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Time management

  1. Prepared by : Shamsudheen mk 1st year Msc.Nursing Govt.C.O.N kozhikode SEMINAR ON TIME MANAGEMENT
  2. Definition  Time management has been defined as ‘a set of related commonsense skills that helps you use your time in the most effective and productive way possible’.
  3. Time management is the act or process of planning and exercising conscious control over the amount of time spent on specific activities, especially to increase effectiveness, efficiency or productivity.
  4. Time management is a set of principles, practices, skills, tools and system that work together to help to get more value out of your time.
  5. BASIC TIME MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES Be onTime Adjust your Attitude Be Goal Oriented Prioritize Divide LargeTasks Plan your Activities Be Organized Manage your Workload
  6. Follow a Routine Delegate Effectively Documentation Manage Meetings Control Interruptions Manage your Health Organize your Home Life Track what you Do BASIC TIME MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES contd..
  7. IMPORTANCE OF TIME MANAGEMENT IN NURSING •The nursing profession is very busy, and the more productive a nurse can be, the more effective they are in their job. •Nursing is a demanding career and requires you to practice a lot of patience as well as learn and apply a highly effective time management system to truly stay on top of the game.
  8. •Time is care and time is money. •Inadequate nursing time contributes to poor quality care and excess nursing time contributes to the high cost of care. •Time management in nursing also is important so nurses feel less stressed. •Nurses who feel less stress are better able to take care of themselves and their patients.
  9. •Most of the nursing services are time consuming and demanding. The time of the hours of the day can’t be increased but the proper time planning and management can yield positive results. •Working smarter not harder and longer is the key for the nurses at all the levels.
  10. •Nurses not only have lots of things to do and also make quick and wise decisions. Time management allows the nurses to prioritize care, decide on outcomes, and perform the most important interventions first. •The nurses have dual roles, i.e., patient care provider and organizational employee. The allocation of nursing time is fundamental to both roles. As providers of care, nurses are expected to allocate their time to establish and maintain therapeutic nurse-patient relationships and implement the nursing process to maximize patient outcomes.
  11. As organizational employees, nurses are expected to complete their work assignment efficiently to support the goal. In order to reduce the cost of service, seek to save time and eliminate time waste.
  12. EFFECTS OF TIME MANAGEMENT Effects on the Proximal Outcomes Time Estimation and SpendingTime on High PriorityTasks Francis-Smythe and Robertson (1999) concluded that participants who perceived themselves as practicing time management behaviours estimated the expected time durations more accurately than those who did not, but tended to underestimate time in passing
  13. Effects of performance in Work and Academic Settings, Job Performance, Academic Performance. Time management shows positive results in job performance and academic performance. The quality of work can also be improved.
  14. Effects on Attitudinal and Stress-related Outcomes There is positive relationship between attitudinal and stress related outcomes such as perceived control of time, job satisfaction, role overload job-related and somatic, work-family interference, and health and negatively to job-induced and somatic tension, strain, and psychological distress
  15. Effect on Completion of Work Time management has positive outcome in completion of tasks in the allotted time and can meet deadlines. It helps to gain a sense of accomplishment.
  16. Improves Quality of Life Time management makes you more organized and thus have peace of mind. Self Awareness about the Work Time management helps to know the work and why at any given time and get more time to do things you want to do.
  17. COMMON TIME WASTERS AND REMEDIES Feeling of Overwhelmed and Anxious This may be due to workload that can freeze and allow putting things off.
  18. Procrastination It is the thief of time. it involves performing low- priority activities in place of high-priority activities. Spending time on irrelevant tasks. Solution •Set priorities for each task and focus on one problem at a time Putting off Starting a Task When one face difficulty. Solution: Break up the work load into small chunks
  19. Perfectionism Perfectionism can be paralyzing and is a common trait among nurses. Solution: •Avoid perfectionism by developing reasonable standards of practice. •Strive for excellence by doing job well and using the resources provided by the organization. •Ask for guidance and suggestions from other experienced nurse.
  20. Day Dreaming Check the energy level and concentration Poor Planning Planning is the way of saving time for errors. Try to have proper planning. Interruptions May be due to telephone. Instead of being at the whim of callers, make the phone work for you.
  21. Socializing Idle Conversation Effective conversation as per the situation demand should be adopted and followed. Unclear Objectives and Priorities Set priorities as per the goal to achieve and the objectives should be clearly defined at the beginning.
  22. Stress Some suitable methods should be followed to reduce the stress of any kind. Inability to Say ‘No’ Decide what you want to do and realistically can do and then say no to everything else. Leaving Tasks Unfinished Complete the first task and then move to another.
  23. External Internal  Interruptions  Procrastination  Workplace socializing  Lack of planning  Too many meetings  Lack of priorities  Unscheduled visitors  Slow skills  Poor work environment  Physical or mental exhaustion, stress  Unclear goals  Not being able to say ‘no’  Trying to get other’s cooperation  Low motivation  Bureaucratic ‘red tape’  Leaving task unfinished
  24. BARRIERS IN UTILIZING EFFECTIVE TIME MANAGEMENT BY NURSES Disorganization Distraction Perfectionism Procrastination Rigidity Poor Planning or Unrealistic Planning
  25. EFFECTIVE TIME MANAGEMENT How to Prioritize There are various strategies which have been identified Four Generations ofTime Management is a board categorization of numerous approaches to Time management by Stephen R.Covey. Each generation builds on the one before it-each one moves us towards greater control on our lives.
  26. First generation It is characterized by use of notes & checklist that act as reminders The items on the list are not arranged on a priority basis and the note acts as a reminder of all the tasks that must be completed during the day.
  27. Second generation is characterized by preparing and planning is done by using calendars and appointment books. favour of constructive planning like to be prepared well in advance by scheduling tasks use scheduling items such as calendars and even the computer to write down the timings and venues of meetings and important events etc
  28. Third generation This generation is also called ‘Schedule & Prioritize’ generation. Take the entire time management activity to the next level by identifying those tasks that must be completed first Arranging activities of the day on a priority basis helps them to set different time goals.
  29. Fourth generation It is different in kind. This generation is ‘Being efficient and proactive’. Those people who fall into the fourth generation of time management understand and appreciate the difference between urgent and important tasks
  30. Those who attempt to accomplish urgent tasks, often ignore those activities which are of utmost importance it makes individuals to forget about things that were important in their life and needed time, simply because they were not urgent
  31. The Pickle Jar Theory Make time for the things that matter that if you start by putting stones into a pickle jar, then pebbles and then sand you will fit more into the pickle jar then if you do it the other way around. By first doing the important tasks you will also be able to complete more tasks and do the things you want to do.
  32. The pickle jar theory of effective time management requires prioritizing-you need to know what your most important tasks are and what are just filler tasks that don’t really need to be done or are not as important.
  33. Time management matrix/urgent or important matrix The time management matrix a useful tool to know how to prioritize work, personal roles, goals and commitments The time management matrix is split into the following four quadrants.
  34. Quadrant 1 The Quadrant of Necessities Items that is both urgent and important. It includes reactive tasks that need to be done, often at the last minute. This category includes true emergencies; personal, medical, professional - and important deadline driven projects.
  35. Crises, 'fire-fighting' and looming deadlines are typical examples. Time spent in this quadrant can't be avoided, but it can be significantly reduced if you're prepared to spend more time in... These are the things that we have to do because they are our responsibility and need immediate attention.
  36. These are usually emergencies, crises, and pressing deadline-driven problems. They may be the result of procrastination or inability to face up to doing them at the right time. Covey calls these "firefighting" tasks.
  37. Quadrant 2 - Important but not Urgent The Quadrant of Quality Q2 is the quadrant of personal proactively and power. Items that is not urgent but important. This includes activities that build capability, spot new opportunities, and ensure long term success. It includes proactive tasks, often habitual, that maintains or improves the quality of your work and life.
  38. The more you expand this quadrant, the more you reduce the other three, particularly 'pseudo- emergencies' that should never have been allowed to become so.
  39. Quadrant 3 - Urgent but not Important The Quadrant of Deception This quadrant includes items that are urgent and not important,These activities may seem important, but they are not really.They only grab your attention immediately. These are the things that we allow to interrupt our working lives because we believe they take precedence over other tasks.The worst examples of such tasks are answering every phone call.
  40. Quadrant 4 - Neither Urgent nor Important The Quadrant of Waste It includes items that are not urgent and not important. Sometimes people mistake this quadrant for recreation. True recreations -activities that help to regain energy and build a healthy lifestyle - belong in Quadrant 2.
  41. These are the things that we don't need to do but that so often we end up doing to fill in time or because we like doing them. These include aimless socializing around and attending unnecessary meetings. Covey calls these 'time- wasters'.
  42. Other Prioritization Tools Paired Comparison Analysis Grid Analysis Grid Analysis helps to prioritize a list of tasks where many different factors need to be taken into consideration
  43. The Action Priority Matrix This quick and simple diagramming technique plot the value of the task against the effort it will consume. By doing this it can quickly spot the 'quick wins' which will give the greatest rewards in the shortest possible time, and avoid the 'hard slogs' which soak up time for little eventual reward.This is an ingenious approach for making highly efficient prioritization decisions.
  44. The Ansoff Matrix and the Boston Matrices These give a quick 'rules of thumb' for prioritizing the opportunities. The Ansoff Matrix helps to evaluate and prioritize opportunities by risk. The Boston Matrix does a similar job, helping to prioritize opportunities based on the attractiveness of a market and your ability to take advantage of it.
  45. Ansoff Matrix
  46. Boston Matrices
  47. Pareto Analysis Pareto Analysis helps to identify the most important changes to make. It is basically focused on the different types of problem in a group, and then asks to count the number of cases of each type of problem. By prioritizing the most common type of problem, one can focus efforts on resolving it. This clears time to focus on the next set of problems, and so on.
  48. Nominal Group Technique Nominal Group Technique is a useful technique for prioritizing issues and projects within a group, giving everyone fair input into the prioritization process. This is particularly useful where consensus is important, and where a robust group decision needs to be made.
  49. Criteria of a Good Time Management System Goals (yearly, monthly, weekly, and daily) and deadlines Daily scheduling and things 'to do' list with priorities Schedule time for specific activities Planned communication and other meetings 'Activities to be delegated with a deadline date and checkpoints
  50. Identifications and planning techniques for handling specific time management problems (crises, interruptions) Organized materials, files, projects Clarification regarding assignments (yours and others) Tools (monthly, weekly) calendars a work in progress chart At least 20% of managerial time should be committed to planning.
  51. Time Management Techniques •Set realistic goals for tasks and activities •Grouping similar tasks together •Concentrate over one work at a time •List for priority works: Be able to prioritize and schedule tasks •Manage priorities by setting personal and work goals •Learn to allocate time to each task in its order of priority •Draw up a plan to organize tasks and activities
  52. •Uninterrupted and quite time: Deal with interruptions and make effective decisions which affect time positively •Delegates will learn skills which will improve planning, assertiveness, setting priorities, decision making, desk and paper management, and communication skills •Personal filling system •Orderly work area •Processing, paper work done timely •Breaking the longer tasks into smaller
  53. •Starting difficult tasks. Gain sufficient time to complete most important tasks •Selective reading •Familiarity with standoff procedures •Effective use of slack time •Skill to make accurate decisions. •Be able to do effective weekly planning •Assertiveness and politeness: Be assertive with colleagues and managers and learn how to say 'no' •Knowledge of your commitments and limitations
  54. Time Management Building Blocks Step 1: Goal Setting The process of goal setting will help to establish a context for managing time. The first step in effectively managing time is to develop an explicit statement of long range goals. Identify professional and personal goals with realistic short- term and long-term time frames for attainment. Then assign each goal a priority number or letter in order of importance.This should be done weekly.
  55. Step 2: Review Time Utilization This will help the nurse managers to know where the time actually gets spent. • Identify how time is spent on both productive activities and time-wasting activities. Write down the things that are being done i.e. the process of time logging Modify schedule
  56. sparkle formula laugh eat well sleep plan anticipate loss relax keep anger under control
  57. Step 3: Match Time Utilization Patterns with Goals •Compare the time utilization patterns on your daily activity keeping jn mind identified personal and professional goals. •Identify hurdles in goal attainment. •Identify barriers such as procrastination, interruptions, and unproductive meetings, tasks that can be delegated, acting with incomplete information, poor planning, stress and fatigue.
  58. •Structure schedule with a focus on goal attainment. •Strategic planning serves to eliminate or minimize the time barriers. •Apply 80/20 the Pareto Principle, to best attain goals, i.e. spend 80 percent of your time on the top 20 percent of most important work.
  59. Step 4: Planning and Prioritizing Plan and prioritize for better time management •Use a priority time management matrix. •Tasks that need to be prioritized are placed in four categories: Important and urgent; Important but not urgent; Not important but urgent; and Not important and not urgent. Time wasters fall into the fourth quadrant labeled not important and not urgent. Identify time wasters and try to eliminate or control them. •Organize Priority needs on calendar or schedule in blocks
  60. Step 5: Self monitoring: Battling the Major Time Wasters •Self monitor actions •Pay attention to plans and way of planning •Forecast for various events •Be aware of time wasters.
  61. Step 6: Time Shifting and Adjustment •Make adjustment to plans time management habits •The things that are not controllable, be cool and get back on track •Make correction and modify.
  62. Time Management Tips for Nurses L-E-A-P-S Approach List all the activities needed to be done. Do it the night before. Estimate time needed to carry out each activity. Allow time for errors, unexpected and urgent tasks. Prioritize activities by using the ABC's daily to-do list. A is for as the most important, B the important but not so urgent one, and C for tasks that doesn't require immediate attention.The time management matrix, developed by Stephen Covey can also be used.
  63. Study the activities of the day. At the end of the day, review the activities and adjust schedule accordingly
  64. 'Plan, Pick and Play'Approach Plan: Planning invariably saves time. Planning is to have a clear idea before starting work. Spend some time for deciding what to do during shift. When you're with patients is the time you have to adopt a pickier mindset.
  65. Pick:There are two ways of picking a task. Firstly, whenever you get given tasks that plan to do them; when you have done, again make a list of things to do during the next one.That is the extent of your task list. If you want to pick what to do, prioritize according to urgency at first.
  66. Play: Make time for you to avoid burnout and enjoy a healthy work life balance.
  67. Scheduling the Tasks and Activities Take time to review the job description, specific to the role of the nurse manager at the institution. Make sure that the written description matches the real workload of the job. Discuss role expectations with nurse supervisor. Do personal survey or analyze the present use of time, prepare a chart of fixed commitment.
  68. Organizing and planning the days ahead: Prepare an event calendar, schedule high priority activities for peak energy times and schedule most difficult activities for peak times and do them first
  69. Planning daily goals: List and prioritize daily goals and make weekly schedule, make a daily check list and prepare a quarterly planning grid.
  70. Avoid distractions: Distractions can come in different forms, whether through taking lots of time on the phone, chatting with fellow nurses or hospital staffs. These are all unproductive activities that can cause a loss of valuable time or even neglect your duties to your patients. Think positive and reduce stress by SPARKLE formula, i.e. Sleep, Plan, Anticipate loss, Relax, Keep anger under control, Laugh and eat
  71. sparkle formula sleep plan anticipate loss relax keep anger under control laugh
  72. BIBLIOGRAPHY: - 1.Jogindra vati,” principles and practice of nursing management and admin istration”,1st edition, jay pee publications, 2013 pp 522-531 2.Mary Lucita, “Nursing practice and public Health administration”, 1st edition, Br Churchill Living stone pvt Ltd New Delhi 2002, Pp 129-138. 3.Anna H.Gallahan, “Educational administration in nursing”, 1st edition, 1965, the Mac million company New York Pp 11- 13.
  73. 4.K.P. Neeraja, “Text book of Nursing education”, 1st edition, 2003, jaypee brothers medical publishers (p) Ltd. New Delhi Pp 141-146. 5.Aquinas P.G(2005)”principles of management” 1st edition,Annalm publications Pvt LTD.Ansari no- 420-436