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Modern Latin America<br />Sayda Vega<br />History 141<br />Class # 50587<br />
BRITAIN AND LATIN AMERICA<br />*Britain’s economic interest in Latin America was much more noticeable during the mid 1870’s and early 1890’s<br />*Britain’s interests in River Plate<br />*Britain also played an important role in Argentina since most of its trading businessmen were British.<br />*Britain was a dominant role in Brazil’s trade, shipping, and imports.<br />*Britain had investments all over Mexico, Peru, Chile and Uruguay<br />*Everything changed by the end of the 20th Century when Britain’s influence almost dissapeared.<br />
*The Second World War brought more problems and automatically reduced trade. This put Britain into debt to Latin America and to the United States too.<br />*”At the time of independence Latin America was still a frontier of European colonization.”<br />*There were huge differences in wealth, social status and income all along the Latin American countries.<br />*Slavery remained to be vital for some of the Spanish Colonies due to the commercial agriculture.<br />*The Latin America’s reorientation of external connections was influenced by independence.<br />
*Many problems of different types after independence including, fiscal problems, external security problems and intense civil conflicts.<br />*Some of the most instable counties at the time were: Mexico, Peru and Bolivia.<br />*Paraguay’s President Jose Gaspar Rodriguez de Francia (2814-1840)<br />*“In British eyes there were two exceptions of instability and caudallismo: Brazil and Chile.<br />*Formation of strong national structures.<br />
*Predomination of Liberalism<br />*Balmaceda President of Chile and the end of his term culminated in a civil war, in which at the end he committed suicide.<br />LATIN AMERICA’S WARS OF THE 19TH CENTURY<br />*The main causes of the Latin America’s Wars were: race war, ideology of independence, separation versus union, boundary disputes, territorial conquests, caudilloism, resource wars, interclass struggles, capitalism and religious wars.<br />*Political, economic, and social frustrations were the result of the Latin America Wars of independence <br />
*Another events happening in Europe and North America helped to achieve independence as well.<br />*American Revolution (1775-1783)<br />*French Revolutions (1789-1799)<br />*Both revolutions were very influential to other countries and persons such as Simon Bolivar and Miguel Hidalgo.<br />*“Not all wars of independence in Latin America were against the European Monarchy.<br />*Break up-separation versus union.<br />*During the colonial era kings of Spain and Portugal were at war.<br />
*Golden Rule of Latin America power politics: “Relations between nations which share a common border are cool, and those who do not, are warm.”<br />*Frontier wars began right after the wars of independence and continued during the 19th Century.<br />*“The post-independence wars of territorial conquest were and extension to the colonial experience.”<br />*Participants in territorial conquest just wanted to gain more land.<br />*British expansion in Central America (1821-1856)<br />*War of Tripe Alliance (1864-1870)<br />
MEXICO: CONTINENT ON THE MOVE<br />*Migration has transformed the Americas<br />*Zacatecas was once the silver capital of the nation. It only remains its colonial architecture.<br />*Zacatecas was one of the richest agriculture areas buy today it is an example of Mexico’s decay.<br />*Older people remember how it was like before when the time of revolution came.<br />*President Lazaro Cardenas was in charge during the 1930’s.<br />*Mexico became the main supply of winter vegetables and fruits for the United States.<br />*Mexico City became a powerful attraction for people with the creation of thousands of jobs<br />*Creation of government programs in education and health care.<br />*More immigrants arrived, now the city of Tijuana.<br />*Tijuana counts with many maquiladora industries that’s why many people from other places come to work.<br />
MIGUELHIDALGO (Wikipedia)<br />*Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla was a Mexican cleric and important leader who played an important role during the Mexican Independence.<br />*He was born on May 8, 1753 in Penjamo, Guanajuato<br />*Miguel Hidalgo strongly believed in the Virgin of Guadalupe and always would go into revolts accompanied by groups of mestizos with the banner of the Virgin.<br />*He was captured on March 21, 1811 and executed on July 30.<br />*He was the first man who started to fight for independence.<br />
*Later on, he was supported by Jose Maria Morelos and Agustin de Iturbide.<br />*He was influenced by American Revolution (1775-1783) and French Revolution (1789-1799).<br />*Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla is considered “Father of the Nation of Mexico.”<br />*He was responsible for the Grito de Dolores on September 16, in which he called a mass and urged people to join him in the fight against the vice regal government.<br />*Hidalgo’s Grito de Dolores focused on being loyal to the Catholic Religion. He firmly believed on Catholicism.<br />