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Why to study this topic?
Co- existance of separate political units necessitates a certain
degree of contact among them.
Communication between the governments to ensure smooth
Instrument of foreign policy
Use of soft power instead of all out chaos.
Thus diplomacy has become co-manager of all international
A country's foreign policy, also called the foreign relations policy,
consists of self-interest strategies chosen by the state to safeguard
its national interests and to achieve its goals within international
relations milieu. The approaches are strategically employed to
interact with other countries. In recent times, due to the deepening
level of globalization and transnational activities, the states will
also have to interact with non-state actors. The afore mentioned
interaction is evaluated and monitored in attempts to maximize
benefits of multilateral international cooperation. Since
the national interests are paramount, foreign policies are designed
by the government through high-level decision making processes.
National interests accomplishment can occur as a result of peaceful
cooperation with other nations, or through exploitation. Usually,
creating foreign policy is the job of the head of government and
the foreign minister (or equivalent). In some countries
the legislature also has considerable oversight.
History and Culture
National character and National Morale
Management of international relations by negotiations
The application of Intelligence and tact to the conduct of
official relations between governments of independent states.
-Sir Enest satow in ‘guide to diplomatic practice’
Represents the accumulative political, economic and military
pressures upon each side formalized in the exchange of demands
and concessions between negotiators.
-’The theory and Practice of International Relation’
Diplomacy can be taken asSynonym of foreign policy,
machinery by which such negotiations are carried out,
branch of foreign service, or ....
An abstract quality or gift, which, in its best sense, implies skill
in the conduct of international conduct; and in its worst sense,
implies the more guileful aspects of tact
Diplomacy is the political process under which political
entities are interconnected with official relations in the
framework of international environment to formulate policies
and strategies centred around their own national interest and
thus results in maximization of profit for the state.
Greece, Byzantium and renaissance Italy made the most notable
contribution to the evolution of Diplomacy.
Italian diplomacy: The practice spread from Italy to the other
European powers. Milan was the first to send a representative to the
court of France in 1455
Diplomacy in Europe: Peace of Westphalia
Post Westphalia Diplomacy
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
Diplomacy in India
The origin of Modern day Diplomacy.
The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of
European states chaired by Austrian statesman K W Metternich, and
held in Vienna from September 1814 to June 1815. The objective of the
Congress was to settle the many issues arising from the French
Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of
the Holy Roman Empire
This objective resulted in the redrawing of the continent's political
map, establishing the boundaries of France, the Duchy of
Warsaw, the Netherlands, the states of the Rhine, the
German Kingdom of Saxony, and various Italian territories, and the
creation of spheres of influence through
which Austria, Britain, France and Russia brokered local and
regional problems.Thus the concept of modern day diplomacy arose
The two treaties i.e. The Aix-la-chappelle and the Congress of Vienna
ultimately established the diplomatic services and representation of the
powers on agreed basis.
Four Categories of representatives were defined, namely
Ambassadors, pappal legates and papal nuncios
Extraordinary envoys and plenipotentiary ministers
Charge d’ Affaires
IT is an international treaty that defines a framework for
diplomatic relations between independent countries. It specifies
the privileges of a diplomatic mission that enable diplomats to
perform their function without fear of coercion or harassment by
the host country. This forms the legal basis for diplomatic
immunity. Its articles are considered a cornerstone of modern
international relations. As of June 2013, it has been ratified by 189
The treaty is an extensive document, containing 53 articles
According to Hans J Morgenthau;
(1)Diplomacy must determine its objectives in the light of the
power actually and potentially available for the pursuit of these
(2) Diplomacy must assess the objectives of other nations and the
power ac-tually and potentially available for the pursuit of these
(3) Diplomacy must determine to what extent these different
objectives are compatible with each other.
(4) Diplomacy must employ the means suited to the pursuit of its
To him a Diplomat fulfills three basic functions for his
government: Symbolic, Legal and Political
Failure in any one of these tasks may jeopardize the success of
foreign policy and with it the peace of the world.
According to Palmer and Perkins a Diplomat has five
Protections of national Interest abroad
Maintenance of International peace and promotion of peace
Role of Diplomacy In Foreign Policy
Diplomacy rooted community of Interest of a small group of
Old diplomacy was a variant of secret diplomacy.
Diplomacy pre 19 century is termed as traditional diplomacy
Features of Traditional Diplomacy:
Europe centric: Concert of Europe
Monopoly of Aristocratic class and of professional
Based largely on Bilateral basis and was usually undertaken
Agenda of traditional diplomacy was parochial and narrow
Emerged together with the Balance of Power system, as at the
heart of the transition lay the suspicion of then public about
the whole system of balance of power which they identified as
the main cause of the First world war.
Role of Diplomacy merged with secrecy and espionage.
Presidents Woodrow Wilson :Diplomacy to thrive in public
view rather in private international understandings.
Integration of Public opinion Into Diplomacy and
formulation of Foreign Policy
Change in The structure of the International society: rise of
Multilateral Diplomacy and Role of UNO.
The Stage of diplomacy now shared with other Non state
The agenda of New Diplomacy Also includes Economic and
social welfare as well as military issues.
THE post cold war period the role of Diplomacy has taken a huge
turn. It is seen under a new light
Previously During the cold war the Diplomatic concept was looked
upon with doubt and suspicion.
But in the new world order Diplomacy has thrived and thus helped in
getting out of many exigent circumstances.
Diplomacy in its current form helps not only in maintaining
International peace and security but also promotes Inter national
cooperation and helps in maintaining global stability.
SHOPKEEPER VS WARRIOR METHOD
the “warrior,” diplomacy is
aggressive, intransigent, recalcitrant
stubborn, rigid, impolite, and undiplomatic and usually is
found among nations which share a tragic history of conflict
and War Like that of DPRK and ROK.
The “shopkeeper,” diplomacy is characterized as
practical, open-minded, candid, and compromising. This
characterization was put forth by some scholars and
diplomats who either observed or participated in North
Korea-United States negotiations and in the inter-Korean
summit. In fact, Kim Jong-il’s practical, candid negotiating
style surprised many people who had held a different image of
him and other North Korean officials.
SECRET VS OPEN
A secret treaty is a treaty between nations that is not
revealed to other nations or interested observers. An
example would be a secret alliance between two nations to
support each other in the event of war. The opposing
nations would be unaware of the treaty and therefore
unable to add it to their calculations, which could obviously
result in a difficult situation for the party that declared war
when suddenly confronted with the troops of two or even
three nations. Secret treaties were common before the First
World War, and many blamed them for helping spark that
Participation of People in the politics of state and Importance of
public opinion led to democratization of diplomacy.
Governments no longer domain of Aristocrats and sole affairs of
Diplomats or ministers.
Major shortcoming: failure of common people to understand the
intricacies of Foreign Policy
Strong public opinion may pull down a diplomatic negotiation or
dog it with delay and impression
Rise of totalitarian states such as Germany, Italy, the Soviet union
after WWI introduced this negative form of Diplomacy.
The states used techniques such as Military, Political and
Psychological power to expand their spheres of Influence.
For this they Invoked doctrine of racial superiority, Mysticism,
materialism and militarism to further their national interest.
Diplomacy used as an instrument of National policy.
Rendered traditional diplomacy methods useless
Involves direct participation of Foreign Ministers, Heads of
State and Heads of Governments in Diplomatic negotiations.
Atlantic Charter Summit,Yalta conference,
Operate through regional organization as well
Use of normal channels of diplomacy are limited.
Heads of States use personal agents to settle delicate Problems
Example- Roosevelt reliance on Harry Hopkiss
Direct approach to the counterpart .
Though it provides a secrecy to the affairs of the world it does
tend to make the process a bit undemocratic .
DIPLOMACY BY CONFERENCE
International conferences held to discuss joint interest
Foreign offices and consular's has helped in making the
structure of Diplomacy more federal.
It involves periodic meetings of regional and international
Has had many positive results like signing of various
disarmament treaties and also related to sustainable
development and environmental issues
Trade and Aid Diplomacy
Carrot or stick theory
Used and Evolved during and in post Cold war period
Role of UNO
Economic sanctions against Cuba
ASEAN Boycott of Myanmar
Has Different form and meaning depending on the nuclear
capability of the state.
Options available are deterrence or compel lance or coercive
Only problem a crisis situation may escalate and put the world on
the threshold of Nuclear war.
Diplomacy is a technique to implement foreign policy.
But it is not the substance of Foreign policy .
Foreign policy is What you do; and diplomacy is how you do
Diplomacy is considered as the Central Technique as:
It involves direct government to government interactions
so that a particular state can draw inference from such talks
or negotiations while formulating its foreign policy.
Diplomacy Leads o better cooperation and helps in
resolution of conflict.
Diplomacy is Used to mould the FP of Other parties: The
Use of Economic measures and embargos and sanctions to
influence the events or actions of a aggressor state.
Sub Version Techniques
Post cold war diplomacy has become more complex
And also has emerged as foremost weapon in modern day IR.
The INDIAN Scenario: Panchsheel
Global Governance:The basic nature of Diplomacy has evolved
Contribution of Non –state actors: privatization of Diplomacy
Authority beyond the State: Regional co-operation and
formation of Regional alliance
Role of Economic status of A country on Diplomacy.
In the levels of diplomatic activity, from the local through the
to the bilateral, regional and global;
Helps in Arbitration and mediations
Use of Soft power methods ensure international peace
Promotes Universal Brotherhood.
Helps in formulation of foreign policy taking into account
various factors necessary for a successful relationship.
Represent the national interest in international forum.
The overall picture that emerges from this presentation is one of an
institution characterized by great resilience and adaptability. Within
the essential dimensions of communication, representation and the
reproduction of international society, diplomacy has adjusted to
changing circumstances and has sometimes been instrumental in
affecting these changes. Given its long history of
adaptability, then, diplomacy does not seem a likely candidate for
obsolescence or decline in the future.
There is no need of reinventing diplomacy every few decades, with a
succession of one “new diplomacy” after another. The basis
ingredients are as old as the hills, although differences in their “mix”
result indifferent types of diplomacy. If a diplomacy emerges that
appears different from that of the recent past, it would be risky to call
it “new” or “modern,” for it is likely to be best a reincarnation of an
Introduction: Diplomacy and Global Governance: Locating
Patterns of (Dis)Connection: Andrew F. Cooper, Brian Hocking,
and William Maley
Essence of Diplomacy: Palgrave Macmillian:Christer Jönsson,
International Relations, Peu Ghosh
International Relations: Girish malhotra