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WH_CH19 Age of Exploration

  1. The Age of Exploration
  2. • In the 15th century, spices were at the epicenter of the world economy, much like oil is today. • Highly valued for flavoring and preserving food as well as masking the taste of meat gone bad, spices like cinnamon, clove, nutmeg and especially black pepper, were extremely valuable. • Since spices could not be cultivated in cold and arid Europe, no effort was spared to discover the quickest sea route to the Spice Islands. Portugal and Spain led the competition for early control over this critical commodity. • Europeans had reached the Spice Islands by sailing east, but none had yet to sail west from Europe to reach the other side of the globe. Magellan was determined to be the first to do so.
  3. Reasons: • God: desires to convert people (Reformation) • Gold: desire for wealth • Glory: fame and adventure
  4. Advances in Technology • Compass • instrument that tracks direction accurately • Caravel • Fast vessel with triangular sails • Sextant • measures distances between objects and for taking altitudes in navigation.
  5. Prince Henry (the Navigator)- 1415 • Portugal leads the way • Promoted exploration • Organized more than 14 voyages • Main goal: • To find water route around Africa to India
  6. BarTolomeu diaz •First to sail the southernmost tip of Africa •Around Cape of Good Hope
  7. • Found direct sea route to India • Brought spices (peppers, cinnamon, rare silks, precious gems) Vasco dA gama
  8. Christopher Columbus (Italian)(1492) • King Ferdinand of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castile (Spain) • Gave Columbus 3 ships: Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria
  9. Opened America for colonization
  10. Columbian Exchange •Economic and cultural exchange of: goods, animals and even diseases
  11. Hernando Cortes- Spain (1519) • Spanish conquistador • Conquered Aztec Empire (Mexico) • And other Caribbean Islands • Opened further exploration of Central and South America "So the heathen gods placed upon the gold...a terrible curse. Any mortal that removes but a single piece from that stone chest shall be punished for eternity."
  12. Ferdinand Magellan (Portuguese - 1519) • Sailed for Spain • Discover sea route to the Spice Island (will become known as Strait of Magellan) • First European to cross Pacific Ocean • First to circumnavigate the world (however, he died before completing the task) • Killed in Philippines,
  13. Treaty of Tordesillas • Pope Alexander VI divided the “New World” • Established the Line of Demarcation at 38 degree West longitude • Both Spain and Portugal signed the treaty
  14. Tudor Dynasty • The “Virgin Queen” • Challenges • Some wants to overthrow her • Queen Mary of Scot- cousin • King Philip II – Spain (Catholic)- son of Charles V • Financial problem • Led to bitter conflict between monarch and Parliament
  15. • Spain’s wealth comes from its American colonies • English business leaders set up • Joint-stock company- shares ownership of company • British East India Company • Goal was to carve out rich East Indies spice trade • After first voyage (took 3 years) • Brought back tons of pepper, cloves, etc… • Strengthen England economically
  16. • Secretly encouraged English adventurers (“sea dogs” • To attack Spanish treasure (with rich cargoes of gold and silver) • Francis Drake • Sailed through Strait of Magellan • Captured Spanish treasure along the coast ( Chile, Peru) • Crossed the Pacific • Returned with stolen goods (600,000 pounds) • First person to sail around the world- since Magellan) • Queen knighted him aboard the ship
  17. William Shakespeare • Playwright • Master of the English language and deep understanding of human beings • Examine human flaws • Globe Theater • Became home to a company of actors
  18. • As more explorer ventured to Americas other nation participated • France • King Francis I • Giovanni de Verrazano- to search for a route to Pacific • Discover what is today New York Harbor • Jacques Cartier – discover St. Lawrence River • Mont Royal (Montreal) • What will become a vast empire called New France (Canada) • Samuel de Champlain • Quebec (the narrowing of the water)
  19. • England • John Cabot (under King Henry VII) • Reached Newfoundland • Francis Drake – (Queen Elizabeth) • California Coast • Sir Walter Raleigh • Roanoke Island- failed • King James chartered a London company • Jamestown
  20. Age of Exploration France England Spain Portugal King James Jamestown Vasco Da Gama Direct sea route to India

Notes de l'éditeur

  1. ut Columbus had a different idea: Why not sail west across the Atlantic instead of around the massive African continent? The young navigator’s logic was sound, but his math was faulty. He argued (incorrectly) that the circumference of the Earth was much smaller than his contemporaries believed it was; accordingly, he believed that the journey by boat from Europe to Asia should be not only possible but comparatively easy.
  2. He encountered natives, and their large pyramid. He noticed the blood stains and human remains, and learned that this pyramid was used for human sacrifices to their gods.4 Appalled, Cortés began his efforts to convert the natives to Christianity. He tore down their idols and replaced them with crosses and statues of the Virgin Mary. Cortés relied on native translators and guides to communicate with the natives, and travel the land. Soon after, Cortés and his men sailed on and landed at Tabasco. Here, Cortés and his men clashed with the natives. On March 25, 1519, in the Cintla Valley, the two sides fought in a battle known as the Battle of Cintla. The natives were no match for the Spanish soldiers weaponry and armor. 800 Tabascans were killed; only 2 Spanish men were killed.5 The Tabascans pledged their loyalty to Spain, and gave Cortés gold and slave women.  Having met no resistance, Hernando Cortes establishes a headquarters in Tenochtitlan. To maintain power he takes Montezuma hostage and forces him to swear allegiance to his King, Charles V of Spain. While that was going on Valasquez had sent 1,400 soldiers to arrest and bring Cortes back to Cuba. He defeated this army and persuaded most of the survivors to join him.                            On his way back to Tenochtitlan Hernando Cortes is attacked by thousands of Aztec Warriors. The attack was brought on by a slaughtering of 600 Aztec nobles while Cortes was away. He tries to calm the Aztec people down by releasing Montezuma, but they stoned him to death anyway. In 1520 Hernando Cortes and his men are forced out of Tenochtitlan.                          The following May Cortes attacks Tenochtitlan again by ship. On August 13,1521 the new Aztec Emperor ,Guatemoc, surrendered partly because of the quick on set of plague. That was the fall of the Great Aztec Empire. Hernando Cortes conquered 5 million Aztecs with less than 1 thousand soldiers. He opened the door for further exploration and conquest of Central America to the south, and eventually led to the acquisition of California towards the north.
  3. Parliament urged her to marry, but she refused in the name of preserving her power
  4. Parliament urged her to marry, but she refused in the name of preserving her power