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Welcome
2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
shankar1112...
1
Aviation History
&
Introduction to Aeronautics
by: Shankar Narayan
2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cnt...
AgendaAgenda
• IntroductionIntroduction
• Aviation HistoryAviation History
• How aircraft FliesHow aircraft Flies
• Aircra...
• In Education, Aviation is a discipline designed
to prepare professionals for employment in
flying , Research & Developme...
what is “aero”? What iswhat is “aero”? What is
“nautics”?“nautics”?
• "Aero" is a Greek prefix signifying air."Aero" is a ...
What is aeronautics?What is aeronautics?
• AeronauticsAeronautics is the mathematics andis the mathematics and
mechanics o...
How did aeronauticsHow did aeronautics
begin?begin?
The basis of aeronauticsThe basis of aeronautics
stems from the work o...
Inspiration from BirdsInspiration from Birds
3
Man’s inspiration to fly came from birds. Can be seen in early flying attem...
• Without understanding the aerodynamicWithout understanding the aerodynamic
principles of flight, humans would simply bep...
HistoryHistory
World of AviationWorld of Aviation
2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHisto...
Indian MythologyIndian Mythology
VedasVedas
MahabharataMahabharata
RamayanaRamayana
Jain textJain text
VaimanikaVaima...
Greek MythologyGreek Mythology
Daedalus & his son Icarus of
Greece imprisoned on island of
Crete by King Minos
- Daedalus ...
History of FlightHistory of Flight
• In 1500  Leonardo da Vinci develops many ideasIn 1500  Leonardo da Vinci develops man...
Hot Air BalloonHot Air Balloon
1783
Joseph & Jacques
Montgolfier invents
the Hot Air Balloon
First travelers were a sheep,...
Cayley’s Glider 1849Lilienthal’s Glider (1893)
11
George Cayley: first to
experiment with Gliders in
mid 1800s. 1849:
Glid...
Picture of First FlightPicture of First Flight
12
Wright Brothers flew the first manned, powered, controlled, heavier-than...
First FlightFirst Flight
 Orville Wright flew the Wright Flyer 1 on 17-Dec-1903Orville Wright flew the Wright Flyer 1 on ...
aircraft andaircraft and
airplaneairplane
• An aircraft is any machine capable ofAn aircraft is any machine capable of
atm...
• Airplanes fly at subsonic, transonic, supersonicAirplanes fly at subsonic, transonic, supersonic
and hypersonic speeds.a...
Mach NumberMach Number
• Subsonic refers to all speeds less than Mach 1.Subsonic refers to all speeds less than Mach 1.
• ...
How an Aeroplane Flies?
Fundamentals of flight
2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryI...
Forces on an aircraft in flightForces on an aircraft in flight
Weight
Lift
Thrust
Drag
16
*
2001Aviation FirstType of Airc...
What’s it take to create lift?What’s it take to create lift?
Air and motion.Air and motion.
How do we explain lift?
Newton...
A Flying KiteA Flying Kite
Wind
For your kite to fly stationary in the sky the lift and drag must be equal and
opposite to...
Newton’s Third Law states that for every action
there is an equal and opposite reaction.
An Example - Kite
Newton’s Third ...
Venturi TubeVenturi Tube
• Bernouli’s firstBernouli’s first
practical use ofpractical use of
his theoremhis theorem
Unders...
Hold two sheets of
paper together, as
shown here, and blow
between them. No
matter how hard you
blow, you cannot push
them...
Bernoulli’s Theory in ActionBernoulli’s Theory in Action
Air speeds up in the constricted space between the car &
truck cr...
Another illustration to demonstrate Bernoulli's principle
2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight The...
Aerofoil - LiftAerofoil - Lift
212001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction In...
Aerofoil - LiftAerofoil - Lift
Lift due to
Bernoulli's
principle
Angle of Attack - StallAngle of Attack - Stall
23
Angle of Attack is the angle an aerofoil makes with the airflow
2001Avia...
Lift - Angle of Attack - StallLift - Angle of Attack - Stall
24
DEMO
2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cnt...
Angle of Attack - StallAngle of Attack - Stall
Otto Lilienthal, one
of the early flight
pioneers, had
been killed
when his...
Aerofoil - DragAerofoil - Drag
172001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction In...
Aerofoil - DragAerofoil - Drag
182001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction In...
Aerofoil - DragAerofoil - Drag
Training & Development Institute,Training & Development Institute,
NasikNasik
Aerofoil - DragAerofoil - Drag
20 kg
10 kg
½...
How can an airplane fly upside down?
As long as the wing is tilted into the oncoming airflow (relative wind) at a great
en...
Familiarization with AircraftFamiliarization with Aircraft
Star Board
PortNose
Tail
Landing Gear / UC
Wing
Flaps
Rudder
El...
Parts of an AircraftParts of an Aircraft
Engines
WingFuselage
Tail
26
*
2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ ...
Control SurfacesControl Surfaces
AileronsElevators
Rudder
27
2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight ...
Pitch Around the Lateral AxisPitch Around the Lateral Axis
2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight Th...
Elevators - PitchElevators - Pitch
282001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroductio...
Roll Around Longitudinal AxisRoll Around Longitudinal Axis
2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight Th...
Ailerons - RollAilerons - Roll
29
*
2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction...
Yaw Around the vertical AxisYaw Around the vertical Axis
2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight Theo...
Rudder - YawRudder - Yaw
302001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian A...
Control in CockpitControl in Cockpit
The table below explains flow from pilot controls to control surface to motion.
contr...
PowerplantPowerplant
Jet Engine
IC Engine
31
2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryInt...
What is Propulsion?What is Propulsion?
• The science of propelling (pushing) anThe science of propelling (pushing) an
obje...
Training & Development Institute,Training & Development Institute,
NasikNasik
Jet EngineJet Engine
2001Aviation FirstType ...
Types of Jet EngineTypes of Jet Engine
• Turbo jetTurbo jet
• Turbo propTurbo prop
• Turbo fanTurbo fan
• Turbo shaftTurbo...
Turbo JetTurbo Jet
2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
Jet AircraftJet Aircraft
2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Avi...
Turbofan EngineTurbofan Engine
322001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction In...
Turbo FanTurbo Fan
2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
Airline planeAirline plane
2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian A...
ENGINE AL-31FP LEFTENGINE AL-31FP LEFT
VIEWVIEW
2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistory...
Turbo PropTurbo Prop
2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
Propeller AircraftPropeller Aircraft
2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroductio...
Jet Engines at a glanceJet Engines at a glance
2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryI...
Training & Development Institute,Training & Development Institute,
NasikNasik
InletsInlets
2001Aviation FirstType of Aircr...
Turbo shaftTurbo shaft
2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviat...
HelicopterHelicopter
422001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviat...
Oxygen
Fuel
Combustion
(Outer Space)
Thrust
Rocket EngineRocket Engine
2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ c...
RocketsRockets
Space craft
2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian A...
Aircraft StructureAircraft Structure
402001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduct...
Aircraft CockpitAircraft Cockpit
Fighter
Aircraft
Transport
Aircraft
2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cnt...
AviationAviation
FirstsFirsts
472001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Ind...
First Transatlantic FlightFirst Transatlantic Flight
Charles LindbergCharles Lindberg ; “Spirit of St. Louis” ; 20-May-192...
World’s FirstWorld’s First
AirmailAirmail
Henri PequetHenri Pequet
Allahabad to Naini ; 18-Feb-1911Allahabad to Naini ; 18...
First Supersonic FlightFirst Supersonic Flight
Chuck Yeager ; Bell X1 ; 14-Oct-1947
502001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAi...
Non-stop round-the-world flightNon-stop round-the-world flight
VoyagerVoyager ; 14 to 23 Dec 1986; 14 to 23 Dec 1986
51
*
...
First Human Powered FlightFirst Human Powered Flight
Gossamer CondorGossamer Condor ; Pilot Bryan Allen ; 23-Aug-1977; Pil...
Training & Development Institute,Training & Development Institute,
NasikNasik
Types of AircraftTypes of Aircraft 342001Avi...
Civil & Fighter AircraftCivil & Fighter Aircraft
352001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHist...
Types of WingsTypes of Wings
Straight Wing Swept Wing
Forward Swept Wing Oblique Wing
36
2001Aviation FirstType of Aircraf...
Types of WingsTypes of Wings
Variable Sweep Wing Delta Wing
Biplane Triplane 37
2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft...
Types of TailsTypes of Tails
T Tail Twin Fin
Horizontal Tailless Vertical Tailless
38
2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAi...
Training & Development Institute,Training & Development Institute,
NasikNasik
Engine ArrangementEngine Arrangement
39
2001...
Air Traffic Control Tower & RunwayAir Traffic Control Tower & Runway
2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cnt...
Functions of ATCFunctions of ATC
9393
 Air Traffic Control:Air Traffic Control:
 Efficiently manage traffic flowEfficien...
94
ATC BasicsATC Basics
 Airline flights are under positive control at all timesAirline flights are under positive contro...
Ground radar at ATCGround radar at ATC
9595
2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntr...
Instrument Landing System inInstrument Landing System in
ATCATC
9696
2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cnt...
Typical RunwayTypical Runway
9797
Threshold = Starting point of runway
Heading= 320 degrees
Taxy Track
Direction
Touch dow...
AerospaceAerospace
Education & CareersEducation & Careers
73
2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight ...
Aerospace EducationAerospace Education
Degree in Aeronautical EngineeringDegree in Aeronautical Engineering
Associate Me...
Aerospace CareersAerospace Careers
 Research & DevelopmentResearch & Development
DRDO, HAL, ISRODRDO, HAL, ISRO
 Produc...
76
Email : shankar11122@gmail.com
Reach for the Skies
2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryH...
Presentation on Sonic BoomPresentation on Sonic Boom
2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHi...
What is Sonic Boom?What is Sonic Boom?
2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduct...
Sonic BoomSonic Boom
2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
Sonic BoomSonic Boom
2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
Sonic BoomSonic Boom
2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
What is now proved
was once only
imagined.
William Blake
Thank you…
shankar11122@gmail.com
2001Aviation FirstType of Aircr...
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Aviation History & How an Aircraft flies

This Presentation starts with the aviation History and describes how an aircraft flies, explaining basic aeronautics. It also explains aircraft types with general information on aviation.

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Aviation History & How an Aircraft flies

  1. 1. Welcome 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation shankar11122@gmail.com
  2. 2. 1 Aviation History & Introduction to Aeronautics by: Shankar Narayan 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  3. 3. AgendaAgenda • IntroductionIntroduction • Aviation HistoryAviation History • How aircraft FliesHow aircraft Flies • Aircraft Parts & ControlAircraft Parts & Control SurfacesSurfaces • Type of AircraftType of Aircraft • Aviation FirstsAviation Firsts • Indian AviationIndian Aviation 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  4. 4. • In Education, Aviation is a discipline designed to prepare professionals for employment in flying , Research & Development and in the aviation industry. What is Aviation? • AviationAviation refers to the operation ofrefers to the operation of heavier-heavier- than-airthan-air flying machineflying machine Introduction * 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  5. 5. what is “aero”? What iswhat is “aero”? What is “nautics”?“nautics”? • "Aero" is a Greek prefix signifying air."Aero" is a Greek prefix signifying air. • ““Nautềs” in Greek – means sailorNautềs” in Greek – means sailor Aeroplane, Aerodynanics, aerodrome (dromos- course), aerobatics – spectacular flying for entertainment, aerobics (bios- life), aeronautics, aerofoil, aerosol (sol- solution), aerospace (earths atmosphere & outer space) * 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  6. 6. What is aeronautics?What is aeronautics? • AeronauticsAeronautics is the mathematics andis the mathematics and mechanics of flying objects, in particularmechanics of flying objects, in particular airplanesairplanes • In Education, AeronauticsIn Education, Aeronautics is the study of theis the study of the science of flightscience of flight .... • Branch of Aeronautics - AerodynamicsBranch of Aeronautics - Aerodynamics isis the study of how air flows around the aircraft.the study of how air flows around the aircraft. * 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  7. 7. How did aeronauticsHow did aeronautics begin?begin? The basis of aeronauticsThe basis of aeronautics stems from the work of :stems from the work of : • Sir Isaac Newton in the 1600s.Sir Isaac Newton in the 1600s. ( Newton’s Laws of Motion)( Newton’s Laws of Motion) • Daniel Bernoulli, in the 1700s.Daniel Bernoulli, in the 1700s. ( Bernoulli's Principle)( Bernoulli's Principle) * 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  8. 8. Inspiration from BirdsInspiration from Birds 3 Man’s inspiration to fly came from birds. Can be seen in early flying attempts Human-kind’s dream to soar through the sky like a bird Humanity's desire to fly probably dates back to the first time prehistoric man observed birds. * 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  9. 9. • Without understanding the aerodynamicWithout understanding the aerodynamic principles of flight, humans would simply beprinciples of flight, humans would simply be mimicking the actions of birds.mimicking the actions of birds. • It was demonstrated through many spectacularIt was demonstrated through many spectacular yet often disastrous attempts that pure imitationyet often disastrous attempts that pure imitation would not enable humans to fly.would not enable humans to fly. Need to Fly 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  10. 10. HistoryHistory World of AviationWorld of Aviation 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  11. 11. Indian MythologyIndian Mythology VedasVedas MahabharataMahabharata RamayanaRamayana Jain textJain text VaimanikaVaimanika ShastraShastra 4 carving on Ellora caves Mention of Vimanas or flying objects in various ancient Indian texts 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  12. 12. Greek MythologyGreek Mythology Daedalus & his son Icarus of Greece imprisoned on island of Crete by King Minos - Daedalus makes wings of wax & feathers - They flew out of the island and escaped. Icarus flew too close to the sun; wings melted, and Icarus fell to his death in the ocean . This exemplifies man's desire to fly. 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  13. 13. History of FlightHistory of Flight • In 1500  Leonardo da Vinci develops many ideasIn 1500  Leonardo da Vinci develops many ideas and drawings on how a person might flyand drawings on how a person might fly 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  14. 14. Hot Air BalloonHot Air Balloon 1783 Joseph & Jacques Montgolfier invents the Hot Air Balloon First travelers were a sheep, duck & a cockerel (domestic cock). It climbed to a height of about 6,000 feet and traveled more than 1 mile. First humans flew 9km over Paris: Pilatre de Rozier, a science teacher and Marquis d’Arlandes, an infantry officer. (November 21, 1783) 10 * 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  15. 15. Cayley’s Glider 1849Lilienthal’s Glider (1893) 11 George Cayley: first to experiment with Gliders in mid 1800s. 1849: Glider could carry human being, Lilienthal designed very efficient gliders; could carry man for long distances. his results and methods were an inspiration to many other pioneers, particularly the Wright Brothers GlidersGliders Otto Lilienthal * 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  16. 16. Picture of First FlightPicture of First Flight 12 Wright Brothers flew the first manned, powered, controlled, heavier-than – air flight,Wright Brothers flew the first manned, powered, controlled, heavier-than – air flight, Wright Flyer 1, after lots of research on gliders (1903)Wright Flyer 1, after lots of research on gliders (1903) Wilbur & Orville Wright Picture of First Flight * 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  17. 17. First FlightFirst Flight  Orville Wright flew the Wright Flyer 1 on 17-Dec-1903Orville Wright flew the Wright Flyer 1 on 17-Dec-1903 at 10:35am, Kitty Hawk beach, North Californiaat 10:35am, Kitty Hawk beach, North California  First flight: 120 ft in 12 secsFirst flight: 120 ft in 12 secs Aircraft crashed after the 4th flight by Wilbur Wright: 853 ft in 59 secs 13 * * 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  18. 18. aircraft andaircraft and airplaneairplane • An aircraft is any machine capable ofAn aircraft is any machine capable of atmospheric flight.atmospheric flight. ItIt refers to any flyingrefers to any flying machine, that is supported by its ownmachine, that is supported by its own ability to float or by the action of air on itsability to float or by the action of air on its structures.structures. • An airplane is a machine that is propelledAn airplane is a machine that is propelled by an engine and uses fixed aerodynamicby an engine and uses fixed aerodynamic surfaces (i.e. wings) to generate lift.surfaces (i.e. wings) to generate lift. * 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  19. 19. • Airplanes fly at subsonic, transonic, supersonicAirplanes fly at subsonic, transonic, supersonic and hypersonic speeds.and hypersonic speeds. • The suffix -sonic refers to the speed of sound,The suffix -sonic refers to the speed of sound, which is dependent on altitude and atmosphericwhich is dependent on altitude and atmospheric conditions (nominally 340 meters per second).conditions (nominally 340 meters per second). • "Mach" is a term used to specify how many"Mach" is a term used to specify how many times the speed of sound an aircraft is traveling.times the speed of sound an aircraft is traveling. Regimes of FlightRegimes of Flight Mach NumberMach Number Mach No. = Object Speed ÷ Speed of Sound * 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  20. 20. Mach NumberMach Number • Subsonic refers to all speeds less than Mach 1.Subsonic refers to all speeds less than Mach 1. • Transonic refers to all speeds from approximately Mach .9Transonic refers to all speeds from approximately Mach .9 to Mach 1.5to Mach 1.5 • Supersonic refers to all speeds greater than Mach 1.Supersonic refers to all speeds greater than Mach 1. • Hypersonic refers to all speeds greater than Mach 5.Hypersonic refers to all speeds greater than Mach 5. • Note that an aircraft flying at hypersonic speeds can alsoNote that an aircraft flying at hypersonic speeds can also be said to be flying at supersonic speeds.be said to be flying at supersonic speeds. Mach No. = Object Speed ÷ Speed of Sound * 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  21. 21. How an Aeroplane Flies? Fundamentals of flight 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  22. 22. Forces on an aircraft in flightForces on an aircraft in flight Weight Lift Thrust Drag 16 * 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  23. 23. What’s it take to create lift?What’s it take to create lift? Air and motion.Air and motion. How do we explain lift? Newton’s Laws of Motion and Bernoulli’s Principle are used to explain lift.* 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  24. 24. A Flying KiteA Flying Kite Wind For your kite to fly stationary in the sky the lift and drag must be equal and opposite to the gravity and tension forces pulling it down 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  25. 25. Newton’s Third Law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. An Example - Kite Newton’s Third Law * 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  26. 26. Venturi TubeVenturi Tube • Bernouli’s firstBernouli’s first practical use ofpractical use of his theoremhis theorem Understanding a Venturi tube is essential to understanding lift. As velocity in the constriction increases, pressure must decrease. 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  27. 27. Hold two sheets of paper together, as shown here, and blow between them. No matter how hard you blow, you cannot push them more than a little bit apart! An Example to Demonstrate Bernoulli's Theorem 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  28. 28. Bernoulli’s Theory in ActionBernoulli’s Theory in Action Air speeds up in the constricted space between the car & truck creating a low-pressure area. Higher pressure on the other outside pushes them together. A similar phenomena is observed when you travel on a bike and a truck is speeding up in opposite direction 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  29. 29. Another illustration to demonstrate Bernoulli's principle 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  30. 30. Aerofoil - LiftAerofoil - Lift 212001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  31. 31. Aerofoil - LiftAerofoil - Lift Lift due to Bernoulli's principle
  32. 32. Angle of Attack - StallAngle of Attack - Stall 23 Angle of Attack is the angle an aerofoil makes with the airflow 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  33. 33. Lift - Angle of Attack - StallLift - Angle of Attack - Stall 24 DEMO 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  34. 34. Angle of Attack - StallAngle of Attack - Stall Otto Lilienthal, one of the early flight pioneers, had been killed when his glider stalled after being hit by a gust of wind
  35. 35. Aerofoil - DragAerofoil - Drag 172001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  36. 36. Aerofoil - DragAerofoil - Drag 182001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  37. 37. Aerofoil - DragAerofoil - Drag
  38. 38. Training & Development Institute,Training & Development Institute, NasikNasik Aerofoil - DragAerofoil - Drag 20 kg 10 kg ½ kg
  39. 39. How can an airplane fly upside down? As long as the wing is tilted into the oncoming airflow (relative wind) at a great enough angle, the wing will produce lift With no camber difference between top and bottom or even with no curve at all in the wing, pressure difference can be created by tilting the wing into the airflow – angle of attack. 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  40. 40. Familiarization with AircraftFamiliarization with Aircraft Star Board PortNose Tail Landing Gear / UC Wing Flaps Rudder Elevators Fuel - ATF Pipeline color code: Blue – Oxygen, Grey& silver – Hydraulic, Yellow – Fuel, Black - Pneumatic Cockpit * * * * 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  41. 41. Parts of an AircraftParts of an Aircraft Engines WingFuselage Tail 26 * 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  42. 42. Control SurfacesControl Surfaces AileronsElevators Rudder 27 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  43. 43. Pitch Around the Lateral AxisPitch Around the Lateral Axis 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  44. 44. Elevators - PitchElevators - Pitch 282001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  45. 45. Roll Around Longitudinal AxisRoll Around Longitudinal Axis 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  46. 46. Ailerons - RollAilerons - Roll 29 * 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  47. 47. Yaw Around the vertical AxisYaw Around the vertical Axis 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  48. 48. Rudder - YawRudder - Yaw 302001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  49. 49. Control in CockpitControl in Cockpit The table below explains flow from pilot controls to control surface to motion. control in cockpitcontrol in cockpit controlcontrol surfacesurface motionmotion control stick (rightcontrol stick (right and left)and left) aileronsailerons rollroll control stick (frontcontrol stick (front and back)and back) elevatorselevators pitchpitch rudder pedalsrudder pedals rudderrudder yawyaw Control stick Rudder pedal 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  50. 50. PowerplantPowerplant Jet Engine IC Engine 31 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  51. 51. What is Propulsion?What is Propulsion? • The science of propelling (pushing) anThe science of propelling (pushing) an object forwardobject forward 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  52. 52. Training & Development Institute,Training & Development Institute, NasikNasik Jet EngineJet Engine 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  53. 53. Types of Jet EngineTypes of Jet Engine • Turbo jetTurbo jet • Turbo propTurbo prop • Turbo fanTurbo fan • Turbo shaftTurbo shaft 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  54. 54. Turbo JetTurbo Jet 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  55. 55. Jet AircraftJet Aircraft 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  56. 56. Turbofan EngineTurbofan Engine 322001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  57. 57. Turbo FanTurbo Fan 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  58. 58. Airline planeAirline plane 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  59. 59. ENGINE AL-31FP LEFTENGINE AL-31FP LEFT VIEWVIEW 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  60. 60. Turbo PropTurbo Prop 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  61. 61. Propeller AircraftPropeller Aircraft 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  62. 62. Jet Engines at a glanceJet Engines at a glance 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  63. 63. Training & Development Institute,Training & Development Institute, NasikNasik InletsInlets 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  64. 64. Turbo shaftTurbo shaft 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  65. 65. HelicopterHelicopter 422001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  66. 66. Oxygen Fuel Combustion (Outer Space) Thrust Rocket EngineRocket Engine 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  67. 67. RocketsRockets Space craft 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  68. 68. Aircraft StructureAircraft Structure 402001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  69. 69. Aircraft CockpitAircraft Cockpit Fighter Aircraft Transport Aircraft 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  70. 70. AviationAviation FirstsFirsts 472001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  71. 71. First Transatlantic FlightFirst Transatlantic Flight Charles LindbergCharles Lindberg ; “Spirit of St. Louis” ; 20-May-1927; “Spirit of St. Louis” ; 20-May-1927 New YorkNew York Paris 48 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  72. 72. World’s FirstWorld’s First AirmailAirmail Henri PequetHenri Pequet Allahabad to Naini ; 18-Feb-1911Allahabad to Naini ; 18-Feb-1911 49 * 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  73. 73. First Supersonic FlightFirst Supersonic Flight Chuck Yeager ; Bell X1 ; 14-Oct-1947 502001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  74. 74. Non-stop round-the-world flightNon-stop round-the-world flight VoyagerVoyager ; 14 to 23 Dec 1986; 14 to 23 Dec 1986 51 * 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  75. 75. First Human Powered FlightFirst Human Powered Flight Gossamer CondorGossamer Condor ; Pilot Bryan Allen ; 23-Aug-1977; Pilot Bryan Allen ; 23-Aug-1977 52 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  76. 76. Training & Development Institute,Training & Development Institute, NasikNasik Types of AircraftTypes of Aircraft 342001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  77. 77. Civil & Fighter AircraftCivil & Fighter Aircraft 352001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  78. 78. Types of WingsTypes of Wings Straight Wing Swept Wing Forward Swept Wing Oblique Wing 36 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  79. 79. Types of WingsTypes of Wings Variable Sweep Wing Delta Wing Biplane Triplane 37 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  80. 80. Types of TailsTypes of Tails T Tail Twin Fin Horizontal Tailless Vertical Tailless 38 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  81. 81. Training & Development Institute,Training & Development Institute, NasikNasik Engine ArrangementEngine Arrangement 39 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  82. 82. Air Traffic Control Tower & RunwayAir Traffic Control Tower & Runway 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  83. 83. Functions of ATCFunctions of ATC 9393  Air Traffic Control:Air Traffic Control:  Efficiently manage traffic flowEfficiently manage traffic flow  Provide flight information (weather,Provide flight information (weather, facility)facility)  Initiate search and rescue operationsInitiate search and rescue operations Maintains legal separation among aircraft 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  84. 84. 94 ATC BasicsATC Basics  Airline flights are under positive control at all timesAirline flights are under positive control at all times  Control is effected by voice via radioControl is effected by voice via radio  Control is handed off from one controller/facility toControl is handed off from one controller/facility to another as flight proceeds across boundariesanother as flight proceeds across boundaries  controller directs pilot to speak to next facility on a different radiocontroller directs pilot to speak to next facility on a different radio frequencyfrequency  Communications include:Communications include:  speed, heading, altitude instructions (vectors)speed, heading, altitude instructions (vectors)  notification of other aircraftnotification of other aircraft  which course or runway to expectwhich course or runway to expect  contact next facility on new frequencycontact next facility on new frequency 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  85. 85. Ground radar at ATCGround radar at ATC 9595 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  86. 86. Instrument Landing System inInstrument Landing System in ATCATC 9696 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  87. 87. Typical RunwayTypical Runway 9797 Threshold = Starting point of runway Heading= 320 degrees Taxy Track Direction Touch down point 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  88. 88. AerospaceAerospace Education & CareersEducation & Careers 73 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  89. 89. Aerospace EducationAerospace Education Degree in Aeronautical EngineeringDegree in Aeronautical Engineering Associate Member of the AeronauticalAssociate Member of the Aeronautical Society of IndiaSociety of India Aircraft Maintenance EngineeringAircraft Maintenance Engineering DGCA CertificatesDGCA Certificates 742001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  90. 90. Aerospace CareersAerospace Careers  Research & DevelopmentResearch & Development DRDO, HAL, ISRODRDO, HAL, ISRO  Production & OverhaulProduction & Overhaul Hindustan Aeronautics LimitedHindustan Aeronautics Limited  Civil AviationCivil Aviation Airports Authority of IndiaAirports Authority of India Indian Airlines, Air India, Jet Airways, etcIndian Airlines, Air India, Jet Airways, etc  Military AviationMilitary Aviation Indian Air Force, Navy & ArmyIndian Air Force, Navy & Army 752001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  91. 91. 76 Email : shankar11122@gmail.com Reach for the Skies 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  92. 92. Presentation on Sonic BoomPresentation on Sonic Boom 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  93. 93. What is Sonic Boom?What is Sonic Boom? 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  94. 94. Sonic BoomSonic Boom 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  95. 95. Sonic BoomSonic Boom 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  96. 96. Sonic BoomSonic Boom 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation
  97. 97. What is now proved was once only imagined. William Blake Thank you… shankar11122@gmail.com 2001Aviation FirstType of AircraftAircraft Parts/ cntlFlight TheoryHistoryIntroduction Indian Aviation

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This Presentation starts with the aviation History and describes how an aircraft flies, explaining basic aeronautics. It also explains aircraft types with general information on aviation.

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