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Management of Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants

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Management of Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants

  1. 1. Management of internal parasites in small ruminants SUSAN SCHOENIAN Sheep & Goat Specialist University of Maryland Extension sschoen@umd.edu | wormx.info
  2. 2. Situation • Parasites are the primary health problem affecting small ruminants in warm, moist climates. • Worms have developed varying degrees of resistance to all of the dewormer drugs and dewormer classes. • Effective parasite control requires an integrated approach that combines management (mostly) with drug therapy (selective).
  3. 3. Two primary kinds of internal parasites that affect small ruminants HELMINTHS (WORMS) 1. Nematodes Roundworms 2. Cestodes Flatworms Tapeworms 3. Trematodes Flukes PROTOZOA (SINGLE-CELL) 1. Coccidia 2. Giardia 3. Cryptosporidium 4. Toxoplasma gondii
  4. 4. Roundworms | Nematodes | “Strongyles” PRIMARY IMPORTANCE 1. Haemonchus contortus Barber pole worm 2. Trichostrongylus spp. Scour worms 3. Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) Brown stomach worm OTHER ROUNDWORMS • Nematodirus Thread-necked worm • Oesophagostomum spp. Nodule worm • Strongyloides (skin penetration) Threadworm • Cooperia Small intestinal worms • Lungworms • Parelaphostrongylus tenuis Meningeal worm***
  5. 5. Roundworms Nematodes “Strongyles” • Mixed infections common • Short, indirect life cycles, ~21 days • Ability to undergo hypobiosis in order to survive unfavorable weather. • Eggs look the same. Need to hatch eggs to identify species from larvae.
  6. 6. Barber pole worm Haemonchus contortus • Primary parasite affecting small ruminants during grazing season. • Blood sucking nematode (abomasum): very pathogenic • Causes blood loss (anemia), bottle jaw, weight loss, (not diarrhea) • Acute or chronic disease progression • Very prolific egg layer
  7. 7. Trichostrongyles and Teladorsagia Scour worms • Usually part of mixed infections with Haemonchus • Sometimes primary infection • Similar life cycle, less prolific egg layers, lower egg counts • Causes digestive upset: loss of body condition and weight and scours (diarrhea, dags). • Productivity losses
  8. 8. Cestodes Flatworms Tapeworms Moniezia expansa • Diagnosed by seeing segments in the feces; usually only visible worm in the feces. • Indirect life cycle (pasture mite) • Tend to be non-pathogenic. • Immunity developed at early age. • Usually, no treatment benefit. • Less common: mild ill thrift, intestinal blockages, gut mobility issues (enterotoxemia). • Treat with specific dewormers: albendazole (Valbazen®), fenbendazole (SafeGuard®), and praziquantel (in horse dewormers).
  9. 9. Meningeal worm Deer/brain worm Parelaphostrongylus • Parasite of white tail deer • Indirect life cycle (snails, slugs) • Sheep, goats, and camelids are unnatural (dead end) hosts. • Parasite causes various neurological symptoms in abnormal host: hindquarter weakness, intense itching, paralysis. • Treat for five days with high doses of fenbendazole (SafeGuard®) and anti-inflammatories (Dexamethasone or Banamine®). • Help Prevent with monthly ivermectin (Rx) injections.
  10. 10. Coccidia Eimeria spp. • Single cell protozoan parasite • Host-specific • Not all strains pathogenic • Causes scours and general ill thrift in lambs/kids, 1-6 months • Most common in intensively- raised animals, but outbreaks on pasture are not uncommon.
  11. 11. Coccidiosis PREVENTION • Good management/sanitation • Coccidiostats** in feed, mineral, water, and/or milk replacer 1) Lasalocid (Bovatec®) - sheep 2) Monensin (Rumensin®) - goats 3) Decoquinate (Deccox®) - both 4) Amprolium (Corid®) - extra label better as a treatment • Natural: sericea lespedeza** TREATMENT • Amprolium (Corid®) Over-the-counter, but extra label • Sulfa antibiotics (e.g., Di-Methox®) Obtain from a vet, extra label • Ponazuril (Marquis®) Prescription, extra label, $$$ • Other – drugs used elsewhere in world (toltrazuril, diclazuril) **Need to feed several weeks before risk period. Can be toxic to equines! 
  12. 12. Anthelmintic (dewormer) resistance • Worms have developed resistance to all dewormers and dewormer classes. • Resistance varies by farm and geographic area. • While inevitable, resistance was accelerated by over and sometimes misuse of drugs. • Can determine resistance with fecal egg count reduction tests and larval development assay (DrenchRite® test @LSU). 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Benzimidazoles Ivermectin Levamisole Moxidectin Maryland Virginia Georgia
  13. 13. Integrated parasite management (IPM) MANAGEMENT • Host immunity • Husbandry • Pasture and grazing management • Manage periparturient egg rise • Nutrition • Genetic selection • BioWorma® DRUGS • Proper dewormer use • Targeted selective treatment (TST) – or non treatment • FAMACHA© system • Five Point Check© • Performance criteria  • Manage dewormer resistance
  14. 14. Host immunity • Sheep/goats will eventually develop immunity to parasites. • Sheep sooner and more complete than goats • Resistant breeds/animals sooner than susceptible breeds/animals. • Sooner for some parasites (e.g., tapeworms and coccidia) • Sheep/goats need continuous exposure to parasites to develop and maintain immunity. • Age, nutrition, and reproductive status/level all have impact on immunity (susceptibility) to parasitic disease.
  15. 15. Most susceptible animals • Less than six months of age/exposure • Poor nutrition • Other diseases or stresses • Yearling with > 2 offspring • Mature female with > 3 offspring • Poor nutrition • Other diseases or stresses
  16. 16. More resistant breeds SHEEP • Hair sheep of Caribbean origin St. Croix, Barbados Blackbelly • Hair sheep composites Katahdin, Royal White®(?), Dorper • Wool sheep native to Southeast Gulf Coast Native, Florida Cracker • Terminal sire Texel GOATS (less documentation) • Landrace breeds Myotonic, Spanish • Kiko • Savanna (?) • Boer • Dairy goats • Angora goats
  17. 17. Good Husbandry • Good sanitation: feed, water, bedding • Control other diseases • Lamb/kid at times of the year (or places) where/when parasites are less active. • Don’t wean pasture-reared lambs/kids too early, < 120 days • Quarantine drenching: don’t introduce resistant worms to your farm.
  18. 18. Pasture and grazing management • Short grazing periods (< 4 days) + Long rest periods ~60 days • Clean or low risk pastures • Minimum grazing heights • Taller growing forages • Browsing (esp. for goats) • Mixed swards • Forages containing condensed tannins (esp. Sericea lespedeza: AU Grazer) • Multi-species grazing • Haying and cropping • Supplementation (protein, energy)
  19. 19. Zero grazing Dry lot or confinement • Sheep/goats raised in confinement usually do not have problems with parasites (worms). • No source of infection or reinfection • Dry lots must contain no vegetation, even on edges • Coccidia can still be a problem since it is transmitted via feces.
  20. 20. The periparturient egg rise (PPER) • Relaxation of immunity (to worms and coccidia) around the time of parturition (2 weeks before to 8 weeks after). • Increased egg and oocyte counts. • More pronounced in susceptible breeds, first timers, and females with multiple births. • Primary source of infection for lambs/kids that graze same pastures.
  21. 21. Managing the periparturient egg rise
  22. 22. Nutritional aspects of parasitism • Parasitism has been documented to cause a 10-20% reduction in in feed intake. • Nutritionally-stressed animals are more susceptible to parasites. • Thin animals (<2 BCS) are more susceptible to parasites. • Supplemental protein and energy enhances immune response to parasites. • Vitamins and minerals also important. CORRECT DEFICIENCIES IN DIET
  23. 23. Genetic selection PARASITE RESISTANCE = FECAL EGG COUNT Three options 1) Central performance tests that evaluate rams/bucks for parasite resistance 2) Estimated breeding values (EBVs) for parasite resistance (via NSIP). 3) On-farm selection for parasite resistance. All methods require sufficient exposure to parasites (high enough egg counts and big enough spread in egg counts).
  24. 24. BioWorma® (Duddingtonia flagrans) • Fungus that traps and kills roundworm larvae in manure of animals. • Reduces reinfection of pastures, resulting in cleaner pastures.
  25. 25. Two BioWorma® products available BIOWORMA® • Feed additive that contains 34 percent fungus. • Dosage is 0.1 oz per 100 lbs. • Needs to be mixed in a batch of feed or supplement. • Distribution limited to veterinarians and EPA- certified feed mixers and manufacturers. LIVAMOL® + BIOWORMA® • Nutritional supplement (16% CP) that contains 2.2% fungus. • Dosage is 1.6 oz per 100 lbs. • Ready-to-use product • Mix or top dress on feed • Anyone can purchase
  26. 26. How to feed BioWorma® MANUFACTURER • Feed when parasites are active, above 40 degrees F. • Feed to most susceptible animals in flock/herd. 1) Periparturient females 2) Lambs/kids AMERICAN CONSORTIUM FOR SMALL RUMINANT PARASITE CONTROL • Feed for at least 60 days. • Pending research • Feed every other day • Feed for two weeks out of month • Incorporate into mineral mix
  27. 27. Product Cost Amount per oz oz/day $/day $/month $/90 days Livamol® $ 89.50 15-lb. pail $ 0.37 1.6 $ 0.60 $ 17.90 $ 53.70 Livamol® $ 78.75 15-lb bulk $ 0.33 1.6 $ 0.53 $ 15.75 $ 47.25 Livamol® $ 149.50 30-lb. pail $ 0.31 1.6 $ 0.50 $ 14.95 $ 44.85 Livamol® $ 126.00 30-lb. bulk $ 0.26 1.6 $ 0.42 $ 12.60 $ 37.80 BioWorma® $ 345.00 10-lb. pail $ 2.16 0.1 $ 0.22 $ 6.47 $ 19.41 BioWorma® $ 325.00 10-lb. bulk $ 2.03 0.1 $ 0.20 $ 6.09 $ 18.28 Feed 2 wk/mo $ 325.00 10-lb. bulk $ 2.03 0.1 $ 0.20 $ 3.05 $ 9.14 Cost of feeding BioWorma® (excluding shipping) Premier 1 Sheep Supplies, 9.12.21
  28. 28. Copper oxide wire particles (COWP)
  29. 29. Proper deworming • All oral treatments (drenching) • All drench formulations • Deworm with oral dosing syringe with long metal nozzle and bent tip (or backpack drench gun with same). • Deposit drug over tongue into gullet. • Higher dosages for goats • Low stress handling • Proper storage of dewormers
  30. 30. Targeted selective treatment (TST) or non-treatment • Only deworming those that require treatment or would benefit most from treatment. • Leaving a portion of the flock/herd untreated. • Reduces deworming • Increases “refugia”: worms that have not been exposed to drug; thus, remain susceptible to treatment. • Allows animals to develop immunity
  31. 31. Decision-making tools for TST “Chute-side” 1) FAMACHA© eye anemia system 2) Five Point Check© 3) Performance 4) Fecal egg count
  32. 32. FAMACHA© eye anemia system
  33. 33. Five Point Check© • An extension of the FAMACHA© system. • Includes criteria for all worms that commonly affect small ruminants. • Five check points on animal’s body. • Consider all five points when making deworming decisions. 1. Eye (anemia) 2. Jaw (swelling) 3. Back (body condition) 4. Tail (soiling, dags) 5. Nose (discharge) 1 2 3 4 5
  34. 34. Performance as a deworming criteria • Performance can be used as a criteria to determine deworming need, especially in combination with other criteria (e.g., FAMACHA© + ADG) and in areas where barber pole worm is not primary parasite. Average daily gain (ADG) Number of offspring Level of milk production
  35. 35. Role of fecal egg counts EPG: eggs per gram of feces Can help make deworming decisions but should not be used as the sole or main criteria. 1. Not chute-side 2. Not always a strong correlation with clinical disease. 3. Many limitations, e.g., roundworm eggs look the same (need to hatch to identify from larvae) 4. No agreed upon thresholds for treatment.
  36. 36. Best uses of fecal egg counts • Before and after fecal egg counts to determine effectiveness of treatment (individual animals) • Before and after fecal egg counts to determine level of dewormer resistance (10 or more animals). • Identify resistant and susceptible animals (e.g., EBVs). • Monitor pasture contamination.
  37. 37. Combination treatments • It is now recommended that clinically- parasitized small ruminants be given combination treatments: more than one drug at the same time to kill same kind of worms. • Additive effect: gives animal most effective treatment while slowing down development of resistant worms. • Give most potent drug from each class: albendazole + moxidectin + levamisole • Withdrawal period is for drug with longest withdrawal (usually Cydectin®) • Extra label (Vx) for goats and camelids. All oral Full dose One after the other Don’t mix
  38. 38. Extra label drug use in small ruminants • Definition: use of a drug in any manner that is not specified on the manufacturer’s label: species, dosage, route of administration, frequency, disease. • Only a veterinarian may use or prescribe a drug extra label, and there are rules that govern their use. • There are FDA-approved dewormers for sheep in each drug class (Valbazen®, Ivomec®, Cydectin®, and Prohibit®/Leva-Med®) • There are few effective dewormers FDA-approved for goats (only SafeGuard®, Rumatel®). • No dewormers are FDA-approved for camelids. • None of the drugs used to treat coccidia are FDA- approved for small ruminants.
  39. 39. You can learn more. American Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control (ACSRPC) • Fact sheets • Videos • Images • Timely Topics • YouTube channel • Facebook page • Conferences • Research • Blog www.wormX.info
  40. 40. SUSAN SCHOENIAN Sheep & Goat Specialist University of Maryland Extension sschoen@umd.edu www.sheepandgoat.com www.sheep101.info www.wormx.info Facebook @ MDSmallRuminant

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