, RM, Portal <br /><ul><li>Taxonomy design seldom works outside the context of a business mission, typically tied to a technology:</li></li></ul><li>Define Governance<br /><ul><li>Apply the core governance principles to your taxonomy and metadata strategy:
  97. 97. Roles and Responsibilities
  98. 98. Managers
  99. 99. Reviewers
  100. 100. Policies
  101. 101. For naming
  102. 102. Required Fields
  103. 103. Procedures
  104. 104. For reviewing and approving metadata placement
  105. 105. For acting on poor metadata application</li></li></ul><li>Control Depth & Breadth<br />Depth<br /><ul><li>A “flat” taxonomy ensures that users can find information quickly
  106. 106. Avoid deep taxonomies:
  107. 107. May frustrate users with too many clicks
  108. 108. May indicate too much specification or too much information
  109. 109. Guideline: 2-4 levels deep</li></li></ul><li>Control Depth & Breadth<br />Breadth<br /><ul><li>A focused taxonomy ensures that users can easily “digest” the scope of information
  110. 110. Avoid overly broad taxonomies:
  111. 111. May frustrate users with too many initial options
  112. 112. May indicate your categories are too specific
  113. 113. Guideline: 10-15 top-level categories</li></li></ul><li>Example: Overwhelming Navigation<br />
  114. 114. Example: Easy to Scan Taxonomy<br /><ul><li>Top level is less than 15 items long
  115. 115. Easy to scan
  116. 116. Few clicks</li></li></ul><li>Make a Long-term Investment<br /><ul><li>Taxonomy development is an iterative and on-going effort
  117. 117. Respond to change: validate and modify regularly
  118. 118. Invest in dedicated, long-term resources
  119. 119. Initial effort must have foresight
  120. 120. Establish a solid foundation
  121. 121. Allow extensibility to accommodate new information
  122. 122. Plan for iterative development</li></li></ul><li>Workshop Concept<br />
  123. 123. The Workshop Concept<br />
  124. 124. Workshop Configuration<br />
  125. 125. Primary Goals<br /><ul><li>Define taxonomy, metadata, and related terms consistently
  126. 126. Set expectations for long and challenging process:
  127. 127. Establish overall goals – create a “Starter Taxonomy” and initial metadata strategy to be used as a jumping-off point
  128. 128. Create a value statement</li></ul>Creating a value statement ensures all participants are on the same mission, and can describe and disseminate the project the same way<br />
  129. 129. Business Case/Value Statement<br /><ul><li>Provide example of summary Business Case and Taxonomy Justification:
  130. 130. “We are constructing a business taxonomy to provide our users with an intuitive browse experience. Specifically, we want to construct a system that will allow both internal users (employees) and external users (customers) to navigate to find the latest product information, including sales reports. This will allow all users to access their core information faster, and with greater confidence. As a result, traffic on our website should increase by 40% and frequency of help desk calls should decrease by 20%.”</li></li></ul><li>Business Case/Value Statement<br /><ul><li>Five components of a successful business case:
  131. 131. Description of the issue - what’s changing?
  132. 132. Description of the issue’s importance - why are we changing?
  133. 133. Description of the benefits of addressing the issue - what’s in it for me now? Later?
  134. 134. Description of the costs associated with the change - what is the cost/benefit analysis for me and the business?
  135. 135. Measures for success - how will we know the change is accomplished? </li></li></ul><li>Audience<br />List all the potential audience (role) types for the taxonomy<br />For an external portal:<br /><ul><li>Employees
  136. 136. Channel Partners
  137. 137. Distributors
  138. 138. OEMs
  139. 139. Representatives
  140. 140. Consultants
  141. 141. Customers
  142. 142. OEMs
  143. 143. End Users
  144. 144. Business Partners
  145. 145. Public
  146. 146. Investors
  147. 147. Media
  148. 148. Analysts</li></ul>For a public website:<br /><ul><li>Educators
  149. 149. Pre-Teen
  150. 150. Teen
  151. 151. Adult
  152. 152. Students
  153. 153. Pre-Teen
  154. 154. Teen
  155. 155. Adult
  156. 156. Businesses
  157. 157. Community Members
  158. 158. Media/Press
  159. 159. Investors
  160. 160. Policymakers
  161. 161. Activists</li></li></ul><li>Verbs<br />Identify the “things we do”<br /><ul><li>Helps users move away from organizational lines
  162. 162. People have missions – the verbs align with the missions users need to accomplish / need for information</li></ul>Care for associates<br />Build<br />Design<br />Profit<br />Sell<br />Manufacture<br />Build<br />Deliver<br />Store<br />Ship<br />Support<br />Manufacture<br />Manufacture<br />Design<br />Purchase<br />Sell<br />Market<br />Ship<br />Ensure Safety<br />Provide Security<br />Test Quality<br />Train Users<br />Market<br />Purchase<br />Innovate<br />Provide Safety<br />Test<br />Market<br />Support<br />Guarantee<br />Train<br />Use<br />Buy<br />Write<br />Ship<br />Manufacture<br />Care for associates<br />Design<br />Support<br />Manufacture<br />Market<br />Ship<br />Ensure Safety<br />Provide Security<br />Learn<br />Teach<br />Protect<br />Serve<br />
  163. 163. Nouns<br />Identify the topics: Record all input, even repeats, for visual cognition!<br />Safety<br />Environment<br />Profit<br />Safety Training<br />Employee Benefits<br />Production<br />Quality Products<br />Sales<br />Marketing<br />Quality Control Dept<br />Products<br />People<br />Safety<br />Solutions<br />Products<br />Marketing<br />Research<br />Core Industries<br />Training<br />Teams<br />Competitors<br />Sales<br />Employees<br />Products<br />Research<br />Plant<br />Knowledge Management<br />Training<br />Customers<br />Products<br />Associates<br />Plan<br />Supply Chain<br />Infrastructure<br />Compliance<br />Products<br />Customers<br />Finance<br />Auditing<br />Associates<br />Knowledge<br />Customers<br />Computers<br />Supply Chain<br />Sales<br />Research<br />Products<br />Processes<br />Technology<br />Employees<br />Research<br />Safety<br />Services<br />Sales<br />Marketing<br />Safety<br />
  164. 164. Nouns - Topics<br />Map topics<br />
  165. 165. Nouns - Topics<br />Continue to map topics<br />Employees<br />Products<br />Research<br />Manufacturing<br />Safety/health<br />Sales/marketing<br />Financials<br />
  166. 166. The Starter Taxonomy<br /><ul><li>Employees
  167. 167. Products
  168. 168. Sales/Marketing
  169. 169. Financials
  170. 170. Safety/Health
  171. 171. Research
  172. 172. Manufacturing Process</li></li></ul><li>Metadata Collection<br />Capture the non-topics on separate listing and then define them<br />HR Department<br />Administration<br />Sales/Marketing<br />Legal Department<br />Public<br />Internal Users<br />Students<br />Business User<br />Management<br />Washington, DC<br />U.K.<br />New York Office<br />London Office<br />Forms<br />Policies<br />Procedures<br />News<br />Events<br />Meeting Minutes<br />Location =<br />Audience =<br />Organizational =<br />Document Types =<br />
  173. 173. Follow-on Process<br /><ul><li>Consistently and repeatedly test progress using combination of card sorting exercises, focus groups, and usability surveys
  174. 174. Engage additional end users for validation and guidance
  175. 175. Hold additional workshops to refine and provide greater detail
  176. 176. Utilize focus groups for further validation and naming
  177. 177. Match with analytics, content analysis, and technologies as complexity increases</li></li></ul><li>Taxonomy Development Process<br />Identify Business Case<br />
  178. 178. Thank you!<br />www.ppc.com<br />

×