2. • This test measures the levels of cardiac biomarkers in your blood.
• These markers include enzymes, hormones, and proteins.
• Cardiac biomarkers show up in your blood after your heart has been under
severe stress and becomes injured because it isn't getting enough oxygen.
3. • Cardiac troponin.
• It enters into your bloodstream soon after a heart attack.
bloodstream days after all other biomarkers go back to
• Two forms of troponin may be measured:
• troponin T and troponin I.
• Troponin I is highly specific to the heart and stays higher
• Troponin I levels are often less than 0.12 ng/mL.
less than 0.01 ng/mL.
4. Creatinine kinase (CK).
This enzyme can also be measured several times over a
often at least double if you've had a heart attack.
CK-MB rises 4 to 6 hours after a heart attack.
But it is generally back to normal in a day or two.
• This is a small protein that stores oxygen.
5. • Blood gases or other tests to measure oxygen in the blood
• Complete blood count (CBC)
• Electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride)
• Blood lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides)
• Blood sugar (glucose)
• Electrocardiogram (ECG)
• Echocardiogram or ultrasound of the heart muscle
• Cardiac catheterization or coronary angiogram
• B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP). This is to find stress in the heart or heart
failure after a heart attack.
• C-reactive protein (CRP), homocysteine and soluble CD40
ligand indicate heart inflammation, possibly