7. It has …
9. Right Atrium
Receives venous blood from whole of
the body via the superior vena cava
(SVC) at its upper end and inferior vena
cava (IVC) at its lower end.
It pumps into Right ventricle (RV)
through the tricuspid valve during the
Right atrial appendage – arises from the
antero superior part of the right atrium. It
is to the left of the ascending aorta.
Sulcus terminalis – shallow vertical
groove along the right heart border
between SVC and IVC.
RA and SVC junction – Sino atrial
10. Right ventricle
Triangular shaped or
Opens into pulmonary artery
through pulmonary valve
Most anterior chamber
RV wall measures 4-5 mm in
Three portions – inflow ,
outflow and apical trabecular
portion or body of RV.
11. Left atrium
Posterior most chamber
Receives oxygenated blood
from pulmonary veins
Pulmonary veins open into
LA from the posterior wall
Left atrial appendage is
The pericardial sac has two layers,
a serous layer and
a fibrous layer.
It encloses the pericardial cavity which
contains pericardial fluid.
The pericardium fixes the heart to the mediastinum, gives
protection against infection, and provides the lubrication for
The pericardial sac normally contains up to 50 mL of fluid.
Thicker middle layer of the heart
Composed of individual heart
muscle cells called as
Joined together by intercalated
Encased by collagen and other
substances forming the
Its cells are embryologically and biologically similar to the
endothelial cells that line blood vessels.
20. Mitral and tricuspid valves are called as ATRIOVENTRICULAR
Mitral valve has two leaflets. (Anterior and Posterior)
Tricuspid valve has three leaflets (Anterior, Septal and Posterior)
Aortic and Pulmonary valves are called as SEMILUNAR valves.
Aortic valve has three cusps right coronary cusp, left coronary cusp
and non coronary cusp.
Pulmonic valve has three cusps.
Stretch of cardiac muscle prior to
Preload is propotional to End Diastolic
If HR is more than 160 beats/min stroke
volume declines due to short filling time.
It is the strength of contraction
at any given preload.
Positive and Negative
Stimulation of sympathetic
division of ANS leads to positive
Inhibition of sympathetic
division of ANS leads to
negative inotropic effect
The pressure that must be overcome before a semilunar
valve can open is termed the afterload.
Increase in afterload causes decrease in stroke volume
HTN and atherosclerosis increases the afterload.
39. Vascular System
Provide conduits for blood to travel from the heart to nourish
Carry cellular wastes to the excretory organs.
Return blood to the heart for recirculation.
40. Arterial System
Delivers blood to various
tissues for nourishment
Transport of cellular wastes
Contribute to thermal
41. Arterial System
- force of blood exerted against the vessel walls
= CO x Peripheral Vascular Resistance
- regulated by:
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
endocrine system (catecholamines, kinins,
43. Blood Pressure
- amount of pressure/force generated by LV to distribute
blood into the aorta with each contraction of the heart
- it is between 90 – 135 mmHg (120)
- affected by CO and arterial distention.
- amount of pressure/force sustained by the arteries during
the relaxation phase of the heart
- ability of the heart to rest while filling with blood
- affected by peripheral vascular resistance
- it is between 60 – 85 mmHg (80)
46. Venous System
Series of veins located
adjacent to arterial system
Veins collect blood from
the capillaries & terminal
Acts as reservoir for blood
system that work against
effects of gravity
48. Cardiac auscultation
Produced from blood turbulence caused by closing of the heart
S1 – atrioventricular valve closure LUB
S2 – semilunar valve closure DUB
S3 – rapid ventricular filling
S4 – atrial systole
S3 is physiological less than 30 years of age.
S4 is usually pathological.