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Designing the supply chain network

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Designing the supply chain network

  2. 2. THE ROLE OF DISTRIBUTION IN SUPPLY CHAIN • Distribution refers to the steps to move and store a product from the supplier stage to customer stage in the supply chain. • Distribution occurs between every pair of stages in the supply chain. • Raw materials and components are moved from suppliers to manufacturers, whereas finished products are moved from the manufacture to end customer. • Distribution is a key driver of the overall profitability of a firm because it affects both the supply chain cost and the customer experience directly.
  3. 3. I.E • Worlds most profitable companies, Wal-Mart and 7-Eleven Japan, have built the success of their entire business around outstanding distribution design and operation. • Wal-Mart, distribution allows the company to provide high availability levels of relatively common products at a very low cost. • In Case of 7-eleven Japan, effective distribution provides a very high level of customer responsiveness at a reasonable cost.
  4. 4. FACTORS INFLUENCING DISTRIBUTION NETWORK DESIGN • Distribution should be evaluated along two dimension • Customer needs that are met (Responsiveness) • Cost of meeting customer needs. (Efficiency) • Firm must evaluate the impact on customer service and cost as it compares different network options.
  5. 5. CONT… • Elements of customer service influenced by network structure: • Response time – receive order • Product variety – different kind • Product availability – stock (inventory) • Customer experience – customers requirement and other experience. • Order visibility – track of order placement to delivery. • Returnability – handling of unsatisfactory things.
  6. 6. CONT… • Supply chain costs affected by network structure: • Inventories – high inventory increase cost, low inventory low inventory cost • Transportation • Inbound transportation cost • Outbound transportation cost always must be high • Facilities and handling • Increasing the facilities decrease total transportation cost. • Information
  7. 7. DESIGN OPTIONS FOR A DISTRIBUTION NETWORK Distribution Network choice from the manufacturer to the end customer. Managers must make two key decisions, • Will product to be delivered to the customer location or picked up from specific side. • Will product flow through an intermediate location.
  8. 8. CONT… Based on industry answer of those above question will be, • Manufacturer Storage with Direct Shipping • Manufacturer Storage with Direct Shipping and In-Transit Merge • Distributor Storage with Carrier Delivery • Distributor Storage with Last Mile Delivery • Manufacturer or Distributor Storage with Consumer Pickup • Retail Storage with Consumer Pickup
  9. 9. MANUFACTURER STORAGE WITH DIRECT SHIPPING • Also referred to as drop-shipping, with product delivered directly from the manufacturer to the customer. • No inventories of retailers, only flows information to manufacturer. • Supply chain is able to provide high level of product availability with lower level of inventories. • Drop-shipping provides a good customer experience in the form of delivery to the customer location.
  10. 10. Mfr Retailer Customer Product Flow Information Flow Manufacturer Storage with Direct Shipping (Drop Shipping)
  11. 11. Performance Characteristics of Manufacturer Storage with Direct Shipping Network Cost Factor Performance Inventory Lower costs because of aggregation. Benefits of aggregation are highest for low demand, high value items. Benefits are very large if product customization can be postponed ate manufacturer. Transportation Higher transportation costs because of increased distance and disaggregate shipping. Facilities and handling Lower facility costs because of aggregation. Some saving on handling costs if manufacturer can manage small shipments or ship from production line. Information Significant investment in information infrastructure to integrate manufacturer and retailer.
  12. 12. Service Factor Performance Response Time Long response time of one to two weeks because of increased distance and two stages for order processing. Response time may vary by product, thus complicating receiving. Product Variety Easy to provide a very high level of variety. Product Availability Easy to provide a high level of product availability because of aggregation at manufacturer. Customer Experience Good in terms of home delivery but can suffer if order from several manufacturers is sent as partial shipments. Time to market Fast, with the product available as soon as the first unit is produced. Order visibility More difficult but also more important from a customer service perspective. Returnability Expensive and difficult to implement. https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkprettythings
  13. 13. MANUFACTURER STORAGE WITH DIRECT SHIPPING AND IN-TRANSIT MERGE • It is like a drop shipping. In-transit merge combines pieces of the order coming from different locations so that the customer gets a single delivery. • For eg, when a customer orders a PC from Dell along with a Sony monitor, the package carrier picks up the PC from the Dell factory and the monitor from the Sony factory; it then merges the two together at a hub before making a single delivery to the customer. • This approach has the greatest benefits for products with high value whose demand is difficult to forecast.
  14. 14. SONY HP Dell Product Flow Information Flow Factorie s In-transit merge By CarrierRetailer In-transit merge Net work Customers Customers https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkprettythings
  15. 15. Performance Characteristics of In-Transit Merge https://www.facebook.com/ialwaysthinkprettythings Cost Factor Performance Inventory Similar to drop shipping. Transportation Somewhat lower transportation costs than drop shipping. Facilities and handling Handling costs higher than drop shipping at carrier; receiving costs lower at customer. Information Investment is somewhat higher than for drop shipping. Service Factor Performance Response Time Similar to drop-shipping; may be marginally higher. Product variety Similar to drop shipping. Product Availability Similar to drop-shipping. Customer experience Better than drop-shipping because a single order has to be received. Time to market Similar to drop-shipping. Order visibility Similar to drop-shipping. Returnability Similar to drop-shipping.
  16. 16. DISTRIBUTOR STORAGE WITH CARRIER DELIVERY • Under this, inventory is not held by manufacturers at the factories but is held by distributors/retailers in intermediate warehouses. • Package carriers are used to transport products from the intermediate location to the final customer. • I.e Amazon, as well industrial distributors such as W.W. Grainger and McMaster- Carr, have used this approach combined with drop-shipping from a manufacturer. • Higher inventory, demand uncertainty. • It is well suited for medium-to-fast moving items.
  17. 17. Factorie s Customers Product Flow Information Flow Distributor Storage
  18. 18. Performance Characteristics of Distributor storage with Carrier Delivery Cost Factor Performance Inventory Higher than manufacturer storage. Difference is not large for faster-moving items. Transportation Lower than manufacturer storage. Reduction is highest for faster-moving items. Facilities and handling Somewhat higher than manufacturer storage. The difference can be large for very slow- moving items. Information Simpler infrastructure compared to manufacturer storage. Service Factor Performance Response Time Faster than manufacturer storage. Product variety Lower than manufacturer storage. Product availability Higher cost to provide the same level of availability as manufacturer storage. Customer experience Better than manufacturer storage with drop-shipping. Time to market Higher than manufacturer storage. Order visibility Easier than manufacturer storage. Returnability Easier than manufacturer storage
  19. 19. DISTRIBUTOR STORAGE WITH LAST MILE DELIVERY • Last-mile delivery refers to the distributor/retailer delivering the product to the customer’s home instead of using a package carrier. • Webvan, Peapod, Albertsons have used last-mile delivery in the grocery industry. • Kozmo and Urbanfetch tried to set up home-delivery network for a variety of products but failed to survive. • The automotive spare parts industry is one where distributor storage with last-mile delivery is the dominant model. It is very expensive for dealers to carry all spare parts in inventory.
  20. 20. CONT… • Unlike package carrier delivery, last mile delivery requires the distributor warehouse to be much closer to the customer • because limited radius can be served with last-mile. • Distributor higher inventory than others
  21. 21. Factories Distributor/ Retailer Warehouse Product Flow Information Flow
  22. 22. Performance Characteristics of Distributor Storage with Last-Mile Delivery Cost Factor Performance Inventory Higher than distributor storage with package carrier delivery. Transportation Very high cost given minimal scale economies. Higher than any other distribution option. Facilities and handling Facility costs higher than manufacturer storage or distributor storage with package carrier delivery, but lower than a chain of retail stores. Information Similar to distributor storage with package carrier delivery.
  23. 23. Service factor Performance Response time Very quick. Same day to next-day delivery. Product variety Somewhat less than distributor storage with package carrier delivery but larger than retail stores. Product availability More expensive to provide availability than any other option except retail stores. Customer experience Very good, particularly for bulky items. Time to market Slightly higher than distributor storage with package carrier delivery. Order traceability Less of an issue and easier to implement than manufacturer storage or distributor storage with package carrier delivery. Returnability Easier to implement than other options. Harder and more expensive than a retail network.
  24. 24. MANUFACTURER OR DISTRIBUTOR STORAGE WITH CUSTOMER PICKUP • In this approach, inventory is stored at the manufacturer or distributor warehouse but customers place their orders online or on the phone and then travel to designated pickup points to collect their merchandise. • Orders are shipped from the storage site to the pickup points as needed. • Such a network is likely to be most effective if existing locations such as coffee shops, convenience stores, or grocery stores are used as pickup sites, because this type of network improves the economies from existing infrastructure.
  25. 25. I.E • 7dream.com and otoriyose-bin, operated by 7-Eleven Japan, which allows customer to pick up online orders at designated store. • B2B W.W. Grainger, whose customers can pick up their orders at one of the W.W. Grainger retail outlets. • Walmart launched its “site to store) service that allows customer to order thousands of products online at Walmart.com and have them shipped in stores (seven to 10 business days)
  26. 26. Factories Customer Flow Product Flow Informatio n Flow
  27. 27. Performance Characteristics of Network with Consumer Pickup sites Cost Factor Performance Inventory Can match any other option, depending on the location of inventory. Transportation Lower than the use of package carriers, especially if using an existing delivery network. Facilities and handling Facility costs can be very high if new facilities have to be built. Costs are lower if existing facilities are used. The increase in handling cost at the pickup site can be significant. Information Significant investment in infrastructure required.
  28. 28. Service Factor Performance Response time Similar to package carrier delivery with manufacturer or distributor storage. Same day delivery possible for items stored locally at pick- up sites. Product variety Similar to other manufacturer or distributor storage options. Product availability Similar to other manufacturer or distributor storage options. Customer experience Lower than other options because of the lack of home delivery. In areas with high density of population, loss of convenience may be small. Time to market Similar to manufacturer storage options. Order visibility Difficult but essential. Returnability Somewhat easier given that pickup location can handle returns.
  29. 29. RETAILER STORAGE WITH CUSTOMER PICKUP • Inventory is stored locally at retail stores. • Customers walk into the retail store or place an order online or by phone and pick it up at the retail store. • It is best suited for fast-moving items or items for which customers value rapid response.
  30. 30. Performance Characteristics of Local storage at Consumer Pickup sites Cost Factor Performance Inventory Higher than all other options. Transportation Lower than all other options. Facilities and handling Higher than other options. The increase in handling cost at pickup site can be significant for online and phone orders. Information Some investment in infrastructure required for online and phone orders. Service Factor Performance Response time Same-day pickup possible for items stored locally at pickup site. Product variety Lower than all other options. Product availability More expensive to provide than all other options. Customer experience Related to whether shopping is viewed as a positive or negative experience by customer. Time to market Highest among distribution options. Order visibility Trivial for in-store orders. Difficult, but essential, for online & phone orders. Returnability Easier than other options given that pickup location can handle returns.
  31. 31. E-BUSINESS AND DISTRIBUTION NETWORK IMPACT OF E-BUSINESS ON CUSTOMER SERVICE • In selling physical product that cannot be downloaded. • Customer may not use internet to order a product. • Customer requires a short response time. PRODUCT VARIETY • Offering the same selection at a retail store would require a huge location with a correspondingly large amount of inventory. RESPONSE TIME
  32. 32. PRODUCT AVAILABILITY • Depends of orders of customer and their demands giving rise to more accurate forecasts. CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE • Allow access to customers who may not be able to place orders during regular business hours.
  33. 33. FASTER TIME TO MARKET • A firm can use e-business to introduce a new product much more quickly that a firm that uses physical channel. ORDER VISIBILITY • The internet makes it possible to provide visibility of order status. Order info, company info, location info.
  34. 34. RETURN ABILITY • Return ability is harder with online orders. • It is much easier to return a product purchased from a retail store. DIRECT SALES TO CUSTOMER • An e-business allows manufactures and other members of the supply chain that do not have direct contact with customer in traditional channels to enhance business.
  35. 35. FLEXIBILITY PRICING, PRODUCT PORTFOLIO AND PROMOTION • Database linked with websites. • Social medias and details EFFICIENT FUNDS TRANSFER • Transaction and revenues speeds up
  36. 36. IMPACT OF E-BUSINESS ON COST • Inventory • Facilities • Transportation = Downloadable Product (Music and Movies) • Information
  37. 37. THE ROLE OF NETWORK DESIGN IN SUPPLY CHAIN Facility role, location of manufacturing, storage or transportation- related facilities, and the allocation of capacity. • Facility role – What role should each facility play? What processes are performed at each facility? • Facility location – Where should facilities be located? • Capacity allocation – How much capacity should be allocated to each facility? • Market and supply allocation – What markets should each facility serve? Which supply sources should feed each facility?
  38. 38. FACTORS INFLUENCING NETWORK DESIGN DECISIONS STRATEGIC FACTOR • A firm’s competitive strategy has a significant impact on network design decisions within the supply chain. • Firms that focus on cost leadership tend to find the lowest cost location for their manufacturing facilities, even if that means locating very far from the markets they serve. • Firms that focus on responsiveness and efficiency tend to locate facilities closer to the market and may select a high-cost location if this choice allows the firm to react quickly to changing market needs.
  39. 39. ROLE OF STRATEGIC FACTOR OFFSHORE FACILITY: LOW COST FACILITY FOR EXPORT PRODUCTION • An offshore facility serve the role of being a low cost supply source for market. • The location selected for an offshore facility should have low labor and other costs to facilitate low-cost production.
  40. 40. SOURCE FACILITY: LOW-COST FACILITY FOR GLOBAL PRODUCTION • Its primary objective is low-cost. Its strategic roles are broader than that of an offshore facility. • A source facility is often a primary source of product for the entire global network. • Source facility tend to be located in places where production costs are relatively low, infrastructure is well developed, and a skilled workforce is available. • Good offshore facility migrate over time into source facility.
  41. 41. SERVER FACILITY : REGIONAL PRODUCTION FACILITY • A server facility is built because of tax incentives, local content requirement, tariff barriers, or high logistic cost to supply the region from elsewhere. CONTRIBUTOR FACILITY: REGIONAL PRODUCTION FACILITY WITH DEVELOPMENT SKILLS • It serve where the market is located. • Also assumes responsibility for product customization, process improvements, product modifications or product development
  42. 42. OUTPOST FACILITY: REGIONAL PRODUCTION FACILITY BUILT TO GAIN LOCAL SKILLS. • Located primarily to obtain access to knowledge or skills that may exist within a certain region. LEAD FACILITY: FACILITY THAT LEADS IN DEVELOPMENT AND PROCESS TECHNOLOGIES • Creates new products, processes and technologies for the entire network.
  43. 43. TECHNOLOGICAL FACTOR • Important for production, high capacity are most effectivity. • Lower fix cost and local facilities can help lower transportation cost. • Tax, tariffs, exchange rates and other economics factors for global trade • Company prefer to locate facilities in politically stable countries, where the rules of commerce and ownership are well defined. MACROECONOMIC FACTORS POLITICAL FACTORS
  44. 44. INFRASTRUCTURE FACTORS • Key element of network design, labor, transportation, terminals and rails airports, seaports, highway. • Cares about competitors strategy, size and location. • To locate their facilities close to competitors or far from them. • Competition on raw material, labor and production. COMPETITIVE FACTORS
  45. 45. Phase 1 SC Strategy Phase 2 Reg Facility Conifig Phase 3 Desirabl e sites Phase 4 Locatio n Choices Competitive Environment Aggregate Factors and Logistic s costs Production Technologies Cost, scale/scope impact Production Methods Internal Constraints Capital, Growth Strategy Competitive Strategy Factor costs Global Competition Tariffs & Tax Incentives Regional Demand Size, growth, homogeneity Political, Exchange Rate and Demand Risk Available Infra structure Logistics Cost Frame work for Network design Decisions
  46. 46. NETWORK OPTIMIZATION MODELS GRAVITY LOCATION MODEL • Geographic location identification • Gravity models are used to find locations that minimize the cost of transporting, raw materials from suppliers and finished goods to the markets served.
  47. 47. CAPACITATED PLANT LOCATION MODEL • Following inputs are required, most focus on profit maximization and minimizing the cost. • N = number of potential plant locations/capacity • M= number of markets or demand points • Dj = annual demand from market j • Kj = potential capacity of plan I • Fj = annualized fixed cost of keeping factory i open. • Cij= cost of production and shipping unit from factory I to market j.