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POWERPOINT PRESENTATION ON GOVT. OF BIHAR DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIES
ORIGIN The origins fo Madhubani Painting are shrouded inantiquity, and a tradition states that this style of paintingoriginated at the time of the Ramayana, when King Janakcommissioned artists to do paintings at the time of marriageof his daughter SITA, to Hindu Lord Ram. Madhubani Painting has been done traditionally by thewomen of villages around the present town Madhubani, theliteral meaning of which is forest of honey and the areas ofMithila. W.G.Archer, I.C.S., then S.D.O., Madhubani brought thesepaintings to the attention of outside world after the greatBihar Earthquake in 1934.
ORIGINThe All India Handicrafts Board, encouraged thewomen of Madhubani to paint on paper instead ofWalls and Floor to facilitate the sale of paintingsOutstanding Artists such as Jagadamba Devi. SitaDevi, Mahasundari Devi, Ookha Devi, Baua Devi andKarpoori Devi and many more were discovered.Credit goes to Puppul Jayakar, Bhaskar Kulkarni,Upendra Maharathi and Lalit Narayan Mishra forpopularising the painting both in country and abroad.
STYLEA style of Indian Paintings practised in Madhubani,Darbhanga, Sitamarhi, Sheohar, Part of Samastipur,Purnea and Muzaffarpur.Depict Nature and Mythological events.Themes generally revolve around Hindu Deities likeKrishna, Ram, Shiv, Durga, Laxmi, Kali and Saraswati.Natural objects like Sun, Moon and Religious plantslike Tulsi and Social events like Wedding also painted.Paintings done on walls during festivals and religiousevents and other milestones of the life cycle such asBirth, Upanayan (sacred thread ceremony) andMarriage.
MEDIAWall Painting (Bhitti Chitra)Canvas Painting (Pata Chitra).Floor Painting (Aripan).Art shifted to Drawing Paper in 1960sThis brought with it a new freedom and creativity aspaper is moveablePainting on Clothes and SunmicaNow Bihari women use the style of MadhubaniPaintings on Sarees, Dupattas etc with fabricpaint.
TYPES/STYLESBHARANI KACHANI GERU GOBAR GODANA TANTRIC COLOUR SCHEME Artist prepare colours from natural sources. Black Colour is obtained by mixing Soot with Cow dung; Yellow from Turmeric or Pollen, Blue from Indigo, Red from Kusum Flower juice or Red Sandalwood; Green from Leaves of the Apple tree, White from Rice powder, Orange from Palasha flowers. Raw materials mixed with Goat milk, gum arabic and juice from bean plants. The Colours are applied flat with no shading. There is normally a double line drawn for the outlines with the gap between the lines filled by cross or straight tiny lines.
TOOLS NO sophisticated tools are needed in Madhubani Paintings. Artists are still unfamiliar with modern paintbrushes. One brush made from Bamboo Twigs Other used brush for filling in the space which is prepared from a small piece of cloth attached to a twig.SOCIAL GROUPS Women of the Brahim Caste Women of Kayastha Women belonging to Scheduled Castes Women of Minority
ARTISANS About 4,000 registered artisans are working in this field. Self help Groups have been formed. Several N.G.Os are active in Production and Marketing.NATIONAL AWARDEES SMT. JAGDAMBA DEVI - 1970 SMT. SITA DEVI - 1975 SMT. GANGA DEVI - 1976 SMT. GODAVARI DUTTA - 1980 SMT. MAHASUNDARI DEVI – 1981........
STATE AWARDEES SMT. MAHASUNDARI DEVI – 1978-79 SMT. KARPOORI DEVI – 1980-81 SMT. SHASHIKALA DEVI – 1980-81 SMT. HIRA MISHRA – 1981-82 .............. CERTIFICATE OF EXCELLENCE BY THE STATE GOVT.LATE RAUDI PASWAN, SRI SWAROOP LAL PASWAN, SMT. PATALIDEVI, SMT. KAUSHLYA DEVI, SRI GANESH PASWAN, SMT.URMILADEVI, SMT.SHILA DEVI, SRI RAMJI RAM, SMT.RAMPARI DEVI,SMT.CHANO DEVI, SRI SHIV NARAIN PASWAN, SRI UTTIM LAL,SMT.URMILA DEVI, SMT.PAVITRI DEVI, SMT.TRIPURA DEVI,SMT.SUMATI DAS, SMT. LALLI DEVI, SMT. VINA DEVI,SMT.MAHANAMA DEVI, SMT.YOGMAYA DEVI, MS. NAMITA KUMARI,SMT.VALESHWARI DEVI, SMT.DHARMSHILA DEVI,SMT.CHANDRAKALA DEVI, SMT.MUDRIKA DEVI.
As the map indicates, theMithila region and thevillages around Madhubaniare situated near thenorthern edge of the state ofBihar as it approaches theIndia-Nepal border. Peopleof Mithila have their ownlanguage and a sense ofregional identity that goesback more than 2500 years.
In the Hindu epic the Ramayana,the powerful king Ravanabecomes smitten with Ramaswife Sita and arranges to distracther husband in order to abducther. He dispatches a trustedassociate, capable of shape-shifting, who transforms himselfinto a golden deer that luresRama away from his forest camp.As the deer is slain by Ramasarrow, the demon emerges. Butby that time it is too late: Sita hasbeen carried away by Ravana.
One of the ordeals successfullycompleted by the youthful Krishna was topacify the great serpent Kaliya who hadbeen disturbing the otherwise peacefulwaters of the Yamuna River. Aconventional representation of thesubject has Krishna lightly poised on onefoot (much as he is in the paintings withthe milkmaids) while standing on theserpent. The style of this painting isunusual for Madhubani art which typicallyseeks to fill all available space.
The pastoral stories ofthe youthful Krishna arefilled with images of hisexploits, pastimes, andattractiveness. Thereare trickster elements tosome of the stories,including one that hashim keeping watch in atree while the milkmaidsbathe in the riverbeneath him. Here he issimply tending the cowswho gather around himwith the same kind ofdevotion that is said tobe directed toward himby the milkmaids and byall human souls.
Brandishing Just as thethe weapons goddessthat were Durga cangiven to her representby the gods, thethemselves combinedincapable of fury ordefeating the wrathgreat demon (krodha) ofMahisha, the the gods,warrior thegoddess goddessDurga sets Kali canoff on her representlion vehicle theto find and concentratdestroy him. ed fury of Durga.
A painting with someof the kobharthemes. The marriedcouple are alonewithin the confines ofthe honeymooncottage or kobharghar. There areelements of thetraditional bamboo orbansa symbolism aswell as other nuptialsymbols intended toensure long andproductive lives
A symbolically rich andpowerful painting of thekohbar -- the design that goeson the formal weddingproposal and on the walls ofthe small cottage in which themarriage rites are completed. Atraditional rural upper-casteMadhubani household iscomposed of four hutsarranged in a rectangle arounda central courtyard. One of thefour is used only for themarriage ceremonies ofdaughters of the household.For four nights she and herhusband perform rites underthe supervision of womenthere in the kobhar ghar. In thepainting, the couple arerepresented as approachingfrom the right, the husbandleading the way. Above are theenergies of sun and moon. Tothe left is the main symbol ofthe kobhar, an axis of bamboo(bansa) that represents thegrooms lineage (baansa).Organized around it are themany subsidiary symbols.
Krishnatending to hiscows, whileplaying fluteunder a tree.Thrilledmilkmaids,leaving theirmilk potsunattended, arelost in themusic while thecows gather Madhubani Painting depcitingaround him "Swayamwar" scene from the epicwith the same Ramayana. Beautiful Sita, adorned by jewels and ornaments, walks slowly towardskind of Ram, while her friends wait on her. Carryingdevotion that is a garland of flowers in her hands, to be putshown by all around Rams neck and solemnize thethe milkmaids. swayamwar ceremony.