It is the network of physical objects or things embedded
with electronics , software, sensors and connectivity.
With the growing presence of WiFi and 4G-LTE wireless
Internet access, the evolution towards ubiquitous
information and communication networks is already
Term was coined by Kevin Ashton in 1999
Concept was discussed in 1982 with a modified coke
Radio-frequency identification (RFID) was seen as a
prerequisite for the Internet of Things in the early days.
Dynamic control of industry & daily life.
Improve the resource utilization ratio.
Integrating human society & physical system.
Universal transport & internet working.
Hardware - sensors ,actuators ,embedded
Middleware - storage and computing tools for data
Presentation - visualization
Lowest abstraction layer.
Measure physical quantities.
Interconnects the physical and digital world.
Collects & process the real time information .
GATEWAY & NETWORK LAYER
Robust & high performance network infrastructure.
Supports communication requirements for latency
Allows multiple organizations to share & use the same
Shared understanding –User & appliances
Software architecture-contextual information where it
Analytical tools-Autonomous & smart behavior
IOT is broadly classified into 5 categories
Sensing - Innovative ways to sense and deliver
information from the physical world to the
Connectivity- Variety of wired and wireless connectivity
standards are required to enable
different application needs
Power - Many IoT applications need to run for years
over batteries and reduce the overall energy
Security - Protecting users' privacy and manufacturers'
IP detecting and blocking malicious activity
Complex - IoT application development needs to be
easy for all developers, not just to experts
Cloud - IoT applications require end-to-end solutions
including cloud services
We must expand smart object design beyond hardware and
software to include interaction design as well as social aspects.
Building applications with RFID data in the IOT is challenging
,not just because it provides only low level information but also
metadata associated with tags ,antennas must be personalized.
With the emergence of an IOT new regularly approaches to
ensure its privacy & security become necessary.