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Study of Large Scale Grid interactive Solar PV power plant

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Case Study of Solar PV power plant of 3MW plant with Experimental and Forecast results

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Study of Large Scale Grid interactive Solar PV power plant

  1. 1. Prof. R. S. Hosmath Assistant Professor Dept. of Mechanical Engg. B.V.B College of Engg. and Tech., Hubballi Dr. H. Naganagouda Director, National Training Centre for Solar Technology, Karnataka Power Corporation Limited, Bangalore Presented by SHAHBAZ MAKANDAR A (2BV13MES11) M.Tech. Energy Systems Engineering Project Title Studies on Grid connected 3MW Solar PV Power Plant Karnataka Power Corporation Ltd. Under the Guidance of K.L.E. Society’s B. V. Bhoomaraddi College of Engg. & Technology Vidyanagar, Hubli 580031 (NBAACCREDITED & AUTONOMOUS INSTITUTION WITH ISO 9001-2008 CERTIFICATION)
  2. 2. Contents Introduction Statement of the Problem Objectives Literature Review Site details of the SPV plant Simulation studies of SPV power plant Results and Discussions Conclusions Scope for Future work References Energy Systems Engineering 2
  3. 3. Introduction Details of PV Systems  Major components of PV systems  Fabrication of PV cells and Working Principle  PV Power Generation  Grid-connected without storage Energy Systems Engineering 3
  4. 4. Fig 1. Major PV system Components (KPCL record) Energy Systems Engineering 4
  5. 5. Fig 2. Solar Cells Working Principle (KPCL record) Energy Systems Engineering 5
  6. 6. Fig 3. Grid-connected PV System (KPCL record) Energy Systems Engineering 6
  7. 7. Statement Problem • Energy • SPV system • Government Policy Energy Systems Engineering 7
  8. 8. Objectives  To simulate the climatological parameters like solar insolation, wind speed and atmospheric temperature on “METEONORM” open-source platform.  To simulate the detailed operation of a solar PV based plant on “PVSYST” platform to analyze component level performance along with overall plant operation  To simulate site parameters for installation of SPV system using “HELIOSCOPE” tool.  Experimental observation of the system behavior of the 3MW SPV power plant through “SCADA” based system to investigate its performance characteristics.  To compare the Simulation and Experimental data to draw feasibility factors for future upgradation of existing SPV power plant Energy Systems Engineering 8
  9. 9. Literature Review  Performance Evaluation of SPV Plant  Solar Insolation availability  SPV system Simulation Software  SPV Technology Energy Systems Engineering 9
  10. 10. Site details of the SPV Plant Basic information of Solar PV Plant Site details Experimental procedure for Performance Study Energy Systems Engineering 10
  11. 11. Fig 4. Block Diagram of the PV Plant [18]Energy Systems Engineering 11
  12. 12. Height above sea level 882m Ambient Air Temperature Maximum: 40oC Minimum: 18oC Relative Humidity Maximum: 99.1% (during monsoon) Minimum: 18.3% Rainfall Annual average: 1549 mm Period: 4 months Table 1: Technical data of Solar PV [18] Energy Systems Engineering 12
  13. 13. Place of Installation Near Yalesandra Village, Kolar, Karnataka, India Latitude & Longitude of the place 120 53’ & 780 09’ Allotted Land Area 15 acres (10.3 acres effectively used) Nominal Capacity of the PV Plant 3 MW Date of Commission 27th December 2009 Owner Karnataka Power Corporation Limited (KPCL) Installed by (Contractor) Titan Energy Systems Ltd. , Secunderabad Modules Titan S6-60 series SCADA for diagnosing and monitoring Yes PCU (Inverters) 250 kW (12 Nos) HT Transformer and switchgear for evacuation 1.25 MVA for each MW Table 2: General description of Yalesandra PV Plant [18] Energy Systems Engineering 13
  14. 14. Two type of S6 - 60 series modules are used 225 Wp & 240 Wp Total number of modules 13,368 [10,152 - 225 Wp;3216 – 240 Wp] Solar Cell material Mono-Crystalline Silicon 1 Array 24 Modules No. of Arrays per Inverter(250 kW) 45-46 (Total 557 Arrays with 12 Inverters) Arrays per MW 1st MW installation– 181 2nd & 3rd MW installations – 188 Total installed Solar Cells area 5.4 acre Inclination of Modules 15o with horizontal Table 3: Technical data of Solar PV [18] Energy Systems Engineering 14
  15. 15. Type S6-60 series Maximum Power, Pmp (W) 225 240 Maximum Power Voltage (Vmp) 28.63 V 28.63 V Maximum Power Current (Imp) 7.93 A 8.12A Open Circuit Voltage (Voc) 37.50 V 37.62V Short Circuit Current (Isc) 8.52 A 8.55A Module dimensions (mm) 1657 x 987 x 42 No., type and arrangement of cells 60, Mono-Crystalline, 6 x 10 Matrix Cell Size (mm) 156 x 156 NOCT, °C 45 Weight (Kg) 19 Glass Type and Thickness 3.2mm Thick, Low iron, Tempered Table 4: Module Specifications [18] Fig 5. High efficiency PV module [24] Energy Systems Engineering
  16. 16. Type 6 x 4 Module Array (24 modules per Structure) Material Mild Steel Overall dimensions (mm) 6780x 6030 Coating Galvanized Wind rating 160 km per hour Tilt angle 15° Foundation PCC Fixing type Nut Bolts Table 5: Array mounting structure at the plant [18] Energy Systems Engineering 16
  17. 17. Fig 6: Typical SCADA System [19] Energy Systems Engineering 17
  18. 18. Fig 7: Block Diagram of SPV Plant (KPCL record) Energy Systems Engineering 18
  19. 19. Experimental Performance study Key performance indicators  Performance Ratio  Radiation at the Site  Array Conversion Efficiency  Inverter Efficiency  Energy Generated Energy Systems Engineering 19
  20. 20. 𝑷𝑹 = 𝐴𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑖𝑛 𝑘𝑊ℎ 𝑝. 𝑚 𝐶𝑎𝑙𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑, 𝑛𝑜𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑖𝑛 𝑘𝑊ℎ 𝑝. 𝑚 𝑨𝑪𝑬 = 𝐷𝑎𝑦 𝑠𝑢𝑚 𝑔𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑡 𝐻𝑟 𝑑𝑎𝑦 𝑠𝑢𝑚 𝑖𝑟𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑘𝑊ℎ 𝑚2 × 𝐶𝑒𝑙𝑙 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 12 𝑖𝑛 𝑚2 𝑷𝑪𝑼 𝑬𝒇𝒇𝒊𝒄𝒊𝒆𝒏𝒄𝒚 = (𝐶𝑢𝑚𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑖𝑛 𝑘𝑊ℎ) (𝐶𝑢𝑚𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑖𝑛 𝑘𝑊ℎ) × 100 𝑪𝒐𝒎𝒑𝒂𝒓𝒆 𝑮𝒓𝒊𝒅 𝑻𝒓𝒂𝒏𝒔𝒅 𝒆𝒏𝒆𝒓𝒈𝒚 𝒘𝒊𝒕𝒉 𝑬𝒙𝒑 & 𝑨𝒄𝒕 𝑮𝒆𝒏 𝒆𝒏𝒆𝒓𝒈𝒚 = 𝐷𝑎𝑦 𝑠𝑢𝑚 𝑖𝑟𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑖𝑛 𝑊ℎ 𝑚2 𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑖𝑟𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑖𝑛 𝑊ℎ 𝑚2 × 𝐶𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑡 FormulaeUsed Energy Systems Engineering 20
  21. 21. 𝐺𝐿 = 𝐷𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑖𝑟𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑎𝑡 𝑔𝑟𝑖𝑑 𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑊ℎ 𝑚2 𝑅𝑒𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑖𝑟𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑖𝑛 𝑊 𝑚2 × 𝑐𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ 𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑠 𝑖𝑛 𝑘𝑊 MPE= 𝑖=0 𝑛 (𝐻𝑖,𝑚−𝐻𝑖,𝑐)/(𝐻𝑖,𝑚) ×100 𝑁 RMSE= 𝑖=0 𝑛 (𝐻𝑖,𝑐−𝐻𝑖,𝑚)2 𝑁 𝟏 𝟐 MBE= 𝑖=0 𝑛 (𝐻𝑖,𝑐−𝐻𝑖,𝑚) 𝑁 FormulaeUsed Energy Systems Engineering 21
  22. 22. Simulation Studies of SPV power plant METEONORM PVSYST HELIOSCOPE Energy Systems Engineering 22
  23. 23. Fig 8: METEONORM simulation result of SPV plant [23] Energy Systems Engineering 23
  24. 24. Fig 9: PVSYST simulation result of SPV plant [22] Energy Systems Engineering 24
  25. 25. Fig. 10 : Helioscope simulation result of SPV plant [21] Energy Systems Engineering 25
  26. 26. Results and Discussions Fig 11. Month-wise Performance Ratio 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 PerformanceRatio(PR) Duration, month Energy Systems Engineering 26
  27. 27. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 July June August September Duration, Day Efficiency% Fig 12. Array Conversion Efficiency for Rainy Season Energy Systems Engineering 27
  28. 28. Fig 13. Array Conversion Efficiency for Winter Season 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 October November December January Efficiency% Duration, Day Energy Systems Engineering 28
  29. 29. Fig 14. Array Conversion Efficiency for Summer Season 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 February March April MAY Duration, Day Efficiency% Energy Systems Engineering 29
  30. 30. 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 140000 160000 180000 200000 Duration, Month TotalIrradianceWh/𝒎^𝟐 Fig 14. Month wise Total IrradiationEnergy Systems Engineering 30
  31. 31. 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 April March February May Duration, Day Efficiency% Fig 15. Daily basis PCU Efficiency for Summer SeasonEnergy Systems Engineering 31
  32. 32. 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 June July August September Duration, Day Efficiency% Fig 16.Daily basis PCU Efficiency for Rainy SeasonEnergy Systems Engineering 32
  33. 33. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 06:00 08:10 10:30 12:50 15:10 17:30 July August September Avg Module Temperature Duration, Time EnergygenerationinkWh ModuleTemperature(°C) Fig 17. Monthly average Power, Module Temperature Vs Time in Rainy SeasonEnergy Systems Engineering 33
  34. 34. 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 Expected Energy in kWh Generation in kWh Transported in kWh Duration, Months EnergyinkWh Fig 18. Expected, Generated and transmitted energyEnergy Systems Engineering 34
  35. 35. 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 Duration, Months EnergyinkWh Fig 19. Month-wise grid Transmitted Energy (Energy Meter Reading)Energy Systems Engineering 35
  36. 36. 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 Mono-crystalline Gen in kWh Poly-crystalline Gen in kWh Solar radiation W/(sq.m) SolarRadiationW/(sq.m) EnergyGenerationinkWh Duration, Days Fig 20. Comparison of Mono and Poly-Crystalline panel of total energy GenerationEnergy Systems Engineering 36
  37. 37. 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Calculated Value Measured Value Duration, Month HourlySumIrradiance(W/m²perhr) Fig 21. Comparison of Calculated and Measured values of Hourly Sum Irradiance (2014-15)Energy Systems Engineering 37
  38. 38. 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Calculated Value Measured Value Duration, Months GenerationinKWh Fig 22. Comparison of Calculated and Measured values of Generation (2014-15)Energy Systems Engineering 38
  39. 39. 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Calculated Value Measured Value Duration, Months. WindSpeedinm/s Fig 23. Comparison of Calculated and Measured values of Wind Speed (2014-15)Energy Systems Engineering 39
  40. 40. 10 15 20 25 30 35 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Duration, Months AirTemperature(°C) Fig 24. Comparison of Calculated and Measured values of Air Temperature (2014-15)Energy Systems Engineering 40
  41. 41. Conclusions The following conclusions are reported based on simulation and experimental studies, • The experimental observation of the 3MW SPV plant during Mar 2014 to Feb 2015 indicated performance ratio to have varied between 58% to 87%. • The Array conversion efficiency of the PV panel was observed to be varying between 9% to 15% depending upon climatic conditions at the site. • The PCU efficiency was observed to be close to 96% but lower than the rated value of 98% as per the manufacturer specifications. • The rated capacity of SPV solar power plant was 3MWp, but the observed peak power at the location is limited between 2.6-2.7 MW during the observation period. • The simulation tools used in the reported work that included METEONORM, HELIOSCOPE and PVSYST provided an efficient Graphical User Interface making it user friendly. • The power generation depended on solar irradiance, module temperature and also some extent on wind flow. Increase in irradiance increased module temperature and generation. • Using statistical methods consisting of Mean Bias error, Root mean square error and Mean percentage error shows result after comparison all values shows positive results means they overestimated in result. Energy Systems Engineering 41
  42. 42. Scope for Future Work • Studies on Earth-tester to measure leakage current and isolation resistance of generator • Studies on thermal imaging to detect abnormal heating in solar modules, DC junction Boxes and Inverters. • Studies on power quality analyzer or digital wattmeter can be taken up to measure accurate power at Inverter side. Energy Systems Engineering 42
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  45. 45. Thank You Energy Systems Engineering 45

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