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The  Secret  History of Silicon Valley: Why Stanford and Not Berkeley? Read the Blog www.steveblank.com Read the Backstory http://bit.ly/SecretStories Steve Blank @sgblank 24 Feb 2011
A few caveats ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Popular View of Silicon Valley History 1910 1960 1970 1980 2000 1990 Innovation Networks 1930 1940 1950 1920 Steve Jobs   Moore/Noyce   Marc Andreessen   Hewlett & Packard   Fruit Orchards Personal Computers Integrated Circuits Internet Fruit Orchards Fruit Orchards
The Real Story  of Silicon Valley History 1910 1960 1970 1980 2000 1990 Innovation Networks 1930 1940 1950 1920 Venture Capital Microwaves / Defense Personal Computers Integrated Circuits Internet Test Equipment Vacuum Tubes
Story 1:  WWII  The First Electronic War
Dec 7 th  1941: America Enters WWII ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Strategic Bombing of Germany   March 1943:   The Combined Bomber Offensive ,[object Object]
Strategic Bombing of Germany  The Combined Bomber Offensive ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
British/American Air War in Western Europe 28,000 Active Combat Planes 40,000  Allied  planes lost  or damaged beyond repair:  ( 46 000 planes lost by the USSR in the East) 160,000  Americans and British killed,  wounded or captured
 
The German Air Defense System The Kammhuber Line ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Wasserman Early Warning Radar ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Mammoth Early Warning Radar ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Jagdschloss Early Warning Radar ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Himmelbelt   Local Air Defense Network ,[object Object],[object Object]
Himmelbelt  Radar Order of Battle ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Freya   Early Warning Radar ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
 
Flak - Radar Controlled  Anti Aircraft Guns ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],105 mm flak Flak: an abbreviation for Fliegerabwehrkanonen, german for anti-aircraft guns
Wurzburg Anti-Aircraft Radar ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Himmelbelt  Radar Order of Battle ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Giant Wurzburg Ground Control Intercept Radar ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Operation Biting  -  Raid on Bruneval ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],What’s this?
Himmelbett  Air Battle Traffic Control ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Himmelbelt  Radar Order of Battle ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
German Night-Fighters  ,[object Object],[object Object],Airborne Intercept Radar What’s this?
German Day Fighters Vectored by Ground Radar ,[object Object],[object Object]
 
 
Not many clear days a month in winter over Europe How did they see the target?
Bombing Through Overcast Solution: Air to Ground Bombing Radar ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Math Challenge For every 100 bombers on a mission  4 - 20% would not return Crews had to fly 25 mission to go home
Story 2:  The Electronic Shield –  Electronic Warfare
Harvard Radio Research Lab  (RRL)  Signals Intelligence and Electronic Warfare ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
ELINT using Ferret’s   Find and understand German Air Defense  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Using ELINT to Map Radar Coverage
Tin Foil to the Rescue - Window/Chaff   Jam Wurzburg AAA & GCI Radar ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Electronically Blind German Radar   Jam the Radars with Noise ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],MANDREL Jammer DINA Jammer
Electronic Warfare 1944/45 chaff ELINT GCI Jamming Flak Jamming
Who Ran this Secret Lab and became the Father of Electronic Warfare? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Fredrick Terman   “the Father of Silicon Valley” ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Story 3:  Berkeley Applies Physics
WWII Berkeley Experimental Physics ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
WWII Berkeley Theoretical Physics ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Nobel Prize Nobel Prize Nobel Prize Nobel Prize
Berkeley Theory and Experimental Physics
Story 4:  Stanford And The Cold War
WWII Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Terman’s Postwar   Strategy ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Microwave Valley - Stanford Spinouts  Microwave Components ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Cold War and Stanford ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
 
Problem: Find All the “Tall Kings” ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Solution: Project “Flower Garden”  Shoot the Moon ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Radio Dishes Get Funded ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Microwave Valley - Stanford Spinouts  Military Systems  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Terman Changes the Startup/University Rules Silicon Valley as We Know it Starts Here ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The End of Classified Work at Stanford ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Stanford and the Cold War  Silicon Valley’s 1 st  Wave Entrepreneurs Weapons Finance Crisis Profit Motivation 24/7 Utilities Predictable Economic System Infrastructure Stable Legal System Research Universities Risk Taking Culture Entrepreneurial Outward-Facing Tech Universities Free flow of People/Info Customer  Development Mgmt Tools Agile Development Business Model Design Design  Thinking
Story 4:  Berkeley and the Cold War
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Berkeley Nobel Prizes ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Story 5:  1956 – Lockheed Comes to Town & We Become  Silicon  Valley
Lockheed Comes to Town - 1956 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Lockheed and WS-117L  NRO -   Move   Reconnaissance to Space Program A: Air Force - imaging and sigint Program B: CIA - Imaging  electroopitcal and sigint Program C: Navy signit Program D: U-2, A-12/Oxcart, D-21/Tagboard SAMOS/SENTRY MIDAS - Program 461 IR - Launch Detection CORONA Imaging VELA Nuclear Detection Program P-11/ 989 SAMOS F-1/2/3 ELINT/SIGINT
Meanwhile, on the Other Side of Town… The Head of Radar Bombing training for Air Force  starts a Company
The Real Story  of Silicon Valley History 1910 1960 1970 1980 2000 1990 Innovation Networks 1930 1940 1950 1920 Venture Capital Microwaves/ Defense Personal Computers Integrated Circuits Internet Test Equipment Vacuum Tubes
William Shockley   “ The Other Father of Silicon Valley” ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
William Shockley   “ Great Researcher, Awesome Talent Spotter, Horrible Manager” ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
 
Semiconductor Genealogy: 1955 - 1976
Story 6:  The Rise of  Venture   Capital
The Real Story  of Silicon Valley History 1910 1960 1970 1980 2000 1990 Innovation Networks 1930 1940 1950 1920 Venture  Capital Microwaves/ Defense Personal Computers Integrated Circuits Internet Test Equipment Vacuum Tubes
The Rise of Risk Capital Family Money  1940’s - 1960’s ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Valley Attracts Financial Attention The 1st West Coast IPO’s ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Rise of Risk Capital   SBIC Act of  1958 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Rise of Venture Capital   The Limited Partnership ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Rise of Risk Capital   1978/1979  - A  Watershed ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Venture Capital Silicon Valley’s 2 nd  Wave Entrepreneurs Venture Finance Crisis Profit Motivation 24/7 Utilities Predictable Economic System Infrastructure Stable Legal System Research Universities Risk Taking Culture Entrepreneurial Outward-Facing Tech Universities Free flow of People/Info Customer  Development Mgmt Tools Agile Development Business Model Design Design  Thinking
Summary ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]

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Secret History: Why Stanford and Not Berkeley?

  • 1. The Secret History of Silicon Valley: Why Stanford and Not Berkeley? Read the Blog www.steveblank.com Read the Backstory http://bit.ly/SecretStories Steve Blank @sgblank 24 Feb 2011
  • 2.
  • 3. The Popular View of Silicon Valley History 1910 1960 1970 1980 2000 1990 Innovation Networks 1930 1940 1950 1920 Steve Jobs Moore/Noyce Marc Andreessen Hewlett & Packard Fruit Orchards Personal Computers Integrated Circuits Internet Fruit Orchards Fruit Orchards
  • 4. The Real Story of Silicon Valley History 1910 1960 1970 1980 2000 1990 Innovation Networks 1930 1940 1950 1920 Venture Capital Microwaves / Defense Personal Computers Integrated Circuits Internet Test Equipment Vacuum Tubes
  • 5. Story 1: WWII The First Electronic War
  • 6.
  • 7.
  • 8.
  • 9. British/American Air War in Western Europe 28,000 Active Combat Planes 40,000 Allied planes lost or damaged beyond repair: ( 46 000 planes lost by the USSR in the East) 160,000 Americans and British killed, wounded or captured
  • 10.  
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16.
  • 17.
  • 18.  
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21.
  • 22.
  • 23.
  • 24.
  • 25.
  • 26.
  • 27.
  • 28.  
  • 29.  
  • 30. Not many clear days a month in winter over Europe How did they see the target?
  • 31.
  • 32. Math Challenge For every 100 bombers on a mission 4 - 20% would not return Crews had to fly 25 mission to go home
  • 33. Story 2: The Electronic Shield – Electronic Warfare
  • 34.
  • 35.
  • 36. Using ELINT to Map Radar Coverage
  • 37.
  • 38.
  • 39. Electronic Warfare 1944/45 chaff ELINT GCI Jamming Flak Jamming
  • 40.
  • 41.
  • 42. Story 3: Berkeley Applies Physics
  • 43.
  • 44.
  • 45. Berkeley Theory and Experimental Physics
  • 46. Story 4: Stanford And The Cold War
  • 47.
  • 48.
  • 49.
  • 50.
  • 51.  
  • 52.
  • 53.
  • 54.
  • 55.
  • 56.
  • 57.
  • 58. Stanford and the Cold War Silicon Valley’s 1 st Wave Entrepreneurs Weapons Finance Crisis Profit Motivation 24/7 Utilities Predictable Economic System Infrastructure Stable Legal System Research Universities Risk Taking Culture Entrepreneurial Outward-Facing Tech Universities Free flow of People/Info Customer Development Mgmt Tools Agile Development Business Model Design Design Thinking
  • 59. Story 4: Berkeley and the Cold War
  • 60.
  • 61.
  • 62. Story 5: 1956 – Lockheed Comes to Town & We Become Silicon Valley
  • 63.
  • 64. Lockheed and WS-117L NRO - Move Reconnaissance to Space Program A: Air Force - imaging and sigint Program B: CIA - Imaging electroopitcal and sigint Program C: Navy signit Program D: U-2, A-12/Oxcart, D-21/Tagboard SAMOS/SENTRY MIDAS - Program 461 IR - Launch Detection CORONA Imaging VELA Nuclear Detection Program P-11/ 989 SAMOS F-1/2/3 ELINT/SIGINT
  • 65. Meanwhile, on the Other Side of Town… The Head of Radar Bombing training for Air Force starts a Company
  • 66. The Real Story of Silicon Valley History 1910 1960 1970 1980 2000 1990 Innovation Networks 1930 1940 1950 1920 Venture Capital Microwaves/ Defense Personal Computers Integrated Circuits Internet Test Equipment Vacuum Tubes
  • 67.
  • 68.
  • 69.  
  • 71. Story 6: The Rise of Venture Capital
  • 72. The Real Story of Silicon Valley History 1910 1960 1970 1980 2000 1990 Innovation Networks 1930 1940 1950 1920 Venture Capital Microwaves/ Defense Personal Computers Integrated Circuits Internet Test Equipment Vacuum Tubes
  • 73.
  • 74.
  • 75.
  • 76.
  • 77.
  • 78. Venture Capital Silicon Valley’s 2 nd Wave Entrepreneurs Venture Finance Crisis Profit Motivation 24/7 Utilities Predictable Economic System Infrastructure Stable Legal System Research Universities Risk Taking Culture Entrepreneurial Outward-Facing Tech Universities Free flow of People/Info Customer Development Mgmt Tools Agile Development Business Model Design Design Thinking
  • 79.

Notes de l'éditeur

  1. Silicon Valley has gone through several waves of innovation. Each wave of technology helped shape the next one. All are well understood except for one - Silicon Valley’s role in the defense industry. I’m going to tell you that story as I understand it.
  2. Silicon Valley has gone through several waves of innovation. Each wave of technology helped shape the next one. All are well understood except for one - Silicon Valley’s role in the defense industry. I’m going to tell you that story as I understand it.
  3. The surprise for me is that every war movie you ever saw about WWII was simply wrong. The directors and screenwriters did not know- even today - what I’m about to tell you - WWII was the first electronic war.
  4. Just a bit of history. By 1940 Germany had overrun Europe. Britain stood alone until the U.S. entered the war Dec 7th 1941. Beginning in 1942 the goal of the US and Britain was to destroy the German industrial infrastructure by bombing Germany and occupied Europe from bases in Britain and to destroy: Transportation, petroleum, aircraft manufacturer, and euphemistically to “dehouse” the population.
  5. Just a bit of history. By 1940 Germany had overrun Europe. Britain stood alone until the U.S. entered the war Dec 7th 1941. Beginning in 1942 the goal of the US and Britain was to destroy the German industrial infrastructure by bombing Germany and occupied Europe from bases in Britain and to destroy: Transportation, petroleum, aircraft manufacturer, and euphemistically to “dehouse” the population.
  6. 46 000 planes lost by the USSR in this war. German planes lost in war with USA/Britain: 23 895 German planes lost in war with USSR: 52 850 ꀾ
  7. Allied Air War in Western Europe Strategic Bombing Campaign 28,000 Active Allied Combat Planes 40,000 planes lost/destroyed: 18,000 American and 22,000 British 80,000 Americans and 80,000 British killed
  8. By 1941 the Germans had built a formidable electronic screen.
  9. As the planes crossed the English channel and got over occupied Europe they encountered the Himmelbelt. An integrated local air defense network. Each box of 20 by 30 miles had radars, flak (or anti aircraft guns, fighters, and in the night-searchlights). This network was to track, target and destroy the incoming bombers. At first the British sent in their planes one at a time in order to force the defenses to be spread as far apart as possible, meaning that any one aircraft would have to deal with little concentrated flak. However this also meant the Himmelbett centers were only dealing with perhaps one or two planes at a time, making their job much easier. Bomber Command reorganized their attacks into streams of bombers, carefully positioned so the stream would fly right down the middle of a cell.
  10. Each Himmelbett zone, had a Freya radar Unlike the early-warning Freya, W ur zburg's were accurate (and complex) tracking radars. One would be locked onto the night fighter as soon as it entered the cell. After the Freya picked up a target the second W ur zburg would lock onto it, thereby allowing controllers in the Himmelbett center to get continual readings on the positions of both planes, controlling them to a visual interception. Later additions added the short-range Lichtenstein radar to the aircraft, allowing them to detect the aircraft once the operators had directed them into the general area.
  11. Here’s a Freya on the right and a Freya with a Wurzburg on the left
  12. About 40% of the bomber losses were from flak.
  13. About 60% of the bomber losses were from fighters.
  14. Each Himmelbett zone, had a Freya radar Unlike the early-warning Freya, W ur zburg's were accurate (and complex) tracking radars. One would be locked onto the night fighter as soon as it entered the cell. After the Freya picked up a target the second W ur zburg would lock onto it, thereby allowing controllers in the Himmelbett center to get continual readings on the positions of both planes, controlling them to a visual interception. Later additions added the short-range Lichtenstein radar to the aircraft, allowing them to detect the aircraft once the operators had directed them into the general area.
  15. resembled a movie theater with bleacher seats map of the battle area
  16. Each Himmelbett zone, had a Freya radar Unlike the early-warning Freya, W ur zburg's were accurate (and complex) tracking radars. One would be locked onto the night fighter as soon as it entered the cell. After the Freya picked up a target the second W ur zburg would lock onto it, thereby allowing controllers in the Himmelbett center to get continual readings on the positions of both planes, controlling them to a visual interception. Later additions added the short-range Lichtenstein radar to the aircraft, allowing them to detect the aircraft once the operators had directed them into the general area.
  17. These antennas are the first airborne radars on fighters. By the end of the war all the German night fighters had them.
  18. I mention this because these radars will figure in one of our later stories.
  19. "XARD" SIGINT receiver 50 MHz to 1 GHz SCR-587 "AN/APR-2" scanning receiver
  20. ‪ The wizards of Langley: inside the CIA's Directorate of Science and Technology ‬ By Jeffrey T. Richelson page 87-89
  21. Silicon Valley has gone through several waves of innovation. Each wave of technology helped shape the next one. All are well understood except for one - Silicon Valley’s role in the defense industry. I’m going to tell you that story as I understand it.
  22. Silicon Valley has gone through several waves of innovation. Each wave of technology helped shape the next one. All are well understood except for one - Silicon Valley’s role in the defense industry. I’m going to tell you that story as I understand it.
  23. 1961 - Arthur Rock (former investment banker at Hayden, Stone & Co. (arranged financing for Fairchild Semiconductor in 1957), Thomas J. Davis, Jr. (former VP of Kern County Land Company responsible for investing land trust's royalties) formed Davis & Rock in San Francisco, CA as partnership (not SBIC or publicly-held); raised $5 million (capital gains split 80/20 between limited partners/general partners); 1968 - partnership dissolved (generated $90 million in capital gains, 54% compound growth rate; Teledyne, Scientific Data Systems biggest hits); first venture capitalist on the West Coast; July 16, 1968 - launched Intel with Bob Noyce (group vice president of Fairchild Semiconductor), Gordon Moore (head of Fairchild Semiconductor's R&D division).
  24. 1961 - Arthur Rock (former investment banker at Hayden, Stone & Co. (arranged financing for Fairchild Semiconductor in 1957), Thomas J. Davis, Jr. (former VP of Kern County Land Company responsible for investing land trust's royalties) formed Davis & Rock in San Francisco, CA as partnership (not SBIC or publicly-held); raised $5 million (capital gains split 80/20 between limited partners/general partners); 1968 - partnership dissolved (generated $90 million in capital gains, 54% compound growth rate; Teledyne, Scientific Data Systems biggest hits); first venture capitalist on the West Coast; July 16, 1968 - launched Intel with Bob Noyce (group vice president of Fairchild Semiconductor), Gordon Moore (head of Fairchild Semiconductor's R&D division).