13 Nov 2014

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  1. Distributed Generation Environment for the Smart Grid
  2. Contents Introduction Forms of renewable energy Distributed generation, its challenges and solution Features of Smart Grid Components of Smart Grid AMI and PMUs Need for Smart grids Rules of interconnection Benefits of integration with smart grid Conclusion References 2
  3. Introduction The 20th century had seen significant advances in energy generation, delivery and utilization, but has also produced tremendous impact on the environment and natural resources. • Significant changes must be made to how we generate, deliver and use energy so as to – establish sustainable utilization, and – restore environmental balance. • Education must occur at all levels: – researchers; – workforce; – consumers. 3
  4. Needs of the 21st century • Decrease fossil fuel consumption – 85% of today’s energy supply comes from fossil fuels. – Transportation and electric generation need to move away from fossil fuels. – Fossil fuels are the predominant contributors to environmental pollution. (COx, SOx, NOx, particulates) –Will also lead to energy independence. 4
  5. • Increase renewable generation – 7% of today’s energy supply comes from renewable sources (hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, solar, biomass). – Renewable generation must increase significantly but responsibly. • Increase nuclear generation suitably – 8% of today’s energy supply comes from nuclear power – Nuclear generation must increase so that there is adequate supply from steady sources. 5
  6. Sustainable utilization of resources • Technological enablers – Energy efficient buildings with thermal storage – “Smart” homes and “smart” appliances – Demand response and load management programs – Energy efficient transportation: hybrid and electric vehicles – Storage and direct conversion technologies • Growing need for conservation • Demand profiles will change significantly – Composition of load is changing – Load factor is likely to change too 6
  7. Forms of renewable energy resources  Wind turbines and wind farms,  Solar photovoltaic (PV) cells,  Solar-thermal energy,  Fuel Cells  Geothermal  Wave and tidal energy  Biomass  Micro or mini hydro 7
  10. Distributed Generation Distributed Generation (DG) technology incorporates wind turbines, micro turbines, photovoltaic systems, fuel cells, energy storage and synchronous generator applications to supply active power to distributed systems connected close to the consumers load. This concept is becoming a major player for Green House Gases (GHG) mitigation and power system reliability. 10
  11. Distributed Energy Resources • Generating Devices –Windmills – PV and solar thermal – Microturbines – Fuel cells – Biomass and biofuels – Geothermal power – Tidal and ocean thermal – Reciprocating engines 11
  12. • Storage Devices – Batteries – Ultracapacitors – SMES – Flywheels • Combined heat and power • Interruptible loads 12
  13. Comparison between Centralized and Distributed Generation 13 Fig 3
  14. Challenges of Distributed Generation  Intermittent in nature.  Free but not always usable.  Deteroriate system stability.  Less efficiency.  Voltage regulation problem.  Less predictable load patterns – rooftop solar, electric vehicles, and smart grid  Changing revenue patterns - Decreasing marginal prices and changes in resource operational pattern 14
  15. Solution to the challenges :  Upgrade existing traditional grid to smart grid.  Smart grid can absorb large fluctuations.  Demand side management and demand response.  Smart systems allow better use of variable capacitor banks, STATCOM, automatic reclosures,etc.  SCADA approach to volt/VAR control. 15
  16. Smart Grid :Overview 16  Coined in 2007 by A. Carvallo.  According to United States Department of Energy’s modern grid initiative: an intelligent or smart grid integrates advance sensing technologies, control methods and integrated communications into the current electricity grid. Fig 4. A “Smart” Grid
  17. According to[EPRI 2006]: “The term ‘Smart Grid’ refers to a modernization of the electricity delivery system so it monitors, protects and automatically optimizes the operation of its interconnected elements from the central and distributed generator through the high-voltage network and distribution system, to industrial users and building automation systems, to energy storage installations and to end-use consumers…” 17 Energy Smart IT Grid Telecom Fig 5. Infrastructure of Smart Grid
  18. Traditional and Smart Grid Traditional Grid Smart Grid Electromechanical, solid state Digital/Microprocessor One way and local two way communication Global/Integrated two way communication Centralized generation Distributed generation Limited monitoring, protection and control systems Adaptive protection ‘Blind’ Self monitoring Manual restoration Automated Check equipment manually Monitor equipment remotely Limited control system Pervasive control system Estimated reliability Predictive reliability Table 1 18
  19. Components of Smart Grid 19 NERVE *AMI(Meters and network) *Advanced grid sensing and visualization technology BRAIN *Demand and Response *Building energy management system *MDMS(Meter data management system) *End-use energy efficiency MUSCLE *Distributed generation from renewable sources *energy storage technology BONE *Transmission line(HVDC, Superconducting) *New transformers and substation equipment Table 2. Table for components of Smart Grid system
  20. 20 Fig 6. Smart grid and the human nervous system
  21. Model of Smart Grid 21 Fig 7
  22. Advanced Metering Infrastructure(AMI) or Smart Meters : 22 A smart meter is a digital meter that record energy usage inreal time. Includes hardware, software, communications, consumer energy displays and controllers, customer associated systems, Meter Data Management (MDM) software, and supplier business systems. Fig 8. A “Smart” Meter
  23. AMI: Two Layers 23 1. Transport Layer: 2 components A. The physical smart meter-replacing the older mechanical one. B. AMI Communications network to transport the data. 2. Application Layer : Information converted to actionable intelligence via meter specific applications.
  24. With large numbers of high speed sensors called PMUs and the ability to compare shapes from alternating current readings everywhere on the grid, research suggests that automated systems will be able to revolutionize the management of power systems by responding to system conditions in a rapid, dynamic fashion. Fig 9. PMU 24 Phasor Measurement Units :
  25. Stakeholders Technology Drivers Smart grid Consumers Utility Federal and state regulators Environmental Policymakers groups 25 Fig 10
  26. Driver’s interactions Policy Market Technology 26 Fig 11
  27. Policy drivers  1.Energy independence & security •Decreasing fuel supplies •On-going dependence on volatile nations •Raising/volatile fuel costs  2.Economic considerations •Rising asset costs •Job creation/business opportunities  3.Environmental considerations •Awareness of environmental issues (global warming) •Social pressures (particularly in EU) 4.Regulation & Funding •Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) •Energy Independence Act of 2007; ARRA: $4B for Smart Grid 27
  28. Market Drivers  1.Growing energy (and peak) demand •Appliances, electronics, data centers, PHEV/BEV introduction •Demandresponse  2.Increased efficiency thru grid optimization •Least cost power algorithms at substation distribution  3.Infrastructure reliability & security •Blackout/brownouts cost $150B annually •21stcentury power quality (PQ) •Anticipate and automatically respond to system disturbances •Network/systems tolerant of natural disaster or attacks  4.Advanced consumer services •Robust, simple consumer energy management platforms •Networked devices within the “smart home” •Active role in efficient power usage & pricing models 28
  29. Technology Drivers  1.Alternative energy •Trends toward distributed resources •Growing supply of renewablesgeneration and storage •Intelligent support for intermittent renewablesintegration  2.Smart grid technology advancements •Convergence of IT, Telecom, and Energy •Rapid innovation of a range of news products & Solutions •Significant amount of VC investment 29
  30. Need for establishment of smart grids : Higher penetration of renewable resources or distributed generation.  Extensive and effective communication overlay from generation to consumers.  Use of advanced sensors and high speed control.  Higher operating efficiency.  Greater resiliency against attacks and natural disasters. Automated metering and rapid power restoration.  Provide greater customer participation. 30
  31. Integration of DG with Smart Grid Fig 12. The integration of DG with Smart Grid 31
  32. Rules of interconnection ANSI C84.1 defines the acceptable range of voltages on the feeder for normal and contingency conditions. • Range –A voltages apply to normal conditions. – Max service voltage for Range A is 126V, and min service voltage is 114V • Range B voltages are for contingency or emergency operations, such as when a feeder is switched to a backup source. – Max service voltage for Range B is 127V, and min service voltage is 110V • The nominal substation voltage on the PNM system is 122.0V with a 3V bandwidth for LTP (load tap changing) • PNM distribution standard calls for no more than a 4% voltage drop on any secondary circuit serving a customer. 32
  33. Benefits of integration with Smart Grid : Transmission Reliability :  Automated Fault Location  Composite Core Conductor  Advanced System Planning Tools  Dynamic Voltage and VAR Control  Energy Storage for Transmission Reliability  Real Time Voltage Stability Program  Synchrophasors (Transmission)  Convert Manual Switches to Remote SCADA  Operation  Fiber Optic and Wireless Communication System  Spinning Reserve for emergencies 33
  34. Distribution Reliability: • Advanced Ground Fault Detection • Advanced Weather Station Integration and Forecasting Capabilities (T&D) • Wireless Faulted Circuit Indicators • Phase Identification • Smart Isolation and Reclosing • Arc Detection (T&D) • Outage Management System/Distribution Management System (Operational Efficiency) 34
  35. Looking beyond : 35 Fig 13
  36. Conclusion A Smart Grid impacts all the components of a power system and generation is likely to change with a drive towards more renewable generation. This will lead to conservation of the environment and decrease the adverse effects of pollution. The pressure on the existing conventional resources will also decrease. 36
  37. References :  Introduction to generation, Euginuisz Rosolawski  Smart Grid, Dr. Gleb V. Tcheslavski  Impact of Distributed Generation on Smart Grid Transient Stability,Nur Asyik Hidayatullah, Zahir J. Paracha, Akhtar Kalam  Smart Grid improves the value of Distributed Generation, Prof. Saifur Rahman  Compensation of impacts of Distributed Generation using Smart Grid Technology, Manoj Kumar Nigam, A. Krishna Nag  Smart Grid, Ali Firouzi ,PhD  Smart Grid power system control in distributed generation environment, Pertti Järventausta, Sami Repo, Antti Rautiainen,Jarmo Partanen 37
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