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More than an umbrella term, open science is moving towards broadening and integrating the open access movement to scholarly literature on other fronts, such as open scientific data, open scientific tools, open notebook science, open education, and citizen science.
This “movement of movements” transforms the scenario and the dynamics of science collaboration, communication and dissemination, expanding its ability to respond to contemporary new and complex issues, while posing new challenges. On the one hand, new possibilities arise for the generation of social, economic and environmental benefits, as well as innovation, associated to increased reach, speed and quality of production and circulation of scientific knowledge, its results and possible uses. On the other hand, new institutional and technological requirements are imposed on the adoption of open research policies, strategies, and practices (regulations, capacities, infrastructures, and tools), and the costs derived therefrom. A new economics of open science is being developed, together with new business models, with repercussions on the present and future of scientific journals and their relationship with other scientific publication and publicization systems emerging from this framework, as well as with the monitoring, evaluation and research financing apparatuses.
At the same time, it is about facing the challenge of bridging the gap between science (and its various forms of data availability) and policy. Today there is an abyss in this interface that should be narrowing so that, increasingly, political decisions, particularly those that affect social and environmental issues more directly are based on quality and plural science. To strengthen this relationship, efforts are needed to reconcile languages and times that allow virtuous dialogue between these two fields.
In the end, it is also important to recognize the different implications of this changing scenario regarding more and less developed countries, placing new opportunities and barriers for their science, technology and innovation systems and their respective repositioning in the global scenario.
Open science, science communication and the challenges of sustainable development; open publications and innovation; the new economy (politics) of open science and its infrastructures of scholarly communication: costs and benefits (academic, social, and economic); political and institutional requirements; business models emerging from open scientific publications; opportunities and challenges for developing countries.