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FAMACHA For the Control of Barber Pole Worm (Haemonchus contortus) in Small Ruminants

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FAMACHA For the Control of Barber Pole Worm (Haemonchus contortus) in Small Ruminants

  1. 1. Extending knowledge. Changing lives. Leyla Rios de Alvarez, MSc. PhD. Assistant Professor Extension & Research Sheep and Goat Specialist Mississippi State University leyla.rios@msstate.edu For the Control of Barber Pole Worm (Haemonchus contortus) in Small Ruminants Statewide Training for Small Ruminant Producers Brandon J. McClenton, PhD. Extension Agent for Clay County Mississippi State University b.mcclenton@msstate.edu FAMACHA©
  2. 2. Life Cycle Gastrointestinal Nematodes Short life cycle. On average 2 to 3 weeks, and as short as 7 days Has a direct life cycle. No intermediate host is required L1 L2 L3
  3. 3. Gastrointestinal parasites (Worms/Nematodes) are the primary health problem affecting sheep and goats in the world Control of Internal Parasites
  4. 4. The Barber Pole Worm is the parasite of primary concern in the U.S. Barber Pole Worm
  5. 5. Haemonchus contortus • Common names: barber pole, wire worm, large stomach worm. • Blood-sucking roundworm that pierces the mucosa of the abomasum, causing blood and protein loss to the host.
  6. 6. Haemonchus contortus • Needs warm (60°F), moist conditions to complete its life cycle. • Pasture is the primary mode of transmission. –It is estimated that 80% of the worm larvae is found in the first two inches of grazing vegetation.
  7. 7. Haemonchus contortus • Young animals and highly stressed adults are most vulnerable to its effects.
  8. 8. Barber Pole Worm Control • Is a prolific egg producer. Has been estimated that 30% of the flock is responsible for 70% of the egg output • Is very adaptable. Can go into a hypobiotic (arrested) state in the animal to survive poor environmental conditions
  9. 9. Non-favorable conditions https://www.foodnewslatam.com/sectores/66-carnicos/8514-socializaci%C3%B3n-de- resultados-de-investigaci%C3%B3n-en-ovinos-y-caprinos.html
  10. 10. Non-favorable conditions https://mosesorganic.org/silvopasture/
  11. 11. Barber Pole Worm Control • Is very resilient Can survive on pasture for a long time 60 days pasture rest is needed to reduce pasture contamination to a low level Some larvae survive over winter Has become resistant to most anthelmintics THE PROBLEM TODAY!
  12. 12. Barber Pole Worm Count
  13. 13. Symptoms of Barber Pole Worm Infection… • Death • Loss of Body Condition • Anemia (pale mucous membranes) • Edema – “bottle jaw” accumulation of fluid under jaw
  14. 14. Parasite Management for Small Ruminants What is FAMACHA©?
  15. 15. What is FAMACHA??? • A novel system for monitoring barber pole worm infection in small ruminants • Developed in South Africa due to the widespread emergence of drug resistant worms • Originally developed for South African sheep, but has been validated for sheep and goats in the United States
  16. 16. What is FAMACHA??? • An eye chart for evaluating clinical anemia Anemia is the primary symptom of barber pole worm infection • FAMACHA© enables selective deworming of clinically parasitized animals, while leaving healthy animals untreated
  17. 17. What is FAMACHA??? Clinical Category Color Deworming recommendation 1 Red No 2 Red-Pink No 3 Pink ? 4 Pink-White Yes 5 White Yes
  18. 18. What FAMACHA does…  Reduces the number of animals dewormed (though some may need treating more often)  Saves money on drugs  Reduces drug use  Reduces selection for resistant worms, by increasing refugia: (worms not exposed to drugs) Prolongs effectiveness of anthelmintics
  19. 19. What FAMACHA does…  Identifies susceptible and resistant animals in the flock (parasite resistance is moderately heritable)  Assists with selection and culling decisions  Adds value to breeding stock
  20. 20. How to make FAMACHA work • Always use the card • Do not use a copy of the card • Keep card in location where it will not fade • Check flock often (every 2-3 weeks during the “worm” season) • Have an easy way to handle your animals
  21. 21. What FAMACHA will not do... 1)Eliminate the need for other parasite control practices 2)Save you time –You may deworm less frequently, but you’ll spend more time checking your animals 3)Help with other potential parasite problems –Other GI worms –Coccidia, etc.
  22. 22. FAMACHA© is not a magic bullet used to solve all problems. It is another tool to use in a small ruminant management program.
  23. 23. Classes of Dewormers The three general classes of dewormers are benzimidazoles, Levamisole and Macrolytic Lactones
  24. 24. Classes of Dewormers I-Benzimidazole - Fenbendazole (Safeguard, Panacur) and Albendazole (Valbazen) II-Levamisole - Levisol, Tramisol and Morantel Tartrate (Rumatel) III-Macrolytic Lactones - Ivermectin (Ivomec) and Moxidectin (Cydectin) Only Fenbendazole, Albendazole and Morantel Tartrate were approved for use in small ruminants. Others have been used as extra-label. A number of dewormers have gone off- patent now and are marketed under different generic names
  25. 25. Resistance The major problem in controlling parasitism in small ruminants is genetic resistance to most all dewormers Resistance has developed primarily due to dewormers being used and rotated too frequently. Many times under-dosing occurs Continued rotation of dewormers will increase selection of more resistant worms in animals which will result in a population of "superworms" that can not be controlled with drugs
  26. 26. Resistance Resistance is genetically controlled, and once established, set in the population. Those dewormers can no longer be used effectively. Only change dewormers when one does not work, then change between classes of dewormers. *New research has Indicated use of two products at once may be more effective*
  27. 27. We are currently seeing that worms have become resistant to most of the anthelmintics. As a rule of thumb, 70% of parasite infection comes from 30% of the flock. Identify resistant genetics in your flock! Cull parasite carriers! Resistance to Anthelmintics
  28. 28. Only 3 drug families!  Benzimidazoles  Levamisoles  Macrolytic Lactones Resistance occurs when anthelmintic treatment fails to reduce worm egg count by 90%. Severe resistance exists when anthelmintic reduces egg count by less than 60% Resistance to Anthelmintics
  29. 29. New research indicates that use of two different type of dewormers at the same time can increase the effectiveness of both and eliminate more resistant parasites as a result. Use of Two Dewormers….
  30. 30. If two drugs each with 90% efficacy are used in rotation, then each time animals are treated, 10% of the worms survive (the resistant ones). In contrast, if these same two drugs are used in combination at the same time, then the efficacy increases to 99%. Use of Two Dewormers….
  31. 31. Administration of Dewormers Oral administration is preferred; and with drenches, it is very important to make sure the product is delivered over the base of the tongue By doing so, the dose is delivered to the rumen and then distributed evenly throughout the gastrointestinal tract
  32. 32. Administration of Dewormers The other form of oral administration is in feed products. This does not ensure that all animals will receive an effective dose because Individual animals utilize these products differently
  33. 33. Sustainable parasite control vs. Integrated parasite control vs. Targeted selective treatment
  34. 34. Sustainable parasite control & Integrated parasite control Sustainable parasite control: minimize animal production loss, preventing parasitic diseases, avoiding anthelmintic resistance (Besier, 2012). Uses the REFUGIA concept. Integrated Parasite control: somehow is a sustainable parasite control that integrates chemical and nonchemical options (Kahn and Woodgate, 2012). Smart use of anthelmintics includes knowledge on host physiology, anthelmintic pharmacokinetics, parasite biology, and the status of anthelmintic resistance on the farm. This increases the efficacy of treatments, and reduces the drug resistance (Kaplan, 2004)
  35. 35. Sustainable parasite control & Integrated parasite control The use of multiple approaches includes: • Pasture management * Adequate rotation/rest periods. * Multi-species grazing. * Use of bioactive forages * Tall forages and browse. * Forage susceptible animals (lambs) on clean pastures. • Animal selection * Breeds with resistance to parasitism * Cull wormy animals • Selective deworming (only treating animals that need it) * Use FAMACHA© * Be alert to other physical signs and deworm as needed. • Strategic deworming * Deworm ewes at lambing time. * Treat lambs because they have little resistance. * Deworm all new animals. • Novel treatments: * Copper wire boluses. * Use of nematophagus fungi (Duddingtonia flagrans, BioWorma®). Hale and Coffey (2010)
  36. 36. Strategic Parasite Control Prevention is the best method for controlling parasites Successful parasite control means reducing or eliminating environmental contamination:
  37. 37. Strategic Parasite Control Steps should include several key goals 1) Animals should be as free of parasites during periods of low or reduced nutrition such as during the wintertime 2) The females should be free of parasites at kidding/lambing time 3) Recontamination of spring pastures should be eliminated for the first three months of the grazing season
  38. 38. Keep in mind that regularly deworming all of your flock is not a sustainable practice. You need to be selectively deworming your goats and sheep. Sustainable Practice
  39. 39. • Pasture rest/rotation • Safe pastures • Multi-species grazing • Management of grazing height • Alternative forages/treatments • Nutritional supplementation • Zero grazing • Fecal egg analysis • Proper anthelmintic use • Selective deworming Integrated Parasite Management (IPM)
  40. 40. Targeted selective treatment TST is deworming only those animals that really requires being dewormed, uses productive performance (milk production) (Hoste et al., 2002) or daily gain weight, other indicators such as anaemia (van Wyk and Bath, 2002) (FAMACHA) and body condition. TST keeps REFUGIA: population of parasites not exposed to anthelmintic that survive and “dilute” in the environment those resistant parasites that survived treatment. Avoiding only resistant parasites to infect most of the flock.
  41. 41. https://www.bimectin.com/responsible-use-exports/responsible-anthelmintic-use-resistance REFUGIA
  42. 42. Five point check© The Five Point Check© for targeted selective treatment of internal parasites in small ruminants by G.F. BathJ.A. van Wyk. Small Ruminant Research 86 (2009) 6–13
  43. 43. Score cards for the five points The Five Point Check© for targeted selective treatment of internal parasites in small ruminants by G.F. BathJ.A. van Wyk. Small Ruminant Research 86 (2009) 6–13
  44. 44. Source: Russell, 1984. Farm Practice, Body condition scoring of sheep
  45. 45. Five point check© The Five Point Check© for targeted selective treatment of internal parasites in small ruminants by G.F. BathJ.A. van Wyk. Small Ruminant Research 86 (2009) 6–13
  46. 46. Use of Bioactive Forages
  47. 47. Residues in food Environment problems Alternative control Parasite control Antihelmintic drugs Genetic selection Vaccines Biological control controliológico Bioactive Forages Lectins Tannins Saponnins Parasite Resistance Gastrointestinal parasites
  48. 48. Bioactive Forages Plant secondary metabolites (PSM) Compounds with protection function for plants, such as:  Tannins  Alkaloids  Saponins  Lectins
  49. 49. Bioactive Forages Tropical Temperate Sainfoin Clover (Trifolium sp.) Crotalaria sp. Sericea lespedeza Garlic (Allium sativum) Tropical leguminous
  50. 50. Parasite Control… Control and prevention need to be planned –Select animals for parasite resistance –Grazing management • Don’t let grass get lower than 4” • Longer rest periods help break the cycle (>40 days) –Strategic deworming program –FAMACHA
  51. 51. Other Parasites… “Cousins” of the barber pole worm cause digestive problems, e.g. scouring –Teladorsagia circumcincta –Trichostrongylus spp. –Nematodirus Tapeworms- Only worm that is visible in the feces
  52. 52. Haemonchus contortus Teladorsagia circumcincta Link: http://www.goatbiology.com/animations/haem.html Trichostrongylus colubriformis Gastrointestinal parasites of small ruminants
  53. 53. Other Parasites… Lungworms- Difficult to detect in live animal Coccidia- Eimeria spp. Protozoa, major disease issue in small ruminants Meningeal worm- Parasite of white tail deer, causes neurological symptoms The FAMACHA© system is not useful for any of these other parasites
  54. 54. Management Considerations… • Predator Control • Fencing • Shelter • Parasite Control • Pasture & Grazing Management
  55. 55. Predator Control… Guard dog and fencing that is 5 - 8 wire high tensile power fence or net wire with wider mesh.
  56. 56. Fencing… High Tensile electric/power –5-8 wire perimeter at least 40”-42” tall, the bottom wire 6”-8” from the ground and 6”- 12” spacing between wires –2-6 wire interior –Ground rods every 1,300’-2,600’
  57. 57. Fencing…
  58. 58. Fencing… Woven Wire (Galvanized high tensile is available) –39” tall and at least 1 barbed strand –6”x12” mesh is preferred to minimize horns being caught –May run an electric offset wire 12”-15” from the ground to reduce animals getting caught or climbing on fence
  59. 59. Fencing…
  60. 60. Shelter… Goats and sheep need some type of shelter from rain and other extremes
  61. 61. Grazing & Pasture Management Another Tool in Parasite Management
  62. 62. Grazing Management Objectives… • Manage forage to meet goat/sheep nutritional needs • Manage internal parasite levels • Maintain pasture condition
  63. 63. Utilize Proper Stocking Rates… Lower stocking rates and higher residuals will generally have less of a parasite build up in the pasture
  64. 64. How Many Per Acre? Stocking rates vary by: –Pasture quality –Rainfall –Forage species –Time of year –Soil fertility –Amount of supplementation –Grazing management (continuous, rotational or intensive)
  65. 65. Stocking rate… 6-8 head per acre is usually a safe stocking rate on well managed pastures for small ruminants
  66. 66. Grazing Preferences… Goats –Prefer browse over grass –Prefer forbs over grass –Prefer grass over clover –Prefer taller plants –Tend to graze perimeter before center of pasture –Graze from the top down
  67. 67. Grazing Preferences… Sheep –Prefer grass over browse –Prefer grass over forbs –Prefer grass and clover
  68. 68. Grazing Preferences… Percentage Diet Preference of Sheep and Goats Sheep Goats Grass 60 20 Weeds 30 20 Browse 10 60 Susan Schoenian. Copyright© 2011. Sheep 101 and 201.
  69. 69. Utilize Grazing Behavior… Higher from the ground animals graze, the less likely they are to pick up parasite larvae High tannin diets reduce reproduction of internal parasites
  70. 70. Utilize Grazing Behavior… Plants with high tannins or compounds that help control internal parasites Sericea lespedeza Annual Lespedeza Birdsfoot trefoil Arrowleaf Clover Berseem Clover Crown Vetch Chicory Oak Leaves Walnut Leaves Mulberry Mimosa Acacia Autum Olive Multiflora-Rose
  71. 71. Spring Grazing… Keep pasture vegetative Rotate frequently to increase the intake of high- quality plants and prevent regrowth from being eaten too soon Rest pastures 20-30-days to allow plants time to recover
  72. 72. Summer Grazing… Try to have cool season pastures fully utilized by the end of June and then rest all summer if possible Graze warm season grasses such as lespedeza, chicory, etc.
  73. 73. Fall/Winter Grazing… Start using cool season pastures –By this time they have had 60-90 days of rest during the summer –Defer grazing on some pastures to stockpile for winter grazing
  74. 74. Fall/Winter Grazing… Allow warm season pastures to rest all winter Rotate similar to spring but stay in each pasture a little longer to give a longer rest period (35-40) days –Forage quality won’t drop as quickly in the fall Utilize stockpiled grasses for winter feeding –Strip graze to improve utilization
  76. 76. A Healthy Animal is a Happy Animal!

Notes de l'éditeur

  • I can begin here BJ if its ok for you
  • Refugia-based strategies for sustainable worm control: Factors affecting the acceptability to sheep and goat owners
    Besier, R.B.

    Integrated parasite management: Products for adoption by the Australian sheep industry
    L.P.Kahn, R.G.Woodgate, 2012

    Responding to the emergence of multiple-drug resistant Haemonchus contortus: Smart drenching and FAMACHA®
    R.M. Kaplan, 2004

  • By Margo Hale, Linda Coffey NCAT Program Specialists Ann Bartlett, Chelsey Ahrens NCAT Interns © 2010 NCAT
    . Sheep: Sustainable and Organic Production By Margo Hale, Linda Coff ey NCAT Program Specialists Ann Bartlett, Chelsey Ahrens NCAT Interns © 2010 NCAT

  • NO ROTATION OF DEWORMERS because you Will be exposing worms to all the compounds


  • .By minimising exposure to drug, refugia-based control strategies aim to conserve susceptible alleles within the parasite population. The resulting mixture of resistant and susceptible genotypes on pasture should then allow the potential for cross-breeding and/or dilute the frequency of resistant genotypes within a population
  • IN PRACTICE 91 . MAY 1984
    Farm Practice
    Body condition scoring
    of sheep
    by Angus Russel
  • Nematode species
    H. contortus (abomasum),
    T. circumcincta (abomasum) and
    T. colubriformis (small intestine)
    All are from the superfamily Trichostrongyloidea.